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• • It’s easy. Within a matter of minutes from signing up for an account, you could be meeting possible matches either when you perform a search or if you venture into the website’s chat rooms. The choices are yours. • • You’ve options. Because there are so many people online, you never have to worry about meeting the same people every time you conduct a search.
Sure, you’re going to have people who appear on your match list regularly (probably because they are good matches for you!), but you can also tweak your search parameters to get new matches. Online dating shouldn’t be looked at as a last resort, but instead as a go-to for singles who want results and are ready to meet someone special.
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best oklahoma dating website for professionals 2017 - Best Dating Apps 2016
This article is about the U.S. state of Oklahoma. For other uses, see . Oklahoma ( ( )) is a in the region of the , bordered by on the north, on the northeast, on the east, on the south, on the west, and on the northwest. It is the and the of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the words and humma, meaning "red people".
It is also known informally by its nickname, "", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the of 1889, which dramatically increased settlement in the eastern . and were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans (or colloquially, "Okies"), and its capital and largest city is .
State of Oklahoma : English ( official within , official within and ) Oklahoman; Okie () () Area • Total 69,899 sq mi (181,040 km 2) • Width 230 miles (370 km) • Length 465 miles (750 km) • % water 1.9 • Latitude 33°37' N to 37° N • Longitude 94° 26' W to 103° W Population • Total 3,930,864 (2017 est.) • 55.2/sq mi (21.3/km 2) • $47,000 (43rd) • Highest point 4,975 ft (1516 m) • Mean 1,300 ft (400 m) • Lowest point at border 289 ft (88 m) Before statehood (1834–1907) • • Wildflower: Inanimate insignia White and green (vice versa) Waltz: Oklahoma Wind Oklahoma Tartan Other • Cartoon: Gusty created by , Oklahoma's first professional meteorologist, used on KTUL-TV from 1954 to 1989.
• Fruit: • Vegetable: • Game bird: • Monument: • Rock song: "" by • Theater group: Players of Oklahoma Released in 2008, as part of the . Oklahoma's state bird flying above its state wildflower. A major producer of , , and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and . Both Oklahoma City and serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their .
With ancient mountain ranges, , , and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the , , and the , a region prone mainly to . More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind and . Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American and historically served as a route for , a destination for Southern settlers, and a government-sanctioned for Native Americans.
The name Oklahoma comes from the phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of , in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole. Oklahoma later became the de facto name for , and it was officially approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is : Uukuhuúwa and : Gahnawiyoˀgeh .
Elk Mountain, in the eastern Wichita Mountains Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles (181,040 km 2), with 68,595 square miles (177,660 km 2) of land and 1,304 square miles (3,380 km 2) of water.
It lies partly in the near the geographical center of the 48 . It is bounded on the east by and , on the north by , on the northwest by , on the far west by , and on the south and near-west by .
Much of its border with Texas lies along the , a failed continental . The geologic figure defines the placement of the . The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border. The Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles (3.4 km) to 2.2 miles (3.5 km) miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819. It was then set along the . In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian.
Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, and the actual 103rd meridian was approximately 2.2 miles (3.5 km) to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error. The placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian.
in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. See also: Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the in the watershed, generally sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary.
Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, , at 4,973 feet (1,516 m) above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the . The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of , which dips to 289 feet (88 m) above sea level. Wichita Mountains Narrows Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct , with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state.
Its western and eastern halves, however, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many rare, relic species. Grave Creek in , Oklahoma Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the , the , the , and the . Contained within the region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the and the .
A portion of the stretches into north-central Oklahoma, and near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards as the world's tallest hill; at 1,999 feet (609 m), it fails their definition of a mountain by one foot.
The in the state's harbor few natural forests; the region has a rolling to flat landscape with intermittent and ranges like the . Partial plains interrupted by small, mountain ranges like the and the dot ; transitional prairie and cover the of the state. The Ozark and Ouachita Mountains rise from west to east over the state's eastern third, gradually increasing in elevation in an eastward direction. Turner Falls More than 500 named creeks and rivers make up Oklahoma's waterways, and with 200 lakes created by dams, it holds the nation's highest number of artificial reservoirs.
Most of the state lies in two primary belonging to the and rivers, though the Lee and Little rivers also contain significant drainage basins. Flora and fauna Populations of inhabit the state's prairie ecosystems Due to Oklahoma's location at the confluence of many geographic regions, the state's climatic regions have a high rate of biodiversity.
Forests cover 24 percent of Oklahoma and composed of shortgrass, mixed-grass, and , harbor expansive ecosystems in the state's central and western portions, although has largely replaced native grasses. Where rainfall is sparse in the state's western regions, shortgrass prairie and are the most prominent ecosystems, though , red cedar (), and grow near rivers and creek beds in the panhandle's far western reaches.
contains many rare, including , , and . , forests and mixtures of , , , and deciduous forests dominate the state's , while mixtures of largely , , red cedar ( ) and forests cover . The state holds populations of , , , , , , , and birds such as , , , , , and .
In prairie ecosystems, , , , and are common, and some of the nation's largest towns inhabit shortgrass prairie in the state's panhandle. The , a region transitioning from prairie to woodlands in Central Oklahoma, harbors 351 . The Ouachita Mountains are home to , , , and populations, which coexist with 328 vertebrate species in southeastern Oklahoma.
Also, in southeastern Oklahoma lives the . Protected lands rise above one of Oklahoma's state parks Oklahoma has 50 , six or protected regions, two or , and a network of wildlife preserves and conservation areas.
Six percent of the state's 10 million acres (40,000 km 2) of forest is public land, including the western portions of the , the largest and oldest national forest in the . With 39,000 acres (160 km 2), the in north-central Oklahoma is the largest protected area of in the world and is part of an that encompasses only 10 percent of its former land area, once covering 14 states.
In addition, the covers 31,300 acres (127 km 2) of prairie in southwestern Oklahoma. The is the oldest and largest of nine in the state and was founded in 1901, encompassing 59,020 acres (238.8 km 2).
Of Oklahoma's federally protected parks or recreational sites, the is the largest, with 9,898.63 acres (40.0583 km 2). Other sites include the and national historic trails, the and national historic sites, and the . Climate Winter at the campus Oklahoma is in a humid subtropical region. Oklahoma lies in a transition zone between humid continental climate to the north, semi-arid climate to the west, and humid subtropical climate in the central, south and eastern portions of the state.
Most of the state lies in an area known as characterized by frequent interaction between cold, dry air from Canada, warm to hot, dry air from Mexico and the Southwestern U.S., and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. The interactions between these three contrasting air currents produces (severe thunderstorms, damaging thunderstorm winds, large hail and tornadoes) with a frequency virtually unseen anywhere else on planet Earth.
An average 62 strike the state per year—one of the highest rates in the world. Because of Oklahoma's position between zones of differing prevailing temperature and winds, weather patterns within the state can vary widely over relatively short distances and can change drastically in a short time.
As an example, on November 11, 1911, the temperature at Oklahoma City reached 83 °F (28 °C) in the afternoon (the record high for that date), then slammed across the state, causing the temperature to fall 66 degrees, down to 17 °F (−8 °C) at midnight (the record low for that date); thus, both the record high and record low for November 11 were set on the same date.
This type of phenomenon is also responsible for many of the tornadoes in the area, such as the , when a warm front traveled along a stalled cold front, resulting in an average of about one tornado per hour over the course of a day. The (Koppen Cfa) of central, southern and eastern Oklahoma is influenced heavily by southerly winds bringing moisture from the . Traveling westward, the climate transitions progressively toward a zone (Koppen BSk) in the high plains of the Panhandle and other western areas from about westward, less frequently touched by southern moisture.
Precipitation and temperatures decline from east to west accordingly, with areas in the southeast averaging an annual temperature of 62 °F (17 °C) and an annual rainfall of generally over 40 inches (1,020 mm) and up to 56 inches (1,420 mm), while areas of the (higher-elevation) panhandle average 58 °F (14 °C), with an annual rainfall under 17 inches (430 mm). Over almost all of Oklahoma, winter is the driest season. Average monthly precipitation increases dramatically in the spring to a peak in May, the wettest month over most of the state, with its frequent and not uncommonly severe thunderstorm activity.
Early June can still be wet, but most years see a marked decrease in rainfall during June and early July. Mid-summer (July and August) represents a secondary dry season over much of Oklahoma, with long stretches of hot weather with only sporadic thunderstorm activity not uncommon many years. Severe drought is common in the hottest summers, such as those of 1934, 1954, 1980 and 2011, all of which featured weeks on end of virtual rainlessness and high temperatures well over 100 °F (38 °C).
Average precipitation rises again from September to mid-October, representing a secondary wetter season, then declines from late October through December. All of the state frequently experiences temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) or below 0 °F (−18 °C), though below-zero temperatures are rare in south-central and southeastern Oklahoma.
Snowfall ranges from an average of less than 4 inches (10 cm) in the south to just over 20 inches (51 cm) on the border of in the panhandle. The state is home to the , the , and the , all part of the and in . Oklahoma's highest-recorded temperature of 120 °F (49 °C) was recorded at on June 27, 1994 and the lowest recorded temperature of −31 °F (−35 °C) was recorded at on February 10, 2011. Monthly temperatures for Oklahoma's largest cities City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Oklahoma City 50/29 55/33 63/41 73/50 80/60 88/68 94/72 93/71 85/63 73/52 62/40 51/31 Tulsa 48/27 53/31 62/40 72/49 79/59 88/68 93/73 93/71 84/62 73/51 61/40 49/30 Lawton 50/26 56/31 65/40 73/49 82/59 90/68 96/73 95/71 86/63 76/51 62/39 52/30 Average high/low temperatures in °F Map of Indian Territory (Oklahoma) 1889.
Britannica 9th edition. Evidence suggests indigenous peoples traveled through Oklahoma as early as the . Ancestors of the , , , , and lived in what is now Oklahoma. lived in the central and west of the state, with a subgroup, the people living in panhandle region.
peoples lived in the eastern part of the state. , in what is now , was a major mound complex that flourished between AD 850 and 1450. The Spaniard traveled through the state in 1541, but French explorers claimed the area in the 1700s. In the 18th century, Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche entered the region from the west and Quapaw and Osage peoples moved into what is now eastern Oklahoma.
French colonists claimed the region until 1803, when all the French territory west of the Mississippi River was purchased by the United States in the . The territory now known as Oklahoma was first a part of the from 1819 until 1828. During the 19th century, thousands of Native Americans were expelled from their ancestral homelands from across North America and transported to the area including and surrounding present-day Oklahoma. The Choctaw was the first of the to be removed from the .
The phrase "" originated from a description of the removal of the Nation in 1831, although the term is usually used for the removal.
Seventeen thousand Cherokees and 2,000 of their black slaves were deported. The area, already occupied by and tribes, was called for the until revised Native American and then later American policy redefined the boundaries to include other Native Americans. By 1890, more than 30 Native American nations and tribes had been concentrated on land within or "Indian Country".
All Five Civilized Tribes supported and signed treaties with the Confederate military during the . The had an internal civil war. Slavery in Indian Territory was not abolished until 1866. In the period between 1866 and 1899, cattle ranches in Texas strove to meet the demands for food in eastern cities and railroads in Kansas promised to deliver in a timely manner.
and cattle ranches developed as either drove their product north or settled illegally in Indian Territory. In 1881, four of five major cattle trails on the western frontier traveled through Indian Territory. Increased presence of white settlers in Indian Territory prompted the United States Government to establish the in 1887, which divided the lands of individual tribes into allotments for individual families, encouraging farming and private land ownership among Native Americans but expropriating land to the federal government.
In the process, railroad companies took nearly half of Indian-held land within the territory for outside settlers and for purchase.
The sent thousands of farmers into poverty during the 1930s Major , including the , were held for settlers where certain territories were opened to settlement starting at a precise time.
Usually land was open to settlers on a first come first served basis. Those who broke the rules by crossing the border into the territory before the official opening time were said to have been crossing the border sooner, leading to the term , which eventually became the state's official nickname.
Deliberations to make the territory into a state began near the end of the 19th century, when the continued the allotment of Indian tribal land. 20th and 21st centuries Attempts to create an all-Indian state named Oklahoma and a later attempt to create an all-Indian state named failed but the Sequoyah Statehood Convention of 1905 eventually laid the groundwork for the Oklahoma Statehood Convention, which took place two years later.
On November 16, 1907, Oklahoma was established as the 46th state in the Union. The bombing of the in Oklahoma City was one of the deadliest acts of terrorism in American history The new state became a focal point for the emerging , as discoveries of oil pools prompted towns to grow rapidly in population and wealth. Tulsa eventually became known as the "" for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state's early economy. In 1927, Oklahoman businessman , known as the "Father of Route 66", began the campaign to create .
Using a stretch of highway from to Tulsa, Oklahoma to form the original portion of Highway 66, Avery spearheaded the creation of the to oversee the planning of Route 66, based in his hometown of Tulsa. Oklahoma also has a rich African-American history. Many black towns thrived in the early 20th century because of black settlers moving from neighboring states, especially Kansas.
The politician encouraged black settlers to come to what was then Indian Territory. He discussed with President Theodore Roosevelt the possibility of making Oklahoma a majority-black state.
By the early 20th century, the neighborhood of was one of the most prosperous African-American communities in the United States.
had established since before the start of the 20th century, but the blacks had created a thriving area. Social tensions were exacerbated by the revival of the after 1915. The broke out in 1921, with whites attacking blacks. In one of the costliest episodes of racial violence in American history, sixteen hours of rioting resulted in 35 city blocks destroyed, $1.8 million in property damage, and a death toll estimated to be as high as 300 people.
By the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan had declined to negligible influence within the state. During the 1930s, parts of the state began suffering the consequences of poor farming practice.
This period was known as the , throughout which areas of Kansas, Texas, New Mexico and were hampered by long periods of little rainfall, strong winds, and abnormally high temperatures, sending thousands of farmers into poverty and forcing them to relocate to more fertile areas of the western United States. Over a twenty-year period ending in 1950, the state saw its only historical decline in population, dropping 6.9 percent as impoverished families migrated out of the state after the Dust Bowl.
and projects markedly changed practices in the state and led to the construction of massive flood control systems and dams; they built hundreds of reservoirs and man-made lakes to supply water for domestic needs and agricultural irrigation. By the 1960s, Oklahoma had created more than 200 lakes, the most in the nation. In 1995, Oklahoma City was the site of one of the most destructive acts of domestic terrorism in American history.
The of April 19, 1995, in which detonated a large, crude explosive device outside the , killed 168 people, including 19 children. For his crime, McVeigh was executed by the federal government on June 11, 2001.
His accomplice, , is serving life in prison without parole for helping plan the attack and prepare the explosive. On May 31, 2016, several cities experienced . Oklahoma population density map Census Pop.
%± 258,657 — 790,391 205.6% 1,657,155 109.7% 2,028,283 22.4% 2,396,040 18.1% 2,336,434 −2.5% 2,233,351 −4.4% 2,328,284 4.3% 2,559,229 9.9% 3,025,290 18.2% 3,145,585 4.0% 3,450,654 9.7% 3,751,351 8.7% Est. 2017 3,930,864 4.8% U.S. Decennial Census 2015 Estimate The United States Census Bureau estimates Oklahoma's population was 3,923,561 on July 1, 2016, a 4.6% increase since the .
At the , 68.7% of the population was , down from 88% in 1970, 7.3% non-Hispanic or African American, 8.2% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.7% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.1% non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 5.1% of two or more races (non-Hispanic).
8.9% of Oklahoma's population was of , Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race). Oklahoma racial breakdown of population Racial composition 1970 1990 2000 2010 89.1% 82.1% 76.2% 72.0% 3.8% 8.0% 7.9% 8.7% 6.7% 7.4% 7.6% 7.4% 0.1% 1.1% 1.4% 1.7% and – – 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 1.3% 2.4% 4.1% – – 4.5% 6.0% As of 2011 , 47.3% of Oklahoma's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white. As of 2005 Oklahoma's estimated ancestral makeup was 14.5% German, 13.1% , 11.8% , 9.6% , 8.1% , and 11.4% Native American (including 7.9% Cherokee ) though the percentage of people claiming American Indian as their only race was 8.1%.
Most people from Oklahoma who self-identify as having are of overwhelmingly ancestry with significant amounts of and inflection as well. The state had the second-highest number of Native Americans in 2002, estimated at 395,219, as well as the second-highest percentage among all states. In 2011, U.S. Census Bureau data from 2005–2009 indicated about 5% of Oklahoma's residents were born outside the United States.
This is lower than the national figure (about 12.5% of U.S. residents were foreign-born). The of Oklahoma is in near the town of . The state's 2006 ranked 37th at $32,210, though it has the third-fastest-growing per capita income in the nation and ranks consistently among the lowest states in cost of living index.
The Oklahoma City suburb is first on at $73,661, though holds the highest average. In 2011, 7.0% of Oklahomans were under the age of 5, 24.7% under 18, and 13.7% were 65 or older. Females made up 50.5% of the population. Demographics of Oklahoma By White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI* 2000 (total population) 82.59% 8.31% 11.39% 1.71% 0.15% 2000 (Hispanic only) 4.73% 0.19% 0.37% 0.05% 0.02% 2005 (total population) 82.20% 8.55% 11.31% 1.92% 0.16% 2005 (Hispanic only) 6.10% 0.24% 0.35% 0.06% 0.03% Growth 2000–05 (total population) 2.33% 5.76% 2.04% 15.49% 9.51% Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 0.50% 5.17% 2.22% 15.19% 9.47% Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 32.58% 31.44% -3.27% 25.17% 9.69% * AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Cities and towns The state is in the U.S.
Census' . According to the , Oklahoma is the with 7006375161600000000♠3,751,616 inhabitants but the spanning 68,594.92 square miles (177,660.0 km 2) of land. Oklahoma is divided into 77 and contains 597 municipalities consisting of cities and towns. In Oklahoma, cities are all those incorporated communities which are 1,000 or more in population and are incorporated as cities.
Towns are limited to town board type of municipal government. Cities may choose among aldermanic, mayoral, council-manager, and home-rule charter types of government. Cities may also petition to incorporate as towns. Language stop sign in English and the , The English language has been official in the state of Oklahoma since 2010.
The variety of spoken is called Oklahoma English, and this dialect is quite diverse with its uneven blending of features of North Midland, South Midland, and dialects. In 2000, 2,977,187 Oklahomans—92.6% of the resident population five years or older—spoke only English at home, a decrease from 95% in 1990. 238,732 Oklahoma residents reported speaking a language other than English in the 2000 census, about 7.4% of the state's population.
is the second-most commonly spoken language in the state, with 141,060 speakers counted in 2000. The two most commonly spoken native North American languages are and with 10,000 Cherokee speakers living within the tribal jurisdiction area of eastern Oklahoma, and another 10,000 Choctaw speakers living in the directly south of the Cherokees.
Cherokee is an official language in the Cherokee Nation tribal jurisdiction area and in the . Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Oklahoma Language Percentage of population (as of 2000 ) Spanish 4.4% 0.6% German and Vietnamese (tied) 0.4% French 0.3% Chinese 0.2% Korean, Arabic, , Japanese (tied) 0.1% German has 13,444 speakers representing about 0.4% of the state's population, and Vietnamese is spoken by 11,330 people, or about 0.4% of the population, many of whom live in the of .
Other languages include French with 8,258 speakers (0.3%), with 6,413 (0.2%), Korean with 3,948 (0.1%), Arabic with 3,265 (0.1%), other Asian languages with 3,134 (0.1%), with 2,888 (0.1%), Japanese with 2,546 (0.1%), and African languages with 2,546 (0.1%). In addition to Cherokee, more than 25 are spoken in Oklahoma, second only to (though, it should be noted only Cherokee exhibits language vitality at present).
Religion 1% Oklahoma is part of a geographical region characterized by conservative and Evangelical Christianity known as the "". Spanning the southern and eastern parts of the United States, the area is known for conservative views, with the having the greater number of voters registered between the two parties. Tulsa, the state's second-largest city, home to , is sometimes called the "".
According to the , the majority of Oklahoma's religious adherents are Christian, accounting for about 80 percent of the population. The percentage of Oklahomans affiliated with Catholicism is half of the national average, while the percentage affiliated with Evangelical Protestantism is more than twice the national average – tied with Arkansas for the largest percentage of any state.
The in Oklahoma City In 2010, the state's largest church memberships were in the (886,394 members), the (282,347), the (178,430), and the (85,926) and (47,349). Other religions represented in the state include , , and .
In 2000, there were about 5,000 and 6,000 Muslims, with 10 congregations to each group. Oklahoma religious makeup: • Protestant – 53% • – 16% • – 13% • Other – 6% • Unaffiliated – 12% Incarceration rate Oklahoma has been described as "the world's prison capital", with 1,079 of every 100,000 residents imprisoned in 2018, the highest incarceration rate of any state, and by comparison, higher than the of any country in the world.
The of Tulsa, Oklahoma's second-tallest building, serves as the world headquarters for Oklahoma is host to a diverse range of sectors including , energy, transportation equipment, , , and telecommunications.
Oklahoma is an important producer of natural gas, aircraft, and . The state ranks third in the nation for production of natural gas, is the 27th-most agriculturally productive state, and also ranks 5th in production of wheat. Four companies and six companies are headquartered in Oklahoma, and it has been rated one of the most business-friendly states in the nation, with the 7th-lowest tax burden in 2007.
In 2010, Oklahoma City-based ranked 18th on the Forbes list of largest private companies, Tulsa-based ranked 37th, and Oklahoma City-based ranked 198th in 2010 report. Oklahoma's grew from $131.9 billion in 2006 to $147.5 billion in 2010, a jump of 10.6 percent. Oklahoma's gross domestic product per capita was $35,480 in 2010, which was ranked 40th among the states. Though oil has historically dominated the state's economy, a during the 1980s led to the loss of nearly 90,000 energy-related jobs between 1980 and 2000, severely damaging the local economy.
Oil accounted for 35 billion dollars in Oklahoma's economy in 2007, and employment in the state's oil industry was outpaced by five other industries in 2007. As of July 2017 , the state's unemployment rate is 4.4%. Industry In mid-2011, Oklahoma had a civilian labor force of 1.7 million and non-farm employment fluctuated around 1.5 million. The government sector provides the most jobs, with 339,300 in 2011, followed by the transportation and utilities sector, providing 279,500 jobs, and the sectors of education, business, and , providing 207,800, 177,400, and 132,700 jobs, respectively.
Among the state's largest industries, the aerospace sector generates $11 billion annually. Tulsa is home to the largest airline maintenance base in the world, which serves as the global maintenance and engineering headquarters for .
In total, aerospace accounts for more than 10 percent of Oklahoma's industrial output, and it is one of the top 10 states in aerospace engine manufacturing. Because of its position in the center of the United States, Oklahoma is also among the top states for logistic centers, and a major contributor to weather-related research. The state is the top manufacturer of tires in North America and contains one of the fastest-growing industries in the nation.
In 2005, international exports from Oklahoma's manufacturing industry totaled $4.3 billion, accounting for 3.6 percent of its economic impact. Tire manufacturing, meat processing, oil and gas equipment manufacturing, and air conditioner manufacturing are the state's largest manufacturing industries. Energy A major oil producing state, Oklahoma is the fifth-largest producer of crude oil in the United States Oklahoma is the nation's third-largest producer of , and its fifth-largest producer of crude oil.
The state also has the second-greatest number of active , and it is even ranked fifth in crude oil reserves. While the state is ranked eighth for installed capacity in 2011, it is at the bottom of states in usage of , with 94% of its electricity being generated by sources in 2009, including 25% from coal and 46% from natural gas. Oklahoma has no nuclear power. Ranking 13th for total energy consumption per capita in 2009, The state's energy costs were eighth-lowest in the nation.
As a whole, the oil energy industry contributes $35 billion to Oklahoma's gross domestic product (GDP), and employees of the state's oil-related companies earn an average of twice the state's typical yearly income.
In 2009, the state had 83,700 commercial oil wells churning 65.374 million barrels (10,393,600 m 3) of crude oil.
Eight and a half percent of the nation's natural gas supply is held in Oklahoma, with 1.673 trillion cubic feet (47.4 km 3) being produced in 2009. The Oklahoma Stack Play is a geographic referenced area in the Anadarko Basin. The oil field "Sooner Trend", Anadarko basin and the counties of Kingfisher and Canadian make up the basis for the "Oklahoma STACK".
Other Plays such as the Eagle Ford are geological rather than geographical. According to magazine, Oklahoma City-based , , and are the largest private oil-related companies in the nation, and all of Oklahoma's Fortune 500 companies are energy-related.
Tulsa's and are the state's largest and second-largest companies respectively, also ranking as the nation's second- and third-largest companies in the field of energy, according to magazine. The magazine also placed Devon Energy as the second-largest company in the mining and crude oil-producing industry in the nation, while Chesapeake Energy ranks seventh respectively in that sector and ranks as the 25th-largest gas and electric utility company.
Oklahoma Gas & Electric, commonly referred to as OG&E (NYSE: OGE) operates four base electric power plants in Oklahoma. Two of them are coal-fired power plants: one in , and the other in . Two are gas-fired power plants: one in and the other in . OG&E was the first electric company in Oklahoma to generate electricity from wind farms in 2003. Wind generation Main article: Oklahoma Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh) Year Total January February March April May June July August September October November December 2009 2,698 183 182 233 233 159 175 140 172 152 253 269 308 2010 3,808 252 187 389 400 305 360 265 260 311 299 408 375 2011 5,369 319 446 519 531 510 513 329 335 337 487 574 469 2012 632 555 744 634 726 639 570 453 516 100 Source: Agriculture The 27th-most agriculturally productive state, Oklahoma is fifth in cattle production and fifth in production of wheat.
Approximately 5.5 percent of American beef comes from Oklahoma, while the state produces 6.1 percent of American wheat, 4.2 percent of American pig products, and 2.2 percent of dairy products.
The state had 85,500 farms in 2012, collectively producing $4.3 billion in animal products and fewer than one billion dollars in crop output with more than $6.1 billion added to the state's gross domestic product.
Poultry and swine are its second- and third-largest agricultural industries. Oklahoma's system of public regional universities includes in With an educational system made up of districts and independent , Oklahoma had 638,817 students enrolled in 1,845 public primary, secondary, and schools in 533 as of 2008 .
Oklahoma has the highest enrollment of Native American students in the nation with 126,078 students in the 2009–10 school year. Oklahoma spent $7,755 for each student in 2008, and was 47th in the nation in expenditures per student, though its growth of total education expenditures between 1992 and 2002 ranked 22nd. The state is among the best in education, and the National Institute for Early Education Research rated it first in the United States with regard to standards, quality, and access to pre-kindergarten education in 2004, calling it a model for .
High school dropout rate decreased from 3.1 to 2.5 percent between 2007 and 2008 with Oklahoma ranked among 18 other states with 3 percent or less dropout rate. In 2004, the state ranked 36th in the nation for the relative number of adults with , though at 85.2 percent, it had the highest rate among Southern states. According to a study conducted by the Pell Institute, Oklahoma ranks 48th in college-participation for low-income students.
The , , the , and are the largest public institutions of higher education in Oklahoma, operating through one primary campus and satellite campuses throughout the state. The two state universities, along with and the , rank among the country's best in undergraduate business programs. Oklahoma City University School of Law, University of Oklahoma College of Law, and University of Tulsa College of Law are the state's only ABA accredited institutions.
Both University of Oklahoma and University of Tulsa are Tier 1 institutions, with the University of Oklahoma ranked 68th and the University of Tulsa ranked 86th in the nation. Oklahoma holds eleven public regional universities, including , the second-oldest institution of higher education west of the , also containing the only College of in Oklahoma and the largest enrollment of students in the nation by percentage and amount. is Oklahoma's only historically black college.
Six of the state's universities were placed in the 's list of best 122 regional colleges in 2007, and three made the list of top colleges for best value. The state has 55 post-secondary technical institutions operated by for training in specific fields of industry or trade. In the 2007–2008 school year, there were 181,973 undergraduate students, 20,014 graduate students, and 4,395 first-professional degree students enrolled in Oklahoma colleges.
Of these students, 18,892 received a bachelor's degree, 5,386 received a master's degree, and 462 received a first professional degree.
This means the state of Oklahoma produces an average of 38,278 degree-holders per completions component (i.e. July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008). National average is 68,322 total degrees awarded per completions component. Beginning on April 2, 2018, tens of thousands of K–12 public school teachers due to lack of funding.
According to the National Education Association, teachers in Oklahoma had ranked 49th out of the 50 states in terms of teacher pay in 2016. The Oklahoma Legislature had passed a measure a week earlier to raise teacher salaries by $6,100, but it fell short of the $10,000 raise for teachers, $5,000 raise for other school employees, and $200 million increase in extra education funding many had sought.
Non-English education Oklahoma immersion school student writing in the The instigated a 10-year language preservation plan that involved growing new fluent speakers of the from childhood on up through school immersion programs as well as a collaborative community effort to continue to use the language at home. This plan was part of an ambitious goal that in 50 years, 80% or more of the Cherokee people will be fluent in the language.
The has invested $3 million into opening schools, training teachers, and developing curricula for language education, as well as initiating community gatherings where the language can be actively used. A Cherokee language immersion school in educates students from pre-school through eighth grade.
Graduates are fluent speakers of the language. Several universities offer Cherokee as a second language, including the and . Oklahoma's heritage as a pioneer state is depicted with the Pioneer Woman statue in Oklahoma is placed in the South by the , but lies partially in the, , and Southern by varying definitions, and partially in the and Great Plains by definitions of abstract geographical-cultural regions.
Oklahomans have a high rate of , , , and ancestry, with 25 different native languages spoken. Because many Native Americans were forced to move to Oklahoma when White settlement in North America increased, Oklahoma has much linguistic diversity. Mary Linn, an associate professor of anthropology at the and the associate curator of Native American languages at the , notes Oklahoma also has high levels of language endangerment.
Sixty-seven Native American tribes are represented in Oklahoma, including 39 , who are headquartered and have in the state. Western ranchers, Native American tribes, Southern settlers, and eastern oil barons have shaped the state's cultural predisposition, and its largest cities have been named among the most underrated cultural destinations in the United States.
Residents of Oklahoma are associated with traits of —the 2006 Catalogue for Philanthropy (with data from 2004) ranks Oklahomans 7th in the nation for overall generosity. The state has also been associated with a negative cultural first popularized by 's novel , which described the plight of uneducated, poverty-stricken Dust Bowl-era farmers deemed "". However, the term is often used in a positive manner by Oklahomans. Arts Further information: In the state's largest urban areas, pockets of culture flourish, and Native American, , and Asian American communities produce music and art of their respective cultures.
The Oklahoma Mozart Festival in is one of the largest classical music festivals on the southern plains, and Oklahoma City's Festival of the Arts has been named one of the top fine arts festivals in the nation. The state has a rich history in ballet with five Native American ballerinas attaining worldwide fame. These were , sisters and , and , known collectively as the . rates the as one of the top ballet companies in the United States. The and University of Oklahoma's dance program were formed by ballerina Yvonne Chouteau and husband .
The University program was founded in 1962 and was the first fully accredited program of its kind in the United States. In , an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" is the official performance headquarters for the musical , native of , starred in the and International touring productions of Oklahoma!, playing the role of "Curly McClain" in more than 2,600 performances. In 1953 he was featured along with the cast on a television broadcast.
Bond was instrumental in the becoming the Oklahoma state song and is also featured on the U.S. commemorating the musical's 50th anniversary. Historically, the state has produced musical styles such as and , which was popularized at in Tulsa. The building, known as the "Carnegie Hall of Western Swing", served as the performance headquarters of and the during the 1930s. Stillwater is known as the epicenter of music, the best-known proponent of which is the late .
Prominent theatre companies in Oklahoma include, in the capital city, Oklahoma City Theatre Company, Carpenter Square Theatre, , and CityRep.
CityRep is a professional company affording equity points to those performers and technical theatre professionals. In Tulsa, Oklahoma's oldest resident professional company is American Theatre Company, and is the oldest company west of the Mississippi.
Other companies in Tulsa include and Tulsa Spotlight Theater. The cities of Norman, Lawton, and Stillwater, among others, also host well-reviewed community theatre companies. Oklahoma is in the nation's middle percentile in per capita spending on the arts, ranking 17th, and contains more than 300 museums. The of Tulsa is considered one of the top 50 museums in the United States, and the in Norman, one of the largest university-based art and history museums in the country, documents the natural history of the region.
The collections of are housed in the of Tulsa, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West. The Egyptian art collection at the in Shawnee is considered to be the finest Egyptian collection between and Los Angeles.
The contains the most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by artist in the world, and Oklahoma City's documents the heritage of the American Western frontier. With remnants of the and artifacts relevant to Judaism, the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art of Tulsa preserves the largest collection of Jewish art in the Southwest United States. Festivals and events National Powwow dancer of the of Oklahoma, 2007 Oklahoma's centennial celebration was named the top event in the United States for 2007 by the , and consisted of multiple celebrations saving with the 100th anniversary of on November 16, 2007.
Annual ethnic festivals and events take place throughout the state such as Native American powwows and ceremonial events, and include festivals (as examples) in , , , , , , , , , and African-American communities depicting cultural heritage or traditions.
During a ten-day run in Oklahoma City, the attracts roughly one million people along with the annual Festival of the Arts. Large national , various Latin and heritage festivals, and cultural festivals such as the celebrations are held in Oklahoma City each year. The attracts over one million people during its 10-day run, and the city's Mayfest festival entertained more than 375,000 people in four days during 2007.
In 2006, Tulsa's was named one of the top 10 in the world by and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by magazine. Norman plays host to the , a festival that highlights native Oklahoma bands and musicians.
Norman is also host to the Medieval Fair of Norman, which has been held annually since 1976 and was Oklahoma's first medieval fair. The Fair was held first on the south oval of the University of Oklahoma campus and in the third year moved to the Duck Pond in Norman until the Fair became too big and moved to Reaves Park in 2003.
The Medieval Fair of Norman is Oklahoma's "largest weekend event and the third-largest event in Oklahoma, and was selected by Events Media Network as one of the top 100 events in the nation". Sports Oklahoma has teams in , , , , , , and in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Enid, Norman, and Lawton.
The of the (NBA) is the state's only . The state had a team in the , the , from through , but the team relocated to after that season and became the . Oklahoma has teams in several minor leagues, including at the AAA and AA levels ( and , respectively), hockey's with the , and a number of indoor football leagues.
In the last-named sport, the state's most notable team was the , which played in the until 2012, when the team was moved to San Antonio. The replaced the Talons as Tulsa's only professional arena football team, playing the . The , of the , relocated to Oklahoma City from Tulsa in 2014, where they were formerly known as the Tulsa 66ers.
Tulsa is the base for the , which plays in the . Enid and Lawton host professional basketball teams in the and the . The moved to the state in 2008, becoming its first permanent major-league team in any sport The NBA's became the first major league sports franchise based in Oklahoma when the team was forced to to Oklahoma City's Ford Center, now known as , for two seasons following in 2005. In July 2008, the , and began to play at the Ford Center as the Oklahoma City Thunder for the , becoming the state's first permanent major league franchise.
are a popular draw in the state. The state has four schools that compete at the highest level of college sports, . The most prominent are the state's two members of the , one of the so-called of the top tier of college football, . The and average well over 50,000 fans attending their football games, and Oklahoma's football program ranked 12th in attendance among American colleges in 2010, with an average of 84,738 people attending its home games.
The two universities meet several times each year in rivalry matches known as the , which are some of the greatest sporting draws to the state. magazine rates Oklahoma and Oklahoma State among the top colleges for athletics in the nation.
Two private institutions in Tulsa, the and ; are also Division I members. Tulsa competes in FBS football and other sports in the , while Oral Roberts, which does not sponsor football, is a member of the .
In addition, 12 of the state's smaller colleges and universities compete in as members of four different conferences, and eight other Oklahoma institutions participate in the , mostly within the .
Regular tournaments are held at Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa, and for the or LPGA have been played at in Tulsa, Oak Tree Country Club in Oklahoma City, and Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa.
Rated one of the top golf courses in the nation, Southern Hills has hosted four , including one in 2007, and three , the most recent in 2001. are popular throughout the state, and , in the state's panhandle, hosts one of the largest in the nation. Current teams Basketball Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region) Baseball Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region) () () Hockey Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region) Football Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region) Bixby High School Soccer Club Type League Venue City Area (Metro/Region) ; Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Southwestern Regional Medical Center is in Tulsa Oklahoma was the 21st-largest recipient of medical funding from the federal government in 2005, with health-related federal expenditures in the state totaling $75,801,364; , preparedness, and health education were the top three most funded medical items.
Instances of major diseases are near the national average in Oklahoma, and the state ranks at or slightly above the rest of the country in percentage of people with , , cancer, and . In 2000, Oklahoma ranked 45th in physicians per capita and slightly below the national average in nurses per capita, but was slightly over the national average in hospital beds per 100,000 people and above the national average in net growth of health services over a 12-year period.
One of the worst states for percentage of insured people, nearly 25 percent of Oklahomans between the age of 18 and 64 did not have health insurance in 2005, the fifth-highest rate in the nation. Oklahomans are in the upper half of Americans in terms of prevalence, and the state is the 5th most obese in the nation, with 30.3 percent of its population at or near obesity. Oklahoma ranked last among the 50 states in a 2007 study by the on health care performance.
The , Oklahoma's largest collection of hospitals, is the only hospital in the state designated a Level I by the . OU Medical Center is on the grounds of the Oklahoma Health Center in Oklahoma City, the state's largest concentration of medical research facilities. The Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Southwestern Regional Medical Center in Tulsa is one of four such regional facilities nationwide, offering cancer treatment to the entire southwestern United States, and is one of the largest cancer treatment hospitals in the country.
The largest teaching facility in the nation, at Tulsa, also rates as one of the largest facilities in the field of . On June 26, 2018, Oklahoma made marijuana legal for medical purposes. This was a milestone for a state in the Bible Belt. The second-largest newspaper in Oklahoma, the Tulsa World, has a circulation of 189,789 Oklahoma City and Tulsa are the 45th- and 61st-largest in the United States as ranked by .
The state's third-largest media market, Lawton-, is ranked 149th nationally by the agency. in Oklahoma began in 1949 when (then WKY-TV) in Oklahoma City and in Tulsa began broadcasting a few months apart. Currently, all major American have affiliated television stations in the state.
The state has two primary newspapers. , based in Oklahoma City, is the largest newspaper in the state and 54th-largest in the nation by circulation, with a weekday readership of 138,493 and a Sunday readership of 202,690. The , the second-most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma and 79th in the nation, holds a Sunday circulation of 132,969 and a weekday readership of 93,558.
Oklahoma's first newspaper was established in 1844, called the Cherokee Advocate, and was written in both and English. In 2006, there were more than 220 newspapers in the state, including 177 with weekly publications and 48 with daily publications. The state's first radio station, WKY in Oklahoma City, signed on in 1920, followed by KRFU in , which later on moved to Tulsa and became in 1927.
In 2006, there were more than 500 radio stations in Oklahoma broadcasting with various local or nationally owned networks. Five universities in Oklahoma operate non-commercial, public radio stations/networks.
Oklahoma has a few ethnic-oriented TV stations broadcasting in Spanish and languages, and there is some Native American programming. , a Christian religious television network, has a studio in Tulsa, and built its first entirely TBN-owned affiliate in Oklahoma City in 1980. A map of Oklahoma showing major roads and thoroughfares Transportation in Oklahoma is generated by an anchor system of , lines, airports, , and networks.
Situated along an integral point in the United States Interstate network, Oklahoma contains three and four . In Oklahoma City, intersects with and , forming one of the most important intersections along the United States highway system. More than 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of roads make up the state's major highway skeleton, including state-operated highways, ten or major toll roads, and the longest drivable stretch of Route 66 in the nation.
In 2008, Interstate 44 in Oklahoma City was Oklahoma's busiest highway, with a daily traffic volume of 123,300 cars. In 2010, the state had the nation's third-highest number of bridges classified as structurally deficient, with nearly 5,212 bridges in disrepair, including 235 National Highway System Bridges. Oklahoma's largest commercial airport is in Oklahoma City, averaging a yearly passenger count of more than 3.5 million (1.7 million boardings) in 2010.
, the state's second-largest commercial airport, served more than 1.3 million boardings in 2010. Between the two, six airlines operate in Oklahoma.
In terms of traffic, in Tulsa is the state's busiest airport, with 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008. Oklahoma has over 150 public-use airports. Oklahoma is connected to the nation's rail network via 's , its only regional passenger rail line. It currently stretches from to , though lawmakers began seeking funding in early 2007 to connect the Heartland Flyer to . Two inland ports on rivers serve Oklahoma: the and the .
The state's only port handling international cargo, the Tulsa Port of Catoosa is the most inland ocean-going port in the nation and ships over two million tons of cargo each year.
Both ports are on the , which connects traffic from Tulsa and Muskogee to the Mississippi River via the and Arkansas rivers, contributing to one of the busiest waterways in the world. The in Oklahoma City Oklahoma is a constitutional republic with a government modeled after the , with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The state has with jurisdiction over most local government functions within each respective domain, , and a voting base with a plurality in the .
State officials are elected by in the state of Oklahoma. Oklahoma is one of 32 states with as a legal sentence, and the state has had (between 1976 through mid-2011) the highest per capita execution rate in the US. State government See also: , , and The consists of the and the . As the lawmaking branch of the state government, it is responsible for raising and distributing the money necessary to run the government. The Senate has 48 members serving four-year terms, while the House has 101 members with two-year terms.
The state has a for its legislature that restricts any one person to twelve cumulative years service between both legislative branches. Oklahoma's judicial branch consists of the , the , and 77 District Courts that each serve one county. The Oklahoma judiciary also contains two independent courts: a Court of and the . Oklahoma has two courts of last resort: the state Supreme Court hears civil cases, and the state Court of Criminal Appeals hears criminal cases (this split system exists only in Oklahoma and neighboring Texas).
Judges of those two courts, as well as the Court of Civil Appeals are appointed by the Governor upon the recommendation of the state Judicial Nominating Commission, and are subject to a retention vote on a six-year rotating schedule. The five congressional districts in Oklahoma The executive branch consists of the , their staff, and other elected officials.
The principal head of government, the Governor is the chief executive of the Oklahoma executive branch, serving as the of the when not called into use and reserving the power to veto bills passed through the Legislature.
The responsibilities of the Executive branch include submitting the budget, ensuring state laws are enforced, and ensuring peace within the state is preserved. Local government The state is divided into 77 that govern locally, each headed by a three-member council of elected commissioners, a tax assessor, clerk, , treasurer, and . While each municipality operates as a separate and independent local government with executive, legislative and judicial power, county governments maintain jurisdiction over both incorporated cities and non-incorporated areas within their boundaries, but have executive power but no legislative or judicial power.
Both county and municipal governments collect taxes, employ a separate police force, hold elections, and operate emergency response services within their jurisdiction. Other local government units include , technology center districts, community college districts, rural fire departments, rural water districts, and other special use districts.
Thirty-nine Native American tribal governments are based in Oklahoma, each holding limited powers within designated areas. While typical in most of the United States are not present in Oklahoma, tribal governments hold land granted during the Indian Territory era, but with limited jurisdiction and no control over state governing bodies such as municipalities and counties.
Tribal governments are recognized by the United States as quasi-sovereign entities with executive, judicial, and legislative powers over tribal members and functions, but are subject to the authority of the to revoke or withhold certain powers. The tribal governments are required to submit a constitution and any subsequent amendments to the United States Congress for approval. Oklahoma has 11 substate districts including the two large Councils of Governments, INCOG in Tulsa (Indian Nations Council of Governments) and ACOG (Association of Central Oklahoma Governments).
For a complete list visit the . National politics Presidential election results Year 65.32% 949,136 28.93% 420,375 66.77% 891,325 33.23% 443,547 65.65% 960,165 34.35% 502,496 65.57% 959,792 34.43% 503,966 60.31% 744,337 38.43% 474,276 48.26% 582,315 40.45% 488,105 42.65% 592,929 34.02% 473,066 57.93% 678,367 41.28% 483,423 68.61% 861,530 30.67% 385,080 60.50% 695,570 34.97% 402,026 49.96% 545,708 48.75% 532,442 73.70% 759,025 24.00% 247,147 47.68% 449,697 31.99% 301,658 44.25% 412,665 55.75% 519,834 59.02% 533,039 40.98% 370,111 of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election Oklahoma has been politically conservative for much of its history, especially recently.
During the first half-century of statehood, it was considered a stronghold, being carried by the in only two presidential elections ( and ). During this time, it was also carried by every winning Democratic candidate up to . However, Oklahoma Democrats were generally considered to be more conservative than Democrats in other states. After the , the state turned firmly Republican.
Although registered Republicans were a minority in the state until 2015, starting in , Oklahoma has been carried by Republican presidential candidates in all but one election ().
This is not to say every election has been a landslide for Republicans: lost the state by less than 1.5% in , while and both won 40% or more of the state's popular vote in and respectively.
in , though, was the last Democrat to even win any counties in the state. Oklahoma was one of three states, the others being and , where failed to carry any of its counties in , and it was the only state where Barack Obama failed to carry any county in .
In 2016, , the Republican nominee, again won every county, being one of only two states, the other being , where Democrat failed to carry a single county. Generally, Republicans are strongest in the suburbs of Oklahoma City and Tulsa, as well as the Panhandle. Democrats are strongest in the eastern part of the state and , as well as the most heavily African American and inner parts of Oklahoma City and Tulsa.
With a population of 8.6% Native American in the state, it is also worth noting most Native American precincts vote Democratic in margins exceeded only by . Following the , the Oklahoma delegation to the was reduced from six to five representatives, each serving one . In the current congress, Oklahoma's entire delegation are all Republicans. Voter registration and party enrollment as of 15 January 2018 Party Number of voters Percentage 942,621 46.75% 769,772 38.18% Others 303,764 15.07% Total 2,016,157 100% is the state's capital and largest city.
Oklahoma had 598 incorporated places in 2010, including four cities over 100,000 in population and 43 over 10,000. Two of the in the United States are in Oklahoma, Oklahoma City and , and sixty-five percent of Oklahomans live within their metropolitan areas, or spheres of economic and social influence defined by the United States Census Bureau as a .
Oklahoma City, the state's capital and largest city, had the in 2010, with 1,252,987 people, and the had 937,478 residents. Between 2000 and 2010, the cities that led the state in population growth were (172.4%), (78.2%), (77.0%), (56.7%), (56.6%), and (56.3%). is the state's second-largest city by population and land area.
In descending order of population, Oklahoma's largest cities in 2010 were: Oklahoma City (579,999, +14.6%), Tulsa (391,906, −0.3%), Norman (110,925, +15.9%), (98,850, +32.0%), Lawton (96,867, +4.4%), (81,405, +19.2%), (55,081, +33.9%), (54,371, +0.5%), (49,379, +5.0%), and (45,688, +17.0%). Of the state's ten largest cities, three are outside the metropolitan areas of Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and only Lawton has a metropolitan statistical area of its own as designated by the United States Census Bureau, though the metropolitan statistical area of extends into the state.
Under Oklahoma law, municipalities are divided into two categories: cities, defined as having more than 1,000 residents, and towns, with under 1,000 residents. Both have , , and public power within their boundaries, but cities can choose between a , , or form of government, while towns operate through an elected officer system.
The , Oklahoma's state mammal State law codifies Oklahoma's state emblems and honorary positions; the Oklahoma Senate or House of Representatives may adopt resolutions designating others for special events and to benefit organizations. In 2012 the House passed HCR 1024, which would change the state motto from "Labor Omnia Vincit" to "Oklahoma—In God We Trust!" The author of the resolution stated a constituent researched the Oklahoma Constitution and found no "official" vote regarding "Labor Omnia Vincit", therefore opening the door for an entirely new motto.
A. Determined by a survey by the Pew Research Center in 2008. Percentages represent claimed religious beliefs, not necessarily membership in any particular congregation. Figures have a ±5 percent margin of error. B. , Islam, , Judaism, other faiths each account for less than 1 percent. , , , and other Christian traditions each compose less than half a percent. One percent refused to answer the Pew Research Center's survey. • ^ (PDF). Keetoowah Cherokee News: Official Publication of the in Oklahoma.
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