Best atheist date a catholic

best atheist date a catholic

Can a Catholic date an atheist? Also, one Catholic asks, My boyfriend is an atheist, is that OK? What should I do? Like the video, share, and subscribe.

best atheist date a catholic

"Catholic" and "Catholicism" redirect here. For other uses, see and . The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2016 .

As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of . The church is by the , known as the . Its central administration, the , is in the , an within , .

Catholic Church : Ecclesia Catholica • : 5,304 • : 415,656 • : 45,255 Official website is based on the . The Catholic Church teaches that it is the church founded by , that its are the of Christ's , and that the to to whom was conferred by Jesus Christ. It maintains that it practises the , reserving , passed down by .

The , the twenty-three , and such as and reflect a of theological and spiritual emphases in the church. Of its the is the principal one, celebrated in the . The church teaches that through by a the sacrificial and . The is in the Catholic Church as and , honoured in and . Its teaching includes through faith and of the as well as , which emphasises voluntary support for the sick, the poor, and the afflicted through the .

The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of and in the world. The Catholic Church has influenced , , , and . Catholics live all over the world through , , and . Since the 20th century the majority reside in the due to in , and increased in the . The Catholic Church shared with the until the in 1054, disputing particularly the , as well as with the prior to the in 451 over .

The of the 16th century resulted in breaking away. From the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been for its , its refusal to , as well as the handling of involving clergy. The first use of the term "Catholic Church" (literally meaning "universal church") was by the Saint in his (circa 100 AD). He died in , with his located in the . Catholic (from : καθολικός, katholikos, 'universal') was first used to describe the church in the early 2nd century.

The first known use of the phrase "the catholic church" ( καθολικὴ ἐκκλησία he katholike ekklesia) occurred in the letter written about 110 AD from to the .

In the Catechetical Lectures ( c. 350) of , the name "Catholic Church" was used to distinguish it from other groups that also called themselves "the church". The "Catholic" notion was further stressed in the edict issued 380 by , the last emperor to rule over both the and the halves of the , when establishing the .

Since the of 1054, the has taken the adjective "Orthodox" as its distinctive epithet (however, its official name continues to be the "Orthodox Catholic Church" ) and the in communion with the has similarly taken "Catholic", keeping that description also after the of the 16th century, when those who ceased to be in communion became known as "Protestants".

While the "Roman Church" has been used to describe the pope's since the and into the (6th–10th century), the "Roman Catholic Church" has been applied to the whole church in English language since the in the late 16th century. "Roman Catholic" has occasionally appeared also in documents produced both by the Holy See, notably applied to certain national , and local dioceses.

The name "Catholic Church" for the whole church is used in the (1990), and the (1983). The names "Catholic Church" and "Roman Church" were also used in the documents of the (1962–1965), the (1869–1870), the (1545–1563), and numerous other official documents. "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on Earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on Earth shall be loosed in heaven." Jesus to Peter in the , The crossed gold and silver keys of the Holy See symbolise the keys of , representing the power of the papal office to loose and bind.

The triple crown symbolises the triple power of the Pope as "father of kings", "governor of the world" and "Vicar of Christ". The gold cross on a () surmounting the tiara symbolises the sovereignty of .

The Catholic Church follows an , led by bishops who have received the sacrament of who are given formal of governance within the church. There are three levels of clergy, the episcopate, composed of bishops who hold jurisdiction over a geographic area called a or ; the presbyterate, composed of priests ordained by bishops and who work in local diocese or religious orders; and the diaconate, composed of deacons who assist bishops and priests in a variety of ministerial roles.

Ultimately leading the entire Catholic Church is the Bishop of Rome, commonly called the pope, whose jurisdiction is called the . In parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop. Most religious institutes only have male or female members but some have both. Additionally, aid many liturgical functions during worship services. Holy See, papacy, Roman Curia, and College of Cardinals , the for the The is headed by the , known as the pope (: papa; "father"), who is the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

The current pope, , was elected on 13 March 2013 by . The office of the pope is known as the papacy. The Catholic Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy upon giving the to . His is called the "" ( Sancta Sedes in Latin), or the "" (meaning the see of the apostle Peter). Directly serving the pope is the , the central governing body that administers the day-to-day business of the Catholic Church.

The pope is also of , a small entirely within the city of Rome, which is an entity distinct from the Holy See. It is as head of the Holy See, not as head of Vatican City State, that the pope receives ambassadors of states and sends them his own diplomatic representatives.

The Holy See also confers , such as the originating from the . While the famous is located in Vatican City, above the traditional site of , the papal for the Diocese of Rome is , located within the city of Rome, though enjoying privileges accredited to the Holy See. The position of is a rank of honour bestowed by popes on certain clergy, such as leaders within the Roman Curia, bishops serving in major cities and distinguished theologians.

For advice and assistance in governing, the pope may turn to the . Following the death or resignation of a pope, members of the College of Cardinals who are under age 80 act as , meeting in a to elect a successor. Although the conclave may elect any male Catholic as pope, since 1389 only cardinals have been elected. Canon law See also: The of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the to regulate the church's external organisation and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics towards the church's mission.

In the Catholic Church, universal positive ecclesiastical laws, based upon either immutable divine and , or changeable circumstantial and merely , derive formal authority and promulgation from the office of pope who, as , possesses the totality of legislative, executive and judicial power in his person. It has all the ordinary elements of a mature legal system: laws, courts, lawyers, judges, a fully articulated legal code, principles of legal interpretation and coercive penalties that are limited to moral coercion.

Canon law concerns the Catholic Church's life and organisation and is distinct from civil law. In its own field it gives force to civil law only by specific enactment in matters such as the guardianship of minors. Similarly, civil law may give force in its field to canon law, but only by specific enactment, as with regard to canonical marriages.

Currently, the is in effect primarily for the Latin Church. The distinct 1990 ( CCEO, after the Latin initials) applies to the autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches.

Latin and Eastern churches Main articles: , , and In the 2,000-year history of the church, several complementary expressions of the Christian faith emerged throughout the world, most prominently, the and traditions. The Catholic Church continues these traditions, through constituent autonomous , also known as "churches " (: "of one's own right").

The largest and most well known is the , with more than 1 billion members worldwide. Relatively small in terms of adherents compared to the Latin Church, are the 23 self-governing with a combined membership of 17.3 million as of 2010 . The Latin Church is governed by the pope and diocesan bishops directly appointed by him. The pope exercises a direct role over the Latin Church, which is considered to form the original and still major part of , a heritage of certain beliefs and customs originating in Europe and northwestern Africa, some of which are inherited by many that trace their origins to the .

The Eastern Catholic Churches follow the traditions and spirituality of and are Churches that have always remained in full communion with the Catholic Church or who have chosen to reenter full communion in the centuries following the and earlier divisions.

These churches are communities of Catholic Christians whose forms of worship reflect distinct historical and cultural influences rather than differences in doctrine.

A church sui iuris is defined in the Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches as a "group of Christian faithful united by a hierarchy" that is recognised by the Pope in his capacity as the on matters of doctrine within the church. The term is an innovation of the CCEO to denote the relative autonomy of the Eastern Catholic Churches, who remain in with the Pope, but have governance structures and liturgical traditions separate from that of the Latin Church.

While the Latin Church's canons do not explicitly use the term, it is tacitly recognised as equivalent. Some Eastern Catholic Churches are governed by a patriarch who is elected by the of the bishops of that church, others are headed by a , others are under a , and others are organised as individual .

Each church has authority over the particulars of its internal organisation, , and other aspects of its spirituality, subject only to the authority of the Pope. The Roman Curia has a specific department, the , to maintain relations with them. The pope does not generally appoint bishops or clergy in the Eastern Catholic Churches, deferring to their internal governance structures, but may intervene if he feels it necessary.

Dioceses, parishes, organisations and institutes More than 1 million Individual countries, regions, or major cities are served by known as in the Latin Church, or in the Eastern Catholic Churches, each overseen by a bishop.

As of 2008 , the Catholic Church has 2,795 dioceses. The bishops in a particular country are members of a national or regional episcopal conference. Dioceses are divided into , each with one or more , or . Parishes are responsible for the day to day celebration of the sacraments and pastoral care of the laity.

As of 2016 , there are 221,700 parishes worldwide. In the Latin Church, Catholic men may serve as deacons or priests by receiving sacramental . Men and women may serve as , as readers (lectors); or as . Historically, boys and men have only been permitted to serve as altar servers; however, since the 1990s, girls and women have also been permitted.

Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the , may enter into either on an individual basis, as a or , or by joining an (a or a ) in which to take confirming their desire to follow the three of chastity, poverty and obedience.

Examples of institutes of consecrated life are the , the , the , the , the , the and the . "Religious institutes" is a modern term encompassing both "" and "" which were once distinguished in . The terms "religious order" and "religious institute" tend to be used as synonyms colloquially. By means of and beyond, the Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of and in the world.

Membership Further information: Church membership, defined as baptised Catholics, was 1.272 billion at the end of 2014, which is 17.8% of the world population. Catholics represent about half of all Christians.

Geographic distribution of Catholics worldwide continues to shift, with 17% in Africa, 48% in the Americas, 11% Asia, 23% in Europe, and 1% in Oceania. Catholic ministers include ordained clergy, , missionaries, and catechists.

Also as of the end of 2014, there were 465,595 ordained clergy, including 5,237 bishops, 415,792 presbyters (diocesan and religious), and 44,566 deacons (permanent).

Non-ordained ministers included 3,157,568 catechists, 367,679 lay missionaries, and 39,951 . Catholics who have committed to religious or consecrated life instead of marriage or single celibacy, as a state of life or relational vocation, include 54,559 male religious, 705,529 women religious.

These are not ordained, nor generally considered ministers unless also engaged in one of the lay minister categories above. Main articles: and Catholic doctrine has developed over the centuries, reflecting direct teachings of early Christians, formal definitions of and orthodox beliefs by and in , and theological debate by scholars.

The church believes that it is continually guided by the Holy Spirit as it discerns new theological issues and is protected from falling into doctrinal error when a firm decision on an issue is reached.

It teaches that revelation has one common source, God, and two distinct modes of transmission: and , and that these are authentically interpreted by the Magisterium. Sacred Scripture consists of the 73 books of the , consisting of 46 and 27 writings. Sacred Tradition consists of those teachings believed by the church to have been handed down since the time of the Apostles.

Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition are collectively known as the "deposit of faith" ( depositum fidei). These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher"), the church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the College of Bishops in union with the pope, the bishop of Rome.

Catholic doctrine is authoritatively summarised in the , published by the Holy See. Nature of God C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional theological diagram The Catholic Church holds that there is one eternal God, who exists as a ("mutual indwelling") of three , or "persons": ; ; and , which together are called the "". Catholics believe that Jesus Christ is the "Second Person" of the Trinity, God the Son. In an event known as the , through the power of the Holy Spirit, God became united with human nature through the conception of Christ in the womb of the .

Christ, therefore, is understood as being both fully divine and fully human, including possessing a human . It is taught that Christ's mission on earth included giving people his teachings and providing his example for them to follow as recorded in the four Gospels. Jesus is believed to have remained sinless while on earth, and to have allowed himself to be unjustly executed by , as sacrifice of himself to reconcile humanity to God; this reconciliation is known as the .

The Greek term "Christ" and the Hebrew "Messiah" both mean "anointed one", referring to the Christian belief that Jesus' death and resurrection are the fulfilment of the Old Testament's . The Catholic Church teaches dogmatically that "the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from two principles but as from one single principle".

It holds that the Father, as the "principle without principle", is the first origin of the Spirit, but also that he, as Father of the only Son, is with the Son the single principle from which the Spirit proceeds.

This belief is expressed in the clause which was added to the Latin version of the of 381 but not included in the Greek versions of the creed used in Eastern Christianity. Nature of the church The depicted in a 14th-century The Catholic Church teaches that it is the "", "the universal sacrament of salvation for the human race", and "the one true religion".

According to the Catechism, the Catholic Church is further described in the as the "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church". These are collectively known as the . The church teaches that its founder is Jesus Christ. The records several events considered integral to the establishment of the Catholic Church, including Jesus' activities and teaching and his appointment of the as witnesses to his ministry, suffering, and resurrection.

The , after his resurrection, instructed the apostles to continue his work. The coming of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles, in an event known as , is seen as the beginning of the public ministry of the Catholic Church. The church teaches that all duly consecrated bishops have a lineal succession from the apostles of Christ, known as . In particular, the Bishop of Rome (the pope) is considered the successor to the apostle , a position from which he derives his over the church.

Catholic belief holds that the church "is the continuing presence of Jesus on earth" and that it alone possesses the full means of . Through the (suffering) of Christ leading to his as described in the Gospels, it is said Christ made himself an oblation to God the Father in order to humanity to God; the makes him the firstborn from the dead, the first among many brethren. By reconciling with God and following Christ's words and deeds, an individual can enter the .

The church sees its liturgy and sacraments as perpetuating the graces achieved through Christ's sacrifice to strengthen a person's relationship with Christ and aid in overcoming sin.

Final Judgment Before his from the dead, Jesus Christ grants salvation to souls by the . Fresco, by , c. 1430s. The Catholic Church teaches that, immediately after death, the of each person will receive a from God, based on their sins and their relationship to Christ. This teaching also attests to another day when Christ will sit in universal judgement of all mankind. This , according to the church's teaching, will bring an end to human history and mark the beginning of both a new and better heaven and earth ruled by God in righteousness.

Depending on the judgement rendered following death, it is believed that a soul may enter one of three states of afterlife: • is a state of unending union with the divine nature of God, not ontologically, but by grace. It is an eternal life, in which the soul contemplates God in ceaseless . • is a temporary condition for the purification of souls who, although destined for Heaven, are not fully detached from sin and thus cannot enter Heaven immediately.

In Purgatory, the soul suffers, and is purged and perfected. Souls in purgatory may be aided in reaching heaven by the prayers of the faithful on earth and by the . • : Finally, those who persist in living in a state of mortal sin and do not repent before death subject themselves to hell, an everlasting separation from God.

The church teaches that no one is condemned to hell without having freely decided to reject God. No one is to hell and no one can determine with absolute certainty who has been condemned to hell. Catholicism teaches that through God's mercy a person can repent at any point before death, be illuminated with the truth of the Catholic faith, and thus obtain salvation.

Some Catholic theologians have speculated that the souls of unbaptised infants and non-Christians without mortal sin but who die in are assigned to , although this is not an official of the church. While the Catholic Church teaches that it alone possesses the full means of salvation, it also acknowledges that the Holy Spirit can make use of separated from itself to "impel towards Catholic unity" and "tend and lead toward the Catholic Church", and thus bring people to salvation, because these separated communities contain some elements of proper doctrine, albeit admixed with .

It teaches that anyone who is saved is saved through the Catholic Church but that people can be saved outside of the ordinary means known as , and by pre-baptismal martyrdom, known as , as well as when conditions of are present, although invincible ignorance in itself is not a means of salvation. Saints and devotions Main articles: , , , and A (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God, while is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.

The first persons honored as saints were the . Pious legends of their deaths were considered affirmations of the truth of their faith in . By the fourth century, however, ""—people who had confessed their faith not by dying but by word and life—began to be .

In the Catholic Church, both in Latin and Eastern Catholic churches, the act of canonization is reserved to the and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the candidate for canonization lived and died in such an exemplary and holy way that he is worthy to be recognized as a saint.

The Church's official recognition of sanctity implies that the person is now in and that he may be publicly invoked and mentioned officially in the of the Church, including in the . Canonization allows universal veneration of the saint in the of the ; for permission to venerate merely locally, only is needed. are "external practices of piety" which are not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church but are part of the popular spiritual practices of Catholics.

These include various practices regarding the veneration of the saints, especially . Other devotional practices include the , the of Jesus, the , the various , novenas to various saints, and devotions to the , and the veneration of such as the . The bishops at the Second Vatican Council reminded Catholics that "devotions should be so drawn up that they harmonise with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, and lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its very nature far surpasses any of them." Virgin Mary The is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as , and an .

deals with the and teachings concerning the life of the , as well as the by the faithful. Mary is held in special regard, declared the (: Θεοτόκος, Theotokos, 'God-bearer'), and believed as to have remained a .

Further teachings include the doctrines of the (her own conception without the stain of original sin) and the (that her body was assumed directly into heaven at the end of her life). Both of these doctrines were defined as infallible dogma, by in 1854 and in 1950 respectively, but only after consulting with the Catholic bishops throughout the world to ascertain that this is a Catholic belief. Devotions to Mary are part of Catholic piety but are distinct from the worship of God.

Practices include prayers and , , and . Several liturgical Marian feasts are celebrated throughout the Church Year and she is honoured with many titles such as . called her because, by giving birth to Christ, she is considered to be the spiritual mother to each member of the .

Because of her influential role in the life of Jesus, prayers and devotions such as the , the , the and the are common Catholic practices.

Pilgrimages to the sites of several affirmed by the church, such as , , and , are also popular Catholic devotions. Mass at the Grotto at , . The is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine. The Catholic Church teaches that it was entrusted with that were instituted by Christ. The number and nature of the sacraments were defined by several , most recently the Council of Trent. These are , , the , , (formerly called Extreme Unction, one of the ""), and .

Sacraments are visible rituals that Catholics see as signs of God's presence and effective channels of God's to all those who receive them with the proper disposition ( ). The categorises the sacraments into three groups, the "sacraments of Christian initiation", "sacraments of healing" and "sacraments at the service of communion and the mission of the faithful".

These groups broadly reflect the stages of people's natural and spiritual lives which each sacrament is intended to serve. The liturgies of the sacraments are central to the church's mission. According to the Catechism: In the liturgy of the New Covenant every liturgical action, especially the celebration of the Eucharist and the sacraments, is an encounter between Christ and the Church.

The liturgical assembly derives its unity from the "communion of the Holy Spirit" who gathers the children of God into the one Body of Christ. This assembly transcends racial, cultural, social – indeed, all human affinities. According to church doctrine, the sacraments of the church require the proper form, matter, and intent to be validly celebrated. In addition, the for both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches govern who may licitly celebrate certain sacraments, as well as strict rules about who may receive the sacraments.

Notably, because the church teaches that Christ is in the Eucharist, those who are conscious of being in a state of mortal sin are forbidden to receive the sacrament until they have received absolution through the (Penance). Catholics are normally obliged to abstain from eating for at least an hour before receiving the sacrament. Non-Catholics are ordinarily prohibited from receiving the Eucharist as well.

Catholics, even if they were in danger of death and unable to approach a Catholic minister, may not ask for the sacraments of the Eucharist, penance or anointing of the sick from someone, such as a Protestant minister, who is not known to be validly ordained in line with Catholic teaching on ordination. Likewise, even in grave and pressing need, Catholic ministers may not administer these sacraments to those who do not manifest Catholic faith in the sacrament.

In relation to the churches of Eastern Christianity not in communion with the Holy See, the Catholic Church is less restrictive, declaring that "a certain communion in sacris, and so in the Eucharist, given suitable circumstances and the approval of Church authority, is not merely possible but is encouraged." Sacraments of initiation Baptism of as represented in a sculptural group in (1549), As viewed by the Catholic Church, Baptism is the first of three sacraments of initiation as a Christian.

It washes away all sins, both and personal actual sins. It makes a person a member of the church. As a gratuitous gift of God that requires no merit on the part of the person who is baptised, it is , who, though they have no personal sins, need it on account of original sin.

If a new-born child is in a danger of death, anyone—be it a doctor, a nurse, or a parent—may baptise the child. Baptism marks a person permanently and cannot be repeated. The Catholic Church recognises as valid baptisms conferred even by people who are not Catholics or Christians, provided that they intend to baptise ("to do what the Church does when she baptises") and that they use the .

Confirmation Main article: The Catholic Church sees the sacrament of confirmation as required to complete the grace given in baptism. When adults are baptised, confirmation is normally given immediately afterwards, a practice followed even with newly baptised infants in the . In the confirmation of children is delayed until they are old enough to understand or at the bishop's discretion.

In Western Christianity, particularly , the sacrament is called confirmation, because it confirms and strengthens the grace of baptism; in the Eastern Churches, it is called chrismation, because the essential rite is the anointing of the person with , a mixture of and some perfumed substance, usually , blessed by a bishop. Those who receive confirmation must be in a state of grace, which for those who have reached the means that they should first be cleansed spiritually by the sacrament of Penance; they should also have the intention of receiving the sacrament, and be prepared to show in their lives that they are Christians.

Eucharist celebrates the Eucharist at the of in , Brazil on 11 May 2007 For Catholics, the Eucharist is the sacrament which completes Christian initiation. It is described as "the source and summit of the Christian life".

The ceremony in which a Catholic first receives the Eucharist is known as . The Eucharistic celebration, also called the or , includes prayers and scriptural readings, as well as an offering of bread and wine, which are brought to the and by the priest to become the body and the blood of Jesus Christ, a change called . The reflect the words spoken by Jesus during the , where Christ offered his body and blood to his Apostles the night before his crucifixion.

The sacrament re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross, and perpetuates it. Christ's death and resurrection gives grace through the sacrament that unites the faithful with Christ and one another, remits venial sin, and aids against committing moral sin (though mortal sin itself is forgiven through the sacrament of penance).

Main article: The Sacrament of Penance (also called Reconciliation, Forgiveness, Confession, and Conversion ) exists for the conversion of those who, after baptism, separate themselves from Christ by sin.

Essential to this sacrament are acts both by the sinner (examination of conscience, contrition with a determination not to sin again, confession to a priest, and performance of some act to repair the damage caused by sin) and by the priest (determination of the act of reparation to be performed and ). Serious sins () should be confessed at least once a year and always before receiving Holy Communion, while confession of also is recommended.

The priest is bound under the severest penalties to maintain the "", absolute secrecy about any sins revealed to him in confession. Anointing of the sick The painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites.

, c. 1445. While chrism is used only for the three sacraments that cannot be repeated, a different oil is used by a priest or bishop to bless a Catholic who, because of illness or old age, has begun to be in danger of death. This sacrament, known as Anointing of the Sick, is believed to give comfort, peace, courage and, if the sick person is unable to make a confession, even forgiveness of sins. The sacrament is also referred to as Unction, and in the past as Extreme Unction, and it is one of the three sacraments that constitute the , together with Penance and (Eucharist).

Sacraments at the service of communion According to the Catechism, there are two sacraments of directed towards the salvation of others: priesthood and marriage. Within the general vocation to be a Christian, these two sacraments "consecrate to specific mission or among the people of God. Men receive the holy orders to feed the Church by the word and .

Spouses marry so that their love may be fortified to fulfill duties of their state". Holy Orders Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination. The sacrament of consecrates and deputes some Christians to serve the whole body as members of three degrees or orders: episcopate (bishops), presbyterate (priests) and diaconate (deacons). The church has defined rules on who may be ordained into the . In the Latin Church, the priesthood is generally restricted to celibate men, and the episcopate is always restricted to celibate men.

Men who are already married may be ordained in certain Eastern Catholic churches in most countries, and the personal ordinariates and may become deacons even in the Western Church (see ). But after becoming a Catholic priest, a man may not marry (see ) unless he is formally laicised.

All clergy, whether deacons, priests or bishops, may preach, teach, baptise, witness marriages and conduct funeral liturgies. Only bishops and priests can administer the sacraments of the Eucharist, Reconciliation (Penance) and Anointing of the Sick. Only bishops can administer the sacrament of Holy Orders, which someone into the clergy. Matrimony Wedding mass in the The Catholic Church teaches that marriage is a social and spiritual bond between a man and a woman, ordered towards the good of the spouses and procreation of children; according to , it is the only appropriate context for sexual activity.

A Catholic marriage, or any marriage between baptised individuals of any Christian denomination, is viewed as a sacrament. A sacramental marriage, once consummated, cannot be dissolved except by death. The church recognises certain , such as freedom of consent, as required for any marriage to be valid; In addition, the church sets specific rules and norms, known as , that Catholics must follow. The church does not recognise divorce as ending a valid marriage and allows state-recognised divorce only as a means of protecting the property and well being of the spouses and any children.

However, consideration of particular cases by the competent ecclesiastical tribunal can lead to declaration of the invalidity of a marriage, a declaration usually referred to as an . Remarriage following a divorce is not permitted unless the prior marriage was declared invalid.

Catholic religious objects—, and Among the 24 autonomous ( sui iuris) churches, numerous liturgical and other traditions exist, called rites, which reflect historical and cultural diversity rather than differences in belief. In the definition of the , "a rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual, and disciplinary patrimony, culture and circumstances of history of a distinct people, by which its own manner of living the faith is manifested in each Church sui iuris".

The liturgy of the sacrament of the , called the in the West and or other names in the East, is the principal liturgy of the Catholic Church. This is because it is considered the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ himself. The most widely used is the , usually in its promulgated by in 1969, but also in its authorised , the as in the 1962 edition of the . have their own rites. The liturgies of the Eucharist and the other sacraments vary from rite to rite based on differing theological emphasis.

Western rites Main articles: and The Roman Rite is the most common used by the Catholic Church. Its use is found worldwide, originating in Rome and spreading throughout Europe, influencing and eventually supplanting local rites. The present ordinary form of Mass in the Roman Rite, found in the post-1969 editions of the , is usually celebrated in the local language, using an officially approved translation from the original text in .

An outline of its major liturgical elements can be found in the side bar. Elevation of the before an after the consecration during a of In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI affirmed the continued use of the as an ("a Forma extraordinaria"), speaking of it also as an usus antiquior (older use), and issued new permissive norms for its employment.

An instruction issued four years later spoke of the two forms or usages of the Roman Rite approved by the pope as the ordinary form and the extraordinary form ("the forma ordinaria" and "the forma extraordinaria"). The 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, published a few months before the opened, was the last that presented the Mass as standardised in 1570 by at the request of the and that is therefore known as the Tridentine Mass.

Pope Pius V's Roman Missal was subjected to minor revisions by in 1604, in 1634, in 1911, in 1955, and in 1962. Each successive edition was the ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass until superseded by a later edition. When the 1962 edition was superseded by that of Paul VI, promulgated in 1969, its continued use at first required permission from bishops; but 's 2007 allowed free use of it for Mass celebrated without a congregation and authorised parish priests to permit, under certain conditions, its use even at public Masses.

Except for the scriptural readings, which Pope Benedict allowed to be proclaimed in the vernacular language, it is celebrated exclusively in . Since 2014, clergy in the small set up for groups of former Anglicans under the terms of the 2009 document are permitted to use a variation of the Roman Rite called "Divine Worship" or, less formally, "Ordinariate Use", which incorporates elements of the and traditions.

In the , with around five million Catholics the largest in Europe, Mass is celebrated according to the . Other include the and those of some religious institutes. These liturgical rites have an antiquity of at least 200 years before 1570, the date of Pope Pius V's , and were thus allowed to continue. Eastern rites celebrated by a bishop of the in , one of the 23 in with the and the Catholic Church.

The share common patrimony and liturgical rites as their counterparts, including and other churches who are no longer in communion with the Holy See. These include churches that historically developed in Russia, Caucasus, the Balkans, North Eastern Africa, India and the Middle East. The Eastern Catholic Churches are groups of faithful who have either never been out of communion with the Holy See or who have restored communion with it at the cost of breaking communion with their associates of the same tradition.

The rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches include the , in its Antiochian, Greek and Slavonic varieties; the ; the ; the ; the and the . Eastern Catholic Churches have the autonomy to set the particulars of their liturgical forms and worship, within certain limits to protect the "accurate observance" of their liturgical tradition. In the past some of the rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches were subject to a degree of .

However, in recent years Eastern Catholic Churches have returned to traditional Eastern practices in accord with the decree . Each church has its own . Main article: , reflecting the concern Jesus showed for the impoverished, places a heavy emphasis on the and the , namely the support and concern for the sick, the poor and the afflicted.

Church teaching calls for a preferential while canon law prescribes that "The Christian faithful are also obliged to promote and, mindful of the precept of the Lord, to assist the poor." Its foundations are widely considered to have been laid by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical letter which upholds the rights and dignity of labor and the right of workers to form unions. Catholic teaching regarding sexuality calls for a practice of , with a focus on maintaining the spiritual and bodily integrity of the human person.

Marriage is considered the only appropriate context for sexual activity. Church teachings about sexuality have become an issue of increasing controversy, especially after the close of the Second Vatican Council, due to changing cultural attitudes in the Western world described as the . The church has also addressed stewardship of the natural environment, and its relationship to other social and theological teachings.

In the document , dated 24 May 2015, critiques and , and laments and . The pope expressed concern that the warming of the planet is a symptom of a greater problem: the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet as humans pursue short-term economic gains.

Social services Saint of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practising the acts of .

The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and medical services in the world. In 2010, the Catholic Church's Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers said that the church manages 26% of health care facilities in the world, including hospitals, clinics, orphanages, pharmacies and centres for those with leprosy.

The church has always been involved in education, since the founding of the first universities of Europe. It runs and sponsors thousands of primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities throughout the world and operates the world's largest non-governmental school system.

Religious institutes for women have played a particularly prominent role in the provision of health and education services, as with orders such as the , , the , the , the and the . The Catholic nun of , founder of the Missionaries of Charity, was awarded the in 1979 for her humanitarian work among India's poor.

Bishop won the same award in 1996 for "work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor". The church is also actively engaged in international aid and development through organisations such as , , , refugee advocacy groups such as the and community aid groups such as the .

Sexual morality of chastity by The Catholic Church calls all members to practise according to their state in life. Chastity includes , , personal and cultural growth, and . It requires refraining from , , , , and, especially, . Chastity for those who are not married requires living in , abstaining from sexual activity; those who are married are called to conjugal chastity. In the church's teaching, sexual activity is reserved to married couples, whether in a among Christians, or in a where one or both spouses are unbaptised.

Even in romantic relationships, particularly , partners are called to practise continence, in order to test mutual respect and fidelity. Chastity in marriage requires in particular conjugal fidelity and protecting the fecundity of marriage. The couple must foster trust and honesty as well as spiritual and physical intimacy.

Sexual activity must always be open to the possibility of life; the church calls this the procreative significance. It must likewise always bring a couple together in love; the church calls this the unitive significance.

and certain other are not permitted, although methods are permitted to provide healthy spacing between births, or to postpone children for a just reason. said in 2015 that he is worried that the church has grown "obsessed" with issues such as , and contraception and has criticised the Catholic Church for placing before , and for prioritising moral doctrines over helping the poor and marginalised.

Divorce and declarations of nullity Further information: Canon law makes no provision for divorce between baptised individuals, as a valid, consummated sacramental marriage is considered to be a lifelong bond. However, a declaration of nullity may be granted when proof is produced that essential conditions for contracting a valid marriage were absent from the beginning—in other words, that the marriage was not valid due to some impediment.

A declaration of nullity, commonly called an annulment, is a judgement on the part of an determining that a marriage was invalidly attempted. In addition, marriages among unbaptised individuals may be dissolved with papal permission under certain situations, such as a desire to marry a Catholic, under or . An attempt at remarriage following divorce without a declaration of nullity places "the remarried spouse ... in a situation of public and permanent adultery". An innocent spouse who lives in continence following divorce, or couples who live in continence following a civil divorce for a grave cause, do not sin.

Worldwide, diocesan tribunals completed over 49000 cases for nullity of marriage in 2006. Over the past 30 years about 55 to 70% of annulments have occurred in the United States. The growth in annulments has been substantial; in the United States, 27,000 marriages were annulled in 2006, compared to 338 in 1968. However, approximately 200,000 married Catholics in the United States divorce each year; 10 million total as of 2006 . Divorce is increasing in some predominantly Catholic countries in Europe.

In some predominantly Catholic countries, it is only in recent years that divorce was introduced (e.g. (1970), (1975), (1977), (1981), (1996), (2004) and (2011), while the and the have no procedure for divorce.

(The does, however, allow divorce for Muslims.) Contraception issued on 25 July 1968. The church teaches that should only take place between a married man and woman, and should be without the use of or . In his encyclical (1968), firmly rejected all contraception, thus contradicting dissenters in the church that saw the as an ethically justifiable method of contraception, though he permitted the regulation of births by means of .

This teaching was continued especially by in his encyclical , where he clarified the church's position on contraception, and by condemning them as part of a "culture of death" and calling instead for a "".

Many Western Catholics have voiced significant disagreement with the church's teaching on contraception. , a political lobbyist group which is not associated with the Catholic Church, stated in 1998 that 96% of U.S. Catholic women had used contraceptives at some point in their lives and that 72% of Catholics believed that one could be a good Catholic without obeying the church's teaching on birth control.

Use of natural family planning methods among United States Catholics purportedly is low, although the number cannot be known with certainty. As Catholic health providers are among the largest providers of services to patients with worldwide, there is significant controversy within and outside the church regarding the use of condoms as a means of limiting new infections, as condom use ordinarily constitutes prohibited contraceptive use.

Similarly, the Catholic Church opposes (IVF), saying that the artificial process replaces the love between a husband and wife.

In addition, it opposes IVF because it might cause disposal of embryos; Catholics believe an embryo is an individual with a who must be treated as such. For this reason, the church also opposes . Homosexuality Main article: The Catholic Church also teaches that "homosexual acts" are "contrary to the natural law", "acts of grave depravity" and "under no circumstances can they be approved", but that persons experiencing homosexual tendencies must be accorded respect and dignity.

According to the , The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible. This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial.

They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided. ... Homosexual persons are called to chastity.

By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection. This part of the Catechism was quoted by in a 2013 press interview in which he remarked, when asked about an individual: I think that when you encounter a person like this [the individual he was asked about], you must make a distinction between the fact of a person being gay from the fact of being a lobby, because lobbies, all are not good.

That is bad. If a person is gay and seeks the Lord and has good will, well who am I to judge them? This remark and others made in the same interview were seen as a change in the tone, but not in the substance of the teaching of the church, which includes opposition to . Certain Catholic groups and seek to change it. Holy orders and women Main articles: and Women and men religious engage in a variety of occupations, from contemplative prayer, to teaching, to providing health care, to working as missionaries.

While are reserved for men, have played diverse roles in the life of the church, with providing a formal space for their participation and providing spaces for their self-government, prayer and influence through many centuries. Religious sisters and nuns have been extensively involved in developing and running the church's worldwide health and education service networks. Efforts in support of the to the priesthood led to several rulings by the Roman Curia or Popes against the proposal, as in (1976), (1988) and (1994).

According to the latest ruling, found in Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, Pope John Paul II affirmed that the Catholic Church "does not consider herself authorized to admit women to priestly ordination". In defiance of these rulings, opposition groups such as have performed ceremonies they affirm as sacramental ordinations (with, reputedly, an ordaining male Catholic bishop in the first few instances) which, according to , are both illicit and invalid and considered mere simulations of the sacrament of ordination.

The responded by issuing a statement clarifying that any Catholic bishops involved in ordination ceremonies for women, as well as the women themselves if they were Catholic, would automatically receive the penalty of ( , literally "with the sentence already applied", i.e. automatically), citing canon 1378 of and other church laws. Sexual abuse cases Main article: From the 1990s, the issue of by Catholic clergy and other church members has become the subject of civil litigation, criminal prosecution, media coverage and public debate in .

The Catholic Church has been criticised for its handling of abuse complaints when it became known that some bishops had shielded accused priests, transferring them to other pastoral assignments where some continued to commit sexual offences. In response to the scandal, formal procedures have been established to help prevent abuse, encourage the reporting of any abuse that occurs and to handle such reports promptly, although groups representing victims have disputed their effectiveness.

In 2014, Pope Francis instituted the for the safeguarding of minors. a of the Catholic Church is a convicted sex offender . , a late 1490s mural painting by , depicting the last supper of Jesus and his on the eve of his .

Most apostles are buried in , including Saint Peter. The Christian religion is based on the teachings of , who lived and preached in the 1st century AD in the province of of the . teaches that the contemporary Catholic Church is the continuation of this early Christian community established by Jesus. Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion.

legalised the practice of Christianity in 313, and it became the state religion in 380. Germanic invaders of Roman territory in the 5th and 6th centuries, many of whom had previously adopted , eventually adopted Catholicism to ally themselves with the papacy and the monasteries.

In the 7th and 8th centuries, expanding following the advent of led to an Arab domination of the Mediterranean that severed political connections between that area and northern Europe, and weakened cultural connections between Rome and the . Conflicts involving authority in the church, particularly the authority of the Bishop of Rome finally culminated in the in the 11th century, splitting the church into the Catholic and Churches. Earlier splits within the church occurred after the (431) and the (451).

However, a few Eastern Churches remained in with Rome, and portions of some others established communion in the 15th century and later, forming what are called the . Early monasteries throughout Europe helped preserve Greek and Roman . The church eventually became the dominant influence in Western civilisation into the modern age.

Many figures were sponsored by the church. The 16th century, however, began to see challenges to the church, in particular to its religious authority, by figures in the , as well as in the 17th century by secular intellectuals in the .

Concurrently, Spanish and Portuguese explorers and missionaries spread the church's influence through Africa, Asia, and the New World.

In 1870, the declared the dogma of and the annexed the city of Rome, the last portion of the to be incorporated into the new nation. In the 20th century, anti-clerical governments around the world, including Mexico and Spain, persecuted or executed thousands of clerics and laypersons. In the Second World War, the church condemned Nazism, and protected hundreds of thousands of Jews from the ; its efforts, however, have been criticised as inadequate.

After the war, freedom of religion was severely restricted in the countries newly aligned with the , several of which had large Catholic populations. In the 1960s, the led to reforms of the church's liturgy and practices, described as "opening the windows" by defenders, but criticised by .

In the face of increased criticism from both within and without, the church has upheld or reaffirmed at various times controversial doctrinal positions regarding sexuality and gender, including limiting clergy to males, and moral exhortations against , , outside of marriage, remarriage following without , and against .

Apostolic era and papacy Jesus' commission to The , in particular the , records Jesus' activities and teaching, his appointment of the and his of the Apostles, instructing them to continue his work. The book , tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman empire. The Catholic Church teaches that its public ministry began on , occurring fifty days following the date Christ is believed to have . At Pentecost, the Apostles are believed to have received the Holy Spirit, preparing them for their mission in leading the church.

The Catholic Church teaches that the , led by the are the to the Apostles. In the account of the found in the , Christ designates Peter as the "rock" upon which Christ's church will be built. The Catholic Church considers the Bishop of Rome, the pope, to be the successor to Saint Peter.

Some scholars state Peter was the first Bishop of Rome. Others say that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop of Rome or even on his ever having been in Rome. Many scholars hold that a church structure of plural presbyters/bishops persisted in Rome until the mid-2nd century, when the structure of a single bishop and plural presbyters was adopted, and that later writers retrospectively applied the term "bishop of Rome" to the most prominent members of the clergy in the earlier period and also to Peter himself.

On this basis, , , and question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy. also says that it is anachronistic to speak of Peter in terms of local bishop of Rome, but that Christians of that period would have looked on Peter as having "roles that would contribute in an essential way to the development of the role of the papacy in the subsequent church". These roles, Brown says, "contributed enormously to seeing the bishop of Rome, the bishop of the city where Peter died, and where Paul witnessed to the truth of Christ, as the successor of Peter in care for the church universal".

Antiquity and Roman Empire Main articles: , , and Conditions in the Roman Empire facilitated the spread of new ideas. The empire's network of roads and waterways facilitated travel, and the made travelling safe. The empire encouraged the spread of a common culture with Greek roots, which allowed ideas to be more easily expressed and understood. Unlike most religions in the Roman Empire, however, Christianity required its adherents to renounce all other gods, a practice adopted from Judaism (see ).

The Christians' refusal to join pagan celebrations meant they were unable to participate in much of public life, which caused non-Christians—including government authorities—to fear that the Christians were angering the gods and thereby threatening the peace and prosperity of the Empire.

The were a defining feature of Christian self-understanding until Christianity was legalised in the 4th century. 19th-century drawing of , originally built in 318 by In 313, 's legalised Christianity, and in 330 Constantine moved the imperial capital to , modern . In 380 the made Nicene Christianity the , a position that within the diminishing territory of the would persist until the empire itself ended in the in 1453, while elsewhere the church was independent of the empire, as became particularly clear with the .

During the period of the , five primary sees emerged, an arrangement formalised in the mid-6th century by Emperor as the of Rome, , , and . In 451 the , in a canon of disputed validity, elevated the to a position "second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome".

From c. 350 to c. 500, the bishops, or popes, of Rome, steadily increased in authority through their consistent intervening in support of orthodox leaders in theological disputes, which encouraged appeals to them. Emperor , who in the areas under his control definitively established a form of , in which "he had the right and duty of regulating by his laws the minutest details of worship and discipline, and also of dictating the theological opinions to be held in the Church", reestablished imperial power over Rome and other parts of the West, initiating the period termed the (537–752), during which the bishops of Rome, or popes, required approval from the emperor in Constantinople or from his representative in Ravenna for consecration, and most were selected by the emperor from his Greek-speaking subjects, resulting in a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions in art as well as liturgy.

Most of the Germanic tribes who in the following centuries invaded the Roman Empire had adopted Christianity in its form, which the Catholic Church declared . The resulting religious discord between Germanic rulers and Catholic subjects was avoided when, in 497, , the ruler, converted to orthodox Catholicism, allying himself with the papacy and the monasteries.

The Visigoths in Spain followed his lead in 589, and the Lombards in Italy in the course of the 7th century. , particularly through its , was a major factor in preserving , with its art (see ) and literacy. Through his , (c. 480–543), one of the founders of , exerted an enormous influence on European culture through the appropriation of the monastic spiritual heritage of the early Church and, with the spread of the Benedictine tradition, through the preservation and transmission of ancient culture.

During this period, monastic Ireland became a centre of learning and early Irish missionaries such as and spread Christianity and established monasteries across continental Europe. Middle Ages and Renaissance , 1220 The Catholic Church was the from to the dawn of the modern age. It was the primary sponsor of Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Mannerist and Baroque styles in art, architecture and music.

Renaissance figures such as , , , , , , , and are examples of the numerous visual artists sponsored by the church. The massive invasions of the began a long struggle between throughout the Mediterranean Basin.

The soon lost the lands of the eastern of , and and was reduced to that of , the empire's capital. As a result of , the Frankish state, centred away from that sea, was able to evolve as the dominant power that shaped the Western Europe of the Middle Ages. The battles of and halted the Islamic advance in the West and the failed halted it in the East. Two or three decades later, in 751, the Byzantine Empire lost to the Lombards the city of Ravenna from which it the small fragments of Italy, including Rome, that acknowledged its sovereignty.

The fall of Ravenna meant that confirmation by a no longer existent exarch was not asked for during the election in 752 of and that the papacy was forced to look elsewhere for a civil power to protect it. In 754, at the urgent request of Pope Stephen, the Frankish king conquered the Lombards. He then the lands of the former exarchate to the pope, thus initiating the .

Rome and the Byzantine East would delve into further conflict during the of the 860s, when criticised the Latin west of adding of the filioque clause after being excommunicated by .

Though the schism was reconciled, unresolved issues would lead to further division. In the 11th century, the efforts of led to the creation of the to elect new popes, starting with in the . When Alexander II died, Hildebrand was elected to succeed him, as . The basic election system of the College of Cardinals which Gregory VII helped establish has continued to function into the 21st century.

Pope Gregory VII further initiated the regarding the independence of the clergy from secular authority. This led to the between the church and the , over which had the authority to appoint bishops and popes.

In 1095, emperor appealed to for help against renewed Muslim invasions in the , which caused Urban to launch the aimed at aiding the Byzantine Empire and returning the to Christian control.

In the , strained relations between the primarily Greek church and the separated them in the , partially due to conflicts over . The and the sacking of Constantinople by renegade crusaders proved the final breach. In this age great gothic cathedrals in France were an expression of popular pride in the Christian faith.

In the early 13th century were founded by and . The studia conventualia and of the mendicant orders played a large role in the transformation of Church sponsored and palace schools, such as that of at , into the prominent universities of Europe. theologians and philosophers such as the Dominican priest studied and taught at these studia. Aquinas' Summa Theologica was an intellectual milestone in its synthesis of the legacy of such as Plato and Aristotle with the content of Christian revelation.

A growing sense of church-state conflicts marked the 14th century. To escape instability in Rome, in 1309 became the first of seven popes to reside in the fortified city of in southern France during a period known as the . The Avignon Papacy ended in 1376 when the pope returned to Rome, but was followed in 1378 by the 38-year-long with claimants to the papacy in Rome, Avignon and (after 1409) Pisa.

The matter was finally resolved in 1417 at the where the cardinals called upon all three claimants to the papal throne to resign, and held a new election naming pope. The Renaissance period was a golden age for . Pictured: the painted by . In 1438, the convened, which featured a strong dialogue focussed on understanding the theological differences between the East and West, with the hope of reuniting the Catholic and Orthodox churches.

Several eastern churches reunited, forming the majority of the . Age of Discovery Main article: The beginning in the 15th century saw the expansion of Western Europe's political and cultural influence worldwide. Because of the prominent role the strongly Catholic nations of Spain and Portugal played in Western Colonialism, Catholicism was spread to the Americas, Asia and Oceania by explorers, conquistadors, and missionaries, as well as by the transformation of societies through the socio-political mechanisms of colonial rule.

had awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to and and the ensuing patronato system allowed state authorities, not the Vatican, to control all clerical appointments in the new colonies.

In 1521 the Portuguese explorer made the first Catholic converts in the Philippines. Elsewhere, Portuguese missionaries under the Spanish Jesuit evangelised in India, China, and Japan. Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation , originally an friar, initiated the against the Catholic Church in 1517.

In 1517, , an friar in Germany, sent his to several bishops. His theses protested key points of Catholic as well as the sale of . In , , and other further criticised Catholic teachings. These challenges developed into the European movement called the , which gave birth to a variety of known today collectively as .

The during the reign of began as a political dispute. When the pope denied Henry's petition for a of his marriage to , he had the passed, making him head of the , which would in time lead to the development of . The Reformation led to clashes between the Protestant and the Catholic Emperor and his allies. The first nine-year war ended in 1555 with the but continued tensions produced a far graver conflict—the —which broke out in 1618. In France, a series of conflicts termed the was fought from 1562 to 1598 between the (French ) and the forces of the .

A series of popes sided with and became financial supporters of the Catholic League. This ended under , who hesitantly accepted King 1598 , which granted civil and to French Protestants. The (1545–1563) became the driving force behind the in response to the Protestant movement.

Doctrinally, it reaffirmed central Catholic teachings such as and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation. In subsequent centuries, Catholicism spread widely across the world, in part through missionaries and , although its hold on European populations declined due to the growth of during and after the . Enlightenment and modern period Main article: From the 17th century onward, the questioned the power and influence of the Catholic Church over Western society.

In the 18th century, writers such as and the wrote biting critiques of both religion and the Catholic Church. One target of their criticism was the 1685 by King , which ended a century-long policy of religious toleration of Protestant Huguenots.

The of 1789 brought about a shifting of powers from the church to the state, destruction of churches, and the establishment of a . In 1798, 's General invaded the , imprisoning , who died in captivity. Napoleon later re-established the Catholic Church in France through the . The end of the brought Catholic revival and the return of the . In 1854, , with the support of the overwhelming majority of Catholic bishops, whom he had consulted from 1851 to 1853, proclaimed the as a .

In 1870, the affirmed the doctrine of when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements. Controversy over this and other issues resulted in a breakaway movement called the . The of the 1860s incorporated the Papal States, including Rome itself from 1870, into the , thus ending the papacy's millennial . Pope Pius IX rejected the Italian , which granted him special privileges, and to avoid placing himself in visible subjection to the Italian authorities remained a "".

This stand-off, which was spoken of as the , was resolved by the 1929 , whereby the Holy See acknowledged Italian sovereignty over the former Papal States and Italy recognised papal sovereignty over as a new sovereign and independent state. 20th century Main article: A number of governments emerged in the 20th century. The 1926 separating church and state in Mexico led to the in which more than 3,000 priests were exiled or assassinated, churches desecrated, services mocked, nuns raped, and captured priests shot.

Following the 1917 , persecution of the church and Catholics in the continued into the 1930s, with the execution and exiling of clerics, monks and laymen, the confiscation of religious implements, and closure of churches. In the 1936–39 , the Catholic hierarchy allied with against the government, citing as justification against the church. referred to these three countries as a "terrible triangle". After violations of the 1933 between the church and , issued the 1937 encyclical , which publicly condemned the Nazis' persecution of the church and their ideology of and .

The church condemned the 1939 that started and other subsequent wartime Nazi invasions. Thousands of Catholic priests, nuns and brothers were imprisoned and murdered throughout the countries occupied by the Nazis, including Saints and . While has been credited with helping to during the , the church has also been accused of having encouraged centuries of by its teachings and not doing enough to stop Nazi atrocities.

During the period, Communist governments in severely restricted religious freedoms. Although some priests and religious people collaborated with Communist regimes, many others were imprisoned, deported, or executed. The church was an important player in the in Europe, particularly in the . In 1949, the Communist victory in the led to the expulsion of all foreign missionaries.

The new government also created the and appointed its bishops. These appointments were initially rejected by Rome, before many of them were accepted. In the 1960s during the , the Chinese Communists closed all religious establishments.

When Chinese churches eventually reopened, they remained under the control of the Patriotic Church. Many Catholic pastors and priests continued to be sent to prison for refusing to renounce allegiance to Rome. Second Vatican Council See also: The (1962–1965) introduced the most significant changes to Catholic practices since the , four centuries before.

Initiated by , this ecumenical council modernised the practices of the Catholic Church, allowing the Mass to be said in the (local language) and encouraging "fully conscious, and active participation in liturgical celebrations". It intended to engage the church more closely with the present world ( ), which was described by its advocates as an "opening of the windows". In addition to changes in the liturgy, it led to changes to the church's approach to , and a call to improved relations with non-Christian religions, especially , in its document .

The council, however, generated significant controversy in implementing its reforms: proponents of the "" such as Swiss theologian said that Vatican II had "not gone far enough" to change church policies. , such as , however, strongly criticised the council, arguing that its liturgical reforms led "to the destruction of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and the sacraments", among other issues. Several teachings of the Catholic Church came under increased scrutiny both concurrent with and following the council; among those teachings was the church's teaching regarding the immorality of .

The recent introduction of (including "the pill"), which were believed by some to be morally different than previous methods, prompted John XXIII to form a committee to advise him of the moral and theological issues with the new method. later expanded the committee's scope to freely examine all methods, and the committee's unreleased final report was rumoured to suggest permitting at least some methods of contraception.

Paul did not agree with the arguments presented, and eventually issued , saying that it upheld the constant teaching of the church against contraception. It expressly included hormonal methods as prohibited. This document generated a largely negative response from many Catholics. [ ] John Paul II Main article: In 1978, , formerly in the , became the first non-Italian pope in 455 years.

His 27-year was one of the longest in history. , the president of the , credited the Polish pope with hastening the fall of Communism in Europe. John Paul sought to evangelise an increasingly . He instituted as a "worldwide encounter with the pope" for young people; it is now held every two to three years.

He travelled more than any other pope, visiting 129 countries, and used television and radio as means of spreading the church's teachings. He also emphasised the and natural rights of labourers to have and safe conditions in . He emphasised several church teachings, including moral exhortations against , , and against widespread use of the , in . From the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been for its doctrines on , its refusal to , and its handling of .

21st century , who strengthened the relationship between the , has been called "the pope of ". In 2005, following the death of John Paul II, , head of the under John Paul, was elected. He was known for upholding traditional against , and for liberalising use of the as found in the of 1962. In 2012, the 50th anniversary of Vatican II, an assembly of the discussed re-evangelising in the .

Citing the frailties of advanced age, Benedict in 2013, the first pope to do so in nearly 600 years. Pope Francis Main article: , the current pope of the Catholic Church, succeeded Pope Benedict XVI in 2013 as the first pope from the , the first from the , and the first Pope from outside Europe since the Syrian , who reigned in the 8th century.

Pope Francis has been noted for his , emphasis on God's mercy, concern for the and the , as well as his commitment to . He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors.

Pope Francis is recognised for his efforts "to further close the nearly 1,000-year estrangement with the ". Pope Francis' installation was attended by of the , the first time since the of 1054 that the Eastern Orthodox has attended a papal installation.

On 12 February 2016, Pope Francis and , head of the largest Eastern Orthodox church, met in , , issuing calling for restored Christian unity between the two churches. This was reported as the first such high-level meeting between the two churches since the of 1054.

In 2014, the addressed the church's ministry towards families and marriages and to Catholics in "irregular" relationships, such as those who and remarried outside of the church without a . While welcomed by some, it was criticised by some for perceived ambiguity, provoking controversies among individual representatives of differing perspectives.

In 2017 during a visit in , Pope Francis reestablished mutual recognition of baptism with the . • While the Catholic Church considers itself to be the authentic continuation of the Christian community founded by Jesus Christ, it teaches that other Christian churches and communities can be in an imperfect communion with the Catholic Church. • Quote of St Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans ( c. 110 AD): "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal [katholike] Church." • Examples uses of "Roman Catholic" by the Holy See: the encyclicals 23 September 2010 at the .

of and 19 April 2012 at the . of ; joint declarations signed by with 2 March 2013 at the . and • Example use of "Roman" Catholic by a bishop's conference: The Baltimore Catechism, an official catechism authorised by the Catholic bishops of the United States, states: "That is why we are called Roman Catholics; to show that we are united to the real successor of St Peter" (Question 118) and refers to the Church as the "Roman Catholic Church" under Questions 114 and 131 ( • The last resignation occurred on 28 February 2013, when retired, citing ill health in his advanced age.

The next most recent resignation occurred in 1415, as part of the 's resolution of the . • In 1992, the Vatican clarified the 1983 Code of Canon Law removed the requirement that altar servers be male; permission to use female altar servers within a diocese is at the discretion of the bishop. • Other councils that addressed the sacraments include the (1274); (1439); as well as the (1547) • For an outline of the Eucharistic liturgy in the Roman Rite, see the in the "Worship and liturgy".

• Marriages involving unbaptised individuals are considered valid, but not sacramental. While sacramental marriages are insoluble, non-sacramental marriages may be dissolved under certain situations, such as a desire to marry a Catholic, under or . • The Divine Worship variant of the Roman Rite differs from the "Anglican Use" variant, which was introduced in 1980 for the few United States parishes established in accordance with a for former members of the (the American branch of the Anglican Communion).

Both uses adapted Anglican liturgical traditions for use within the Catholic Church. • With regard to divorce in the United States, according to the Barna Group, among all who have been married, 33% have been divorced at least once; among American Catholics, 28% (the study did not track religious annulments).

• Regarding use of , in 2002, 24% of the U.S. population identified as Catholic, but according to a 2002 study by the , of sexually active Americans avoiding pregnancy, only 1.5% were using NFP. • According to Roman Catholic Womanpriests: "The principal consecrating Roman Catholic male bishop who ordained our first women bishops is a bishop with apostolic succession within the Roman Catholic Church in full communion with the pope." • Joyce, George (1913).

"". In Herbermann, Charles. . New York: Robert Appleton Company. Regarding Peter as the first Bishop of Rome, "It is not, however, difficult to show that the fact of his [Peter's] bishopric is so well attested as to be historically certain. In considering this point, it will be well to begin with the third century, when references to it become frequent, and work backwards from this point.

In the middle of the third century St. Cyprian expressly terms the Roman See the Chair of St. Peter, saying that Cornelius has succeeded to "the place of Fabian which is the place of Peter" (Ep 55:8; cf. 59:14). Firmilian of Caesarea notices that Stephen claimed to decide the controversy regarding rebaptism on the ground that he held the succession from Peter (Cyprian, Ep. 75:17). He does not deny the claim: yet certainly, had he been able, he would have done so.

Thus in 250 the Roman episcopate of Peter was admitted by those best able to know the truth, not merely at Rome but in the churches of Africa and of Asia Minor. In the first quarter of the century (about 220) Tertullian (De Pud.

21) mentions Callistus's claim that Peter's power to forgive sins had descended in a special manner to him. Had the Roman Church been merely founded by Peter and not reckoned him as its first bishop, there could have been no ground for such a contention. Tertullian, like Firmilian, had every motive to deny the claim.

Moreover, he had himself resided at Rome, and would have been well aware if the idea of a Roman episcopate of Peter had been, as is contended by its opponents, a novelty dating from the first years of the third century, supplanting the older tradition according to which Peter and Paul were co-founders, and Linus first bishop. About the same period, Hippolytus (for Lightfoot is surely right in holding him to be the author of the first part of the "Liberian Catalogue" — "Clement of Rome", 1:259) reckons Peter in the list of Roman bishops...." • While ruling contraception to be prohibited, Pope Paul VI did, however, consider methods to be morally permissible if used with just cause.

• NOTE: CCC stands for . The number following CCC is the paragraph number, of which there are 2865. The numbers cited in the are question numbers, of which there are 598. Canon law citations from the 1990 are labelled " CCEO, Canon xxx", to distinguish from canons of the 1983 , which are labelled "Canon xxx". • Marshall, Thomas William (1844). Notes of the Episcopal Polity of the Holy Catholic Church.

London: Levey, Rossen and Franklin. . • Stanford, Peter. . BBC Religions. BBC . Retrieved 1 February 2017. • Bokenkotter, 2004, • ^ (in Italian). . 13 June 2018 . Retrieved 13 June 2018. • Mark A. Noll. THE NEW SHAPE OF WORLD CHRISTIANITY (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2009), 191. • ^ , p. v (preface). • ^ . Catholic News Service.

Archived from on 10 July 2007 . Retrieved 17 March 2012. • Bokenkotter, Thomas (2004). . New York: Doubleday. p. 7. . • .

Archived from on 13 August 2013. It is possible, according to Catholic doctrine, to affirm correctly that the Church of Christ is present and operative in the churches and ecclesial Communities not yet fully in communion with the Catholic Church, on account of the elements of sanctification and truth that are present in them. • "Declaration on the Unicity and Salvific Universality of Jesus Christ and the Church § 17". Therefore, there exists a single Church of Christ, which subsists in the Catholic Church, governed by the Successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him.

The Churches which, while not existing in perfect Koinonia with the Catholic Church, remain united to her by means of the closest bonds, that is, by apostolic succession and a valid Eucharist, are true . Therefore, the Church of Christ is present and operative also in these Churches, even though they lack full communion with the Catholic Church, since they do not accept the Catholic doctrine of the Primacy, which, according to the will of God, the Bishop of Rome objectively has and exercises over the entire Church.

… 'The Christian faithful are therefore not permitted to imagine that the Church of Christ is nothing more than a collection—divided, yet in some way one—of Churches and ecclesial communities; nor are they free to hold that today the Church of Christ nowhere really exists, and must be considered only as a goal which all Churches and ecclesial communities must strive to reach.' • Holy Bible: • . • . The rich variety of … theological and spiritual heritages proper to the local churches 'unified in a common effort shows all the more resplendently the catholicity of the undivided Church'.(cf.

, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church , 23) • Colin Gunton. "Christianity among the Religions in the Encyclopedia of Religion", Religious Studies, Vol. 24, number 1, page 14. In a review of an article from the Encyclopedia of Religion, Gunton writes: "[T]he article [on Catholicism in the encyclopedia] rightly suggests caution, suggesting at the outset that Roman Catholicism is marked by several different doctrinal, theological and liturgical emphases." • , "the Eucharist is the sum and summary of our faith" • .

Catholic News Agency . Retrieved 25 March 2017. • ^ Agnew, John (12 February 2010). "Deus Vult: The Geopolitics of Catholic Church". Geopolitics. 15 (1): 39–61. :. • John Meyendorff, Catholicity and the Church, St Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1997, , page 7 • MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 127. • ^ (1908). . In . The Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company .

Retrieved 17 August 2012. • . 6 August 2004 . Retrieved 17 August 2012. • Edictum de fide catholica • , Encyclopædia Britannica online. • "catholic, adj. and n." Online. Oxford University Press, June 2014. Web. 7 August 2014. Excerpt: "After the separation of East and West 'Catholic' was assumed as its descriptive epithet by the Western or Latin Church, as 'Orthodox' was by the Eastern or Greek.

At the Reformation the term 'Catholic' was claimed as its exclusive right by the body remaining under the Roman obedience, in opposition to the 'Protestant' or 'Reformed' National Churches. These, however, also retained the term, giving it, for the most part, a wider and more ideal or absolute sense, as the attribute of no single community, but only of the whole communion of the saved and saintly in all churches and ages.

In England, it was claimed that the Church, even as Reformed, was the national branch of the 'Catholic Church' in its proper historical sense." Note: The full text of the OED definition of "catholic" can be consulted . • McBrien, Richard (2008).

The Church. Harper Collins. p. xvii. Online version available 27 August 2009 at the .. Quote: "[T]he use of the adjective 'Catholic' as a modifier of 'Church' became divisive only after the East–West Schism... and the Protestant Reformation. … In the former case, the Western Church claimed for itself the title Catholic Church, while the East appropriated the name Orthodox Church.

In the latter case, those in communion with the Bishop of Rome retained the adjective "Catholic", while the churches that broke with the Papacy were called Protestant." .

Archived from on 27 August 2009 . Retrieved 2 July 2009. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title () • . Oxford English Dictionary .

Retrieved 24 October 2017. • The Vatican. 5 June 2004 at the .. Retrieved 4 May 2009. Note: The pope's signature appears in the Latin version. • . 29 June 1868. • The Council of Trent: The Canons and Decrees of the Sacred and Oecumenical Council of Trent.

Ed. and trans. J. Waterworth. London: Dolman, 1848. Retrieved from, 12 September 2018. • . • . • . Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2012. '[T]he Roman Pontiff [the Pope], ... has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered.' 'The college or body of bishops has no authority unless united with the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, as its head.' As such, this college has 'supreme and full authority over the universal Church; but this power cannot be exercised without the agreement of the Roman Pontiff.' • Van Hove, A.

(1913). "". In Herbermann, Charles. . New York: Robert Appleton Company. "It is usual to distinguish a twofold hierarchy in the Church, that of and that of , corresponding to the twofold means of sanctification, grace, which comes to us principally through the sacraments, and good works, which are the fruit of grace." • .

. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 1993 . Retrieved 14 April 2013. • . . Retrieved 14 March 2013. • Pelikan, Jaroslav (1985). . University of Chicago Press. p. 114. . • Robert Feduccia (editor), Primary Source Readings in Catholic Church History (Saint Mary's Press 2005 ), p. 85. Accessed at • . Archived from on 22 July 2010 . Retrieved 11 August 2010. • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office. . Travel and Living Abroad, 27 February 2012.

Retrieved 26 June 2012 31 December 2010 at the . • McDonough (1995), p. 227 • Duffy (1997), p. 415 • Duffy (1997), p. 416 • Duffy (1997), pp. 417–8 • Manual of Canon Law, p. 3. • . 1983 Code of Canon Law. Archived from on 2 April 2007 .

Retrieved 12 February 2016. • ^ , ,, accessed June-11-2013 • Manual of Canon Law, p. 49. • . 1983 Code of Canon Law. . Retrieved 12 February 2016. • St. , Vol. 30 No. 7, pg. 3 (subscription required) • Pink, Thomas. . First·Things. The Institute on Religion and Public Life . Retrieved 24 March 2015. The 1983 Code of Canon Law still teaches that the Church has a coercive authority over the baptized, with the authority to direct and to punish, by temporal as well as spiritual penalties, for culpable apostasy or heresy.

• Beal, John P. (2000). . Paulist Press. p. 85. . • . 3 February 1993. Archived from on 16 February 2014 .

Retrieved 6 August 2014. • . Intratext Library . Retrieved 3 April 2015. • . . Retrieved 3 April 2015. • Ronald G. Roberson. . CNEWA . Retrieved 30 April 2011. • ^ Colin Gunton. "Christianity among the Religions in the Encyclopedia of Religion", Religious Studies, Vol. 24, number 1, on page 14. In a review of an article from the Encyclopedia of Religion, Gunton writes"... [T] he article [on Catholicism in the encyclopedia] rightly suggests caution, suggesting at the outset that Roman Catholicism is marked by several different doctrinal and theological emphases." • .

. 2. Archived from on 1 September 2000 . Retrieved 30 April 2011. • Kevin R. Yurkus. . Catholic Education Resource Center . Retrieved 20 June 2017. • , Overview of World Religions. Division of Religion and Philosophy, University of Cumbria. 1998/9 ELMAR Project.

Accessed 26 March 2015. • . 1992. • . Scribd. • . (English Translation). 1990. • " CCEO, Canons 151–154". 1990. • " CCEO, Canons 155–173".

1990. • " CCEO, Canons 174–176". 1990. • . (English Translation). 1990. • . Rome: Archived from on 14 May 2011 . Retrieved 2 April 2015. • Hacket, Conrad and Grim, Brian J. , The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, Washington, D.C. December 2011. Accessed June 2014. Note: The Pew methodology produced an estimated world Catholic population of 1.1 Billion in 2010. • Vatican, 2009, p. 1172. • Annuario Pontifico per l'anno 2010 ( Città di Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2010) • Barry, p.

52 • "". 1983 Code of Canon Law. "The parish priest is the proper clergyman in charge of the congregation of the parish entrusted to him.

He exercises the pastoral care of the community entrusted to him under the authority of the , whose ministry of Christ he is called to share, so that for this community he may carry out the offices of teaching, sanctifying and ruling with the cooperation of other priests or deacons and with the assistance of lay members of Christ's faithful, in accordance with the law." • .

Vermont Catholic (Winter ed.). 8 (4): 73. 2016–2017 . Retrieved 19 December 2016. • ^ Acta Apostolicae Sedis 86 (1994) pp. 541–542 ( 21 July 2015 at the .; ) • ^ . 1983 Code of Canon Law. Archived from on 18 April 2016 . Retrieved 9 March 2008. • • Cafardi, Nicolas P. , Theological Exploration, vol. 2. no. 1 of Duquesne University and in Law Review of University of Toledo, vol 33 • ^ . • . . Retrieved 5 July 2009. • . • . Catechism of the Catholic Church.

Vatican. Archived from on 29 April 2011 . Retrieved 28 April 2011. 889 in order to preserve the Church in the purity of the faith handed on by the apostles, Christ who is the Truth willed to confer on her a share in his own infallibility. • Second Vatican Council. . Lumen Gentium. Vatican. Archived from on 6 September 2014 . Retrieved 24 July 2010. by the light of the Holy Spirit ... vigilantly warding off any errors that threaten their flock. • .

Archived from on 29 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • Paul VI, Pope (1964). . Vatican. Archived from on 6 September 2014 . Retrieved 9 March 2008. • . Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican. Archived from on 6 September 2010 . Retrieved 24 July 2010. • .

Archived from on 29 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • Schreck, pp. 15–19 • Schreck, p. 30 • Marthaler, preface • John Paul II, Pope (1997). . Vatican. Archived from on 14 March 2015 . Retrieved 21 March 2015. • . . Retrieved 21 March 2015. • McGrath, pp.

4–6. • . . Retrieved 30 December 2014. • Kreeft, pp. 71–72 • . • . Archived from on 3 March 2013 . Retrieved 12 February 2016. • . . Retrieved 7 August 2014. • William Cardinal Levada (29 June 2007).

. Rome: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Archived from on 13 August 2013 . Retrieved 26 November 2014. • . 7 December 1965. Archived from on 17 October 2012 . Retrieved 4 April 2015. • Felici, Pericle, ed. (21 November 1964). . Archived from on 6 September 2014 . Retrieved 4 April 2015. • Paragraph 2, second sentence: . Archived from on 11 February 2012 . Retrieved 20 June 2015. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title () • . Archived from on 7 April 2015.

• Kreeft, p. 98, quote "The fundamental reason for being a Catholic is the historical fact that the Catholic Church was founded by Christ, was God's invention, not man's;... As the Father gave authority to Christ (Jn 5:22; Mt 28:18–20), Christ passed it on to his apostles (Lk 10:16), and they passed it on to the successors they appointed as bishops." (see also Kreeft, p. 980) • ^ Bokenkotter, p. 30. • ^ Barry, p. 46. • Barry, p.

46 • 6 September 2010 at the .. Retrieved 20 August 2011 • Schreck, p. 131 • ^ . . Retrieved 30 December 2014. 816':The Second Vatican Council's Decree on Ecumenism explains: "For it is through Christ's Catholic Church alone, which is the universal help toward salvation, that the fullness of the means of salvation can be obtained. It was to the apostolic college alone, of which Peter is the head, that we believe that our Lord entrusted all the blessings of the New Covenant, in order to establish on earth the one Body of Christ into which all those should be fully incorporated who belong in any way to the People of God.

[ 3 § 5.] • . . Retrieved 6 August 2014. • Colossians 1.18 • Barry, p. 26 • . Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. 2005 . Retrieved 14 December 2014. • . . Retrieved 28 December 2014. 1039: ...The Last Judgment will reveal even to its furthest consequences the good each person has done or failed to do during his earthly lifeZ • Schreck, p.

397 • . . Retrieved 7 August 2014. • . . Retrieved 30 July 2014. • . . Retrieved 6 August 2014. • . . Retrieved 28 October 2010. • . . Retrieved 7 August 2014. • . . Retrieved 7 August 2014. • . . Retrieved 7 August 2014. • Christian , • . Catholic Culture. 19 January 2007 . Retrieved 28 October 2010. • ^ . Retrieved on 27 August 2015. • Fanning, William (1913). "". In Herbermann, Charles.

. New York: Robert Appleton Company. (See: "Necessity of baptism" and "Substitutes for the sacrament") • Wilson, Douglas; Fischer, Ty (30 June 2005).

. Veritas Press. p. 101. . Retrieved 13 January 2013. The word 'hallow' means 'saint,' in that 'hallow' is just an alternative form of the word 'holy' ('hallowed be Thy name'). • Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark (1 May 2001). . Stackpole Books. p. 13.

. Retrieved 13 January 2013. The word hallow was simply another word for saint. • "Beatification, in the present discipline, differs from canonization in this: that the former implies (1) a locally restricted, not a universal, permission to venerate, which is (2) a mere permission, and no precept; while canonization implies a universal precept" ( The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York, New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Accessed 27 May 2009.). • Carroll, Michael P. (1989).

. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 7. . • . EWTN. Archived from on 7 April 2015 . Retrieved 4 April 2015. • ^ . New Advent . Retrieved 4 April 2015. • . New Advent . Retrieved 4 April 2015. • Knight, Christopher (15 September 1994). . LA Times . Retrieved 4 April 2015.

• , 13 • . 1 January 2012. Archived from on 2 July 2012 . Retrieved 17 August 2012. • ^ Barry, p. 106 • Schaff, Philip (2009). The Creeds of Christendom. , p. 211. • Schreck, p. 199–200 • Barry, p. 122–123 • Schreck, p. 368 • Baedeker, Rob (21 December 2007). . USA Today . Retrieved 3 March 2008. • ^ . . Retrieved 3 August 2014. • Kreeft, pp. 298–299 • . Archived from on 9 June 2011 .

Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 21 November 2014. • Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "". . New York: Robert Appleton Company. • ^ " CoCC 291". To receive Holy Communion one must be fully incorporated into the Catholic Church and be in the state of grace, that is, not conscious of being in mortal sin. Anyone who is conscious of having committed a grave sin must first receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before going to Communion. Also important for those receiving Holy Communion are a spirit of recollection and prayer, observance of the fast prescribed by the Church, and an appropriate disposition of the body (gestures and dress) as a sign of respect for Christ.

• ^ Kreeft, p. 326 • ^ Kreeft, p. 331 • . Archived from on 28 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . Archived from on 16 August 2010 . Retrieved 12 February 2016.

• . Archived from on 28 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . Archived from on 28 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . Archived from on 9 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011.

• . Archived from on 9 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . Archived from on 9 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . Archived from on 9 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011.

• . Archived from on 29 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • Lazowski, Philip (2004). . KTAV Publishing House. p. 157. . Retrieved 2 December 2012. • . Archived from on 9 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . Archived from on 9 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . Archived from on 9 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . 1983 Code of Canon Law. 4 May 2007 . Retrieved 30 June 2011.

• . (English translation). 1990 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . 1983 Code of Canon Law. Archived from on 28 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • ^ . . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 30 June 2011.

• . Archived from on 3 March 2016 . Retrieved 12 February 2016. • . Archived from on 9 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 25 March 2015. • Pohle, Joseph (1913). "". In Herbermann, Charles. . New York: Robert Appleton Company. • . Archived from on 1 January 2015 .

Retrieved 30 June 2011. 1365 Because it is the memorial of Christ's Passover, the Eucharist is also a sacrifice, thus, in the ritual text of the Mass, the priest asks of the congregation present, "Pray, brothers and sisters, that this my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God, the Almighty Father." the sacrificial character of the Eucharist is manifested in the very words of institution: "This is my body which is given for you" and "This cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood." [Lk 22:19–20.] In the Eucharist Christ gives us the very body which he gave up for us on the cross, the very blood which he "poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins." [Mt 26:28.] • . . Retrieved 23 November 2014. • . . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 30 June 2011.

• . . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • Toner, Patrick (1913). "". In Herbermann, Charles. . New York: Robert Appleton Company. • . . Retrieved 30 July 2014.

• . . Retrieved 30 July 2014. • . 1983 Code of Canon Law. Archived from on 2 March 2016 . Retrieved 12 February 2016. (As modified by the 2009 16 June 2011 at the .

) • . . Retrieved 7 August 2014. • . Retrieved on 27 August 2015. • Niebuhr, Gustav (16 February 1997). . The New York Times . Retrieved 4 April 2008. • 21 February 2008 at the . Catholic Church Canon Law.

Retrieved 9 March 2008. • 18 February 2008 at the ., Catholic Church Canon Law. Retrieved 9 March 2008. • Committee on the Diaconate. . United States Conference of Catholic Bishops . Retrieved 9 March 2008. • Catholic Church Canon Law. Retrieved 9 March 2008. • 19 February 2008 at the ., Catholic Church Canon Law. Retrieved 9 March 2008. • Barry, p. 114. • . . Retrieved 15 November 2014.

The matrimonial covenant, by which a man and a woman establish between themselves a partnership of the whole of life, is by its nature ordered toward the good of the spouses and the procreation and education of offspring; this covenant between baptised persons has been raised by Christ the Lord to the dignity of a sacrament.

• ^ Rev. Mark J. Gantley. . EWTN Global Catholic Network. 3 September 2004. Accessed 15 November 2014. • ^ "". 1983 Code of Canon Law. • . Archived from on 28 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • ^ . Archived from on 28 June 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . . Retrieved 6 August 2014. • . ( 4 June 2011 at the .). (English translation). 1990. Excerpt: " Ritus est patrimonium liturgicum, theologicum, spirituale et disciplinare cultura ac rerum adiunctis historiae populorum distinctum, quod modo fidei vivendae uniuscuiusque Ecclesiae sui iuris proprio exprimitur." (A rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary heritage, differentiated by peoples' culture and historical circumstances, that finds expression in each sui iuris Church's own way of living the faith).

• . Archived from on 1 January 2015. • . • Dobszay, Laszlo (2010). "3". . New York: T&T Clark International. pp. 3–5. . • 29 September 2010 at the . "The last version of the Missale Romanum prior to the Council, which was published with the authority of Pope John XXIII in 1962 and used during the Council, will now be able to be used as a Forma extraordinaria of the liturgical celebration.

… As for the use of the 1962 Missal as a Forma extraordinaria of the liturgy of the Mass, I would like to draw attention to the fact that this Missal was never juridically abrogated and, consequently, in principle, was always permitted." — Pope Benedict XVI • . Archived from on 23 February 2016 . Retrieved 12 February 2016. • . 23 June 2009 . Retrieved 27 March 2015. • Summorum Pontificum ( 1 January 2015 at the .). 7 July 2007. Accessed=27 March 2015 • Apostolic Constitution of Pope Benedict XVI: 27 October 2014 at the .. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2011. • . . Retrieved 12 February 2016. • • . New Advent . Retrieved 29 March 2015.

• . Archived from on 21 May 2015 . Retrieved 29 March 2015. • . New Advent . Retrieved 29 March 2015.

• Fortescue, Adrian (1913). "". In Herbermann, Charles. . New York: Robert Appleton Company. See "Eastern Catholic Churches"; In part: "The definition of an Eastern-Rite Catholic is: A Christian of any in union with the pope: i.e. a Catholic who belongs not to the Roman, but to an Eastern rite. They differ from other Eastern Christians in that they are in communion with Rome, and from Latins in that they have other rites." • . (English translation). 1990. • Parry, Ken; David Melling; et al., eds. (1999). The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA.: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 357–85. . • (PDF). Catholic Conference of Kentucky . Retrieved 4 April 2015. • Delany, Joseph (1913). "". In Herbermann, Charles. . New York: Robert Appleton Company. • . . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • . 1983 Code of Canon Law. Archived from on 3 March 2016 . Retrieved 12 February 2016. • . .

Retrieved 17 November 2014. "People should cultivate [chastity] in the way that is suited to their state of life. Some profess virginity or consecrated celibacy which enables them to give themselves to God alone with an undivided heart in a remarkable manner.

Others live in the way prescribed for all by the moral law, whether they are married or single." (CDF, 11.) Married people are called to live conjugal chastity; others practise chastity in continence: "There are three forms of the virtue of chastity: the first is that of spouses, the second that of widows, and the third that of virgins.

We do not praise any one of them to the exclusion of the others. ... This is what makes for the richness of the discipline of the Church." (St. Ambrose, De viduis 4,23:PL 16,255A.) • Yardley, Jim; Goodstein, Laurie (18 June 2015). . The New York Times. • (28 June 2015). . Retrieved 29 June 2015. • . Catholic News Agency. 10 February 2010 . Retrieved 17 August 2012.

• (PDF). • . Vermont Catholic. 8 (4, 2016-2017, Winter): 73 . Retrieved 19 December 2016. • Gardner, Roy; Lawton, Denis; Cairns, Jo (2005), Faith Schools, Routledge, p. 148, • ^ Zieglera, J. J. (12 May 2012).

. Catholic World Report. • . Vocation Office. 2010. • . 27 October 1979 . Retrieved 28 October 2010.

• . 11 October 1996 . Retrieved 28 October 2010. • . Notre Dame, IN: Catholic Peacebuilding Network. 2015. Archived from on 3 April 2015 . Retrieved 2 April 2015. • . . Retrieved 17 November 2014. 2332: Sexuality affects all aspects of the human person in the unity of his body and soul. It especially concerns affectivity, the capacity to love and to procreate, and in a more general way the aptitude for forming bonds of communion with others.

• . . Retrieved 20 December 2014. • . . Retrieved 19 December 2014. • . Archived from on 19 March 2011. • . . Retrieved 17 November 2014. • New York Times, • CNN, • . . Retrieved 15 November 2014. Thus the marriage bond has been established by God himself in such a way that a marriage concluded and consummated between baptized persons can never be dissolved.

This bond, which results from the free human act of the spouses and their consummation of the marriage, is a reality, henceforth irrevocable, and gives rise to a covenant guaranteed by God's fidelity. The Church does not have the power to contravene this disposition of divine wisdom.

(Cf. 1983, can. ) • . . Retrieved 15 November 2014. For this reason (or for other reasons that render the marriage null and void) the Church, after an examination of the situation by the competent ecclesiastical tribunal, can declare the nullity of a marriage, i.e., that the marriage never existed.

(Cf. 1983, cann. ) • . . Retrieved 17 November 2014. • Soule, W. Becket. (PDF). 2009. Knights of Columbus . Retrieved 6 January 2014. • . Barna Group. 2008. Archived from on 19 December 2014. • . Los Angeles Times. 24 May 2006. • Paul VI, Pope (1968).

. Vatican. Archived from on 19 March 2011 . Retrieved 2 February 2008. • Bokenkotter, p. 27, p. 154, pp. 493–494 • A summary and restatement of the debate is available in Roderick Hindery.

"The Evolution of Freedom as Catholicity in Catholic Ethics." Anxiety, Guilt, and Freedom. Eds. Benjamin Hubbard and Brad Starr, UPA, 1990. • Catholics for a Choice (1998). (PDF). Catholics for a Choice.

Archived from (PDF) on 11 October 2006 . Retrieved 1 October 2006. • . Accessed 13 November 2005. • Chandra, A; Martinez GM; Mosher WD; Abma JC; Jones J. (2005). (PDF). Vital and Health Statistics. National Center for Health Statistics. 23 (25) . Retrieved 20 May 2007. See Table 56. • . The Catholic Leader. CNS. 29 March 2009 .

Retrieved 27 March 2017. Pope Benedict XVI's declaration that distribution of condoms only increases the problem of AIDS is the latest and one of the strongest statements in a simmering debate inside the church...

he was asked whether the church's approach to AIDS prevention – which focuses primarily on sexual responsibility and rejects condom campaigns – was unrealistic and ineffective. ... The pope did not get into the specific question of whether in certain circumstances condom use was morally licit or illicit in AIDS prevention, an issue that is still under study by Vatican theologians. • , Medical news today, archived from on 29 December 2008 • Allen, John L., The Future Church: How Ten Trends are Revolutionizing the Catholic Church, p.

223. • Ertelt, Steven (6 June 2006). . Life News Site. Archived from on 3 April 2015 . Retrieved 2 April 2015. • . . Retrieved 5 February 2014. . Archived from on 13 August 2013 . Retrieved 2 August 2013. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title () • . . Retrieved 5 February 2014. . Archived from on 13 August 2013 . Retrieved 2 August 2013. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title () • .

Catholic News Agency. 5 August 2013 . Retrieved 12 October 2013. • . CNN. 29 July 2013. • . . Retrieved 6 August 2014. • Sources regarding opposition to the church's position on : • Kuruvilla, Carol (22 December 2012).

. NY Daily News. New York. • . The New York Times. 26 September 1982 . Retrieved 4 May 2010. • . Boulder Daily Camera. Archived from on 8 July 2011 .

Retrieved 5 December 2011. • . Star Observer . Retrieved 5 December 2011. • . BBC News. 5 February 2008 . Retrieved 12 March 2013. • Sack, Kevin (20 August 2011). . The New York Times. • 25 November 2015 at the . Copyright 1994 Libreria Editrice Vaticana.

Retrieved 25 March 2015 • . 1983 Code of Canon Law. Archived from on 20 October 2012 . Retrieved 17 August 2012. • ^ . 2011 Roman Catholic Womenpriests-USA, Inc. Retrieved 5 June 2011 • "", Catholic News Agency. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2011. • David Willey (15 July 2010). . BBC News . Retrieved 28 October 2010. • . . 22 March 2014 . Retrieved 30 March 2014. • • • Kreeft, p. 980. • Burkett, p.

263 • . . Retrieved 8 November 2014. § 1076: The Church was made manifest to the world on the day of Pentecost by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit....

• Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "". . New York: Robert Appleton Company. "He [the Holy Spirit] is essentially the Spirit of truth (John 14:16–17; 15:26), Whose office it is to teach the Apostles the full meaning of it [of the truth] (John 14:26; 16:13).

With these Apostles He will abide for ever (John 14:16). Having descended on them at Pentecost, He will guide them in their work (Acts 8:29)...

• . . Retrieved 1 November 2014. • Christian Bible, • . Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 8 November 2014. • . . Retrieved 1 November 2014. • ^ Joyce, George (1913). "". In Herbermann, Charles. . New York: Robert Appleton Company. • . Catholic Answers. 10 August 2004. Archived from on 24 January 2018 . Retrieved 9 November 2014. if Peter never made it to the capital, he still could have been the first pope, since one of his successors could have been the first holder of that office to settle in Rome.

After all, if the papacy exists, it was established by Christ during his lifetime, long before Peter is said to have reached Rome.

There must have been a period of some years in which the papacy did not yet have its connection to Rome. • ^ Raymond E. Brown, (Paulist Press 2003 ), pp. 132–134 • Oscar Cullmann (1962), Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr (2 ed.), Westminster Press p. 234 • Henry Chadwick (1993), The Early Church, Penguin Books p. 18 • Ehrman, Bart D (2006). . USA: Oxford University Press. p. 84. . Peter, in short, could not have been the first bishop of Rome, because the Roman church did not have anyone as its bishop until about a hundred years after Peter's death.

• Bokenkotter, p. 24. • MacCulloch, Christianity, pp. 155–159, 164. • Paul Valliere, (Cambridge University Press 2012 ), p. 92 • Patriarch Bartholomew, (Random House 2008 ), p. 3 • George C. Michalopulos, 10 January 2013 at the . • Noble, p. 214. • "Rome (early Christian)". Cross, F. L., ed., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 • Ayer, Joseph Cullen, Jr.

(1913). . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 538. • Ayer, p. 553 • Baumgartner, Frederic J. (2003). . Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 10–12. . • . 1997. Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes.

Yale University Press. pp. 66–67 • Le Goff, p. 14: "The face of the barbarian invaders had been transformed by another crucial fact. Although some of them had remained pagan, another part of them, not the least, had become Christian. But, by a curious chance, which was to leave serious consequences, these converted barbarians – the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians, Vandals, and later the Lombards – had been converted to Arianism, which had become a heresy after the council of Nicaea.

They had in fact been converted by followers of the 'apostle of the Goths', Wulfilas." • Le Goff, p. 14: "Thus what should have been a religious bond was, on the contrary, a subject of discord and sparked off bitter conflicts between Arian barbarians and Catholic Romans." • Le Goff, p.

21: "Clovis' master-stroke was to convert himself and his people not to Arianism, like the other barbarian kings, but to Catholicism." • Le Goff, p. 21 • Drew, Katherine Fischer (2014).

. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. xviii. . • How The Irish Saved Civilization: The Untold Story of Ireland's Heroic Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe by Thomas Cahill, 1995. • Cahill, Thomas. How the Irish Saved Civilization. Hodder and Stoughton, 1995.

• Woods, pp. 115–27 • Duffy, p. 133. • Pirenne, Henri (1980) [1925]. . Frank D. Halsey (trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

pp. 27–32. • Richards, Jeffrey (2014). . Routledge. p. 230. . • Walker, Willston (1985). . Simon and Schuster. pp. 250–1. . • Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), pp. 107–11 • Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 78, quote: "By contrast, Paschal's successor (824–7), elected with imperial influence, gave away most of these papal gains. He acknowledged the Emperor's sovereignty in the papal state, and he accepted a constitution imposed by Lothair which established imperial supervision of the administration of Rome, imposed an oath to the Emperor on all citizens, and required the pope–elect to swear fealty before he could be consecrated.

Under (844–7) it was even agreed that the pope could not be consecrated without an imperial mandate, and that the ceremony must be in the presence of his representative, a revival of some of the more galling restrictions of Byzantine rule." • Riley-Smith, p. 8 • Bokenkotter, pp. 140–141 • Phillips, Jonathan (2005). . Penguin Books. . • Woods, pp. 44–48 • Bokenkotter, pp. 158–159 • Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 122 • ^ Morris, p. 232 • Collinson, p. 240 • Geanakoplos, Deno John. Constantinople and the West.

Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. . • Collinge, William J. (2012). . Scarecrow Press. p. 169. . • Koschorke, p. 13, p. 283 • Hastings (1994), p. 72 • Koschorke, p. 21 • Koschorke, p.

3, p. 17 • ^ Bokenkotter, p. 215 • Vidmar, p. 184. • Bokenkotter, pp. 223–224 • Bokenkotter, pp. 235–237 • ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), p. 233 • ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 177–8 • Bokenkotter, pp. 242–244 • Maxwell, Melvin. Bible Truth or Church Tradition, page 70 • Pollard, pp. 7–8 • Bokenkotter, pp. 283–285 • Collins, p.

176 • Duffy, pp. 214–216 • . 24 March 1993. Archived from on 10 August 2011 . Retrieved 30 June 2011. • Leith, Creeds of the Churches (1963), p. 143 • Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 232 • Fahlbusch, The Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001), p. 729 • Kertzer, David I. (2006). . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. . • D'Agostino, Peter R.

(2010). " 'Utterly Faithless Specimens': Italians in the Catholic Church in America". In Connell, William J.; Gardaphé, Fred. . Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 33–4. . • ^ Chadwick, Owen, pp. 264–265 • Scheina, p. 33. • Riasanovsky 617 • Riasanovsky 634 • Payne, p.

13 • Alonso, pp. 395–396 • Blood of Spain, Ronald Fraser p. 415, collective letter of bishops of Spain, addressed to the bishops of the world. • Fontenelle, Mrg R (1939), Seine Heiligkeit Pius XI, p. 164. Alsactia, France • , § 18 (AAS 29 [1937], 74). 1937. Libreria Editrice Vaticana ( 9 September 2015 at the .) • Rhodes, pp. 182–183 • Rhodes, p. 197 • Rhodes, pp. 204–205 • Cook, p.

983 • . Yad Vashem . Retrieved 28 October 2010. • Bokenkotter p. 192 • Deák, p. 182 • Eakin, Emily (1 September 2001). . The New York Times . Retrieved 9 March 2008. • Phayer, pp. 50–57 • . CBC News. April 2005. Archived from on 23 December 2007 . Retrieved 31 January 2008. • Smith, Craig (10 January 2007). . The New York Times .

Retrieved 23 May 2008. • . The Tablet . Retrieved 28 October 2010. • Bokenkotter, pp. 356–358 • . BBC News. 21 September 2007 . Retrieved 28 October 2010. • Chadwick, p.259 • The Second Vatican Council Celebrating Its Achievements and the Future page 86 • . 4 December 1963. Archived from on 21 February 2008 . Retrieved 12 January 2012. • Duffy, pp. 270–276 • Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 272, p. 274 • Pope Paul VI. 20 December 2008 at the .. 28 October 1965. Retrieved 16 June 2011.

According to Section 4: "True, the Jewish authorities and those who followed their lead pressed for the death of Christ; still, what happened in His passion cannot be charged against all the Jews, without distinction, then alive, nor against the Jews of today. Although the Church is the new people of God, the Jews should not be presented as rejected or accursed by God, as if this followed from the Holy Scriptures." • Bauckham, p.

373 • O'Neel, Brian. , This Rock, Volume 14, Number 4. San Diego: Catholic Answers, April 2003. 10 May 2010 at the . • May, John F. (2012). . Springer. pp. 202–3. . • Kinkel, R. John (2014). . Lexington. p. 2. . • . Zenit: The World Seen from Rome. 14 July 2003 . Retrieved 16 November 2014. • . . Retrieved 28 October 2010. • Peter and Margaret Hebblethwaite and Peter Stanford (2 April 2005). . The Guardian. London .

Retrieved 28 October 2010. • . 15 June 2011. Archived from on 22 June 2012 . Retrieved 17 August 2012. • Maxwell-Stuart, P.G.

(2006). Chronicle of the Popes: Trying to Come Full Circle. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 234. . • John Paul II (15 May 1981). . Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Archived from on 27 October 2014 . Retrieved 16 November 2014. • John Paul II (25 March 1995). . Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Archived from on 27 October 2014 .

Retrieved 16 November 2014. • Johnston, Jerry Earl (18 February 2006). . . Archived from on 2 April 2015 . Retrieved 12 September 2010. • Gledhill, Ruth The Times 11 October 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2010 • , Synodal Information, Rome, IT: The Vatican, 9 March 2005 • Smith-Spark, Laura; Messia, Hada (13 February 2013).

. CNN . Retrieved 30 March 2015. • Ritter, Karl, ,, 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013. • Demacopoulos, George E., , Archon News (Order of St. Andrew the Apostle), 19 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. • Pelowski, Alton J. (May 2013). . Columbia. pp. 20–23. • . BBC. 12 February 2016 .

Retrieved 13 February 2016. • Dias, Elizabeth (8 October 2013). . Time Magazine . Retrieved 17 November 2014. • Twomey, Fr. D. Vincent (24 October 2014). . Catholic Herald . Retrieved 17 November 2014. • Echeverria, Eduardo (17 October 2014). , Crisis Magazine. • Miille, Andrew (3 May 2017). . The Philadelphia Trumpet . Retrieved 22 May 2017. • Asci, Donald P. (2002) The Conjugal Act as Personal Act. A Study of the Catholic Concept of the Conjugal Act in the Light of , San Francisco: Ignatius Press.

. • Ayer, Joseph Cullen (1941). A Source Book for Ancient Church History. Mundus Publishing. . • . 1983 .

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Retrieved 1 May 2011. • Barry, Rev. Msgr. John F (2001). One Faith, One Lord: A Study of Basic Catholic Belief. Gerard F. Baumbach, Ed.D. . • (2010). The History of Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade. Norton. . • Baumgartner, Frederic J. (2003). Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. . • Bethell, Leslie (1984).

The Cambridge history of Latin America. Cambridge University Press. . • Bokenkotter, Thomas (2004). A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Doubleday. . • Bunson, Matthew (2008). Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Almanac. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. . • ; Burkett, Elinor (2002). A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church. Harper Perennial.

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(1985). The Code of Canon Law: A Text and Commentary, Study Edition. Paulist Press. . • Davidson, Ivor (2005). The Birth of the Church. Monarch. . • Derrick, Christopher (1967). Trimming the Ark: Catholic Attitudes and the Cult of Change. New York: P.J. Kennedy & Sons. . • (1997). Saints and Sinners, a History of the Popes. Yale University Press. . • (1981). A History of the Church in Latin America. Wm. B. Eerdmans. . • Fahlbusch, Erwin (2007). The Encyclopedia of Christianity.

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. • Gale Group. (2002) New Catholic Encyclopedia, 15 vol, with annual supplements; highly detailed coverage • (2004).

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1969); detailed coverage of Catholicism in every major country • (1963). Creeds of the Churches. Aldine Publishing Co. . • (2010). Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years. Viking.

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100–400). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, • Marthaler, Berard (1994). Introducing the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Traditional Themes and Contemporary Issues.

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best atheist date a catholic

best atheist date a catholic - Pope suggests 'better to be atheist than a bad Catholic'

best atheist date a catholic

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best atheist date a catholic

Can atheists and Catholics find common ground in the dating world? I think they can as long as they share enough common values. Carolina Miranda is the creator of and she is also a Catholic. We met in a feminism group on Facebook when she messaged me to tell me that she enjoyed an article of mine. We became Facebook friends and I’ve really enjoyed getting to know her online. We bonded over our progressive values and dating disasters.

Carolina and I have a lot in common despite our religious differences. After chatting back and forth we realized we would probably go on a date together if we lived in the same country. Since we don’t, we figured the internet might enjoy reading some common ground we found regarding our perspectives on the dating world. Q: Has online dating ever worked for you?

If yes how so, and if no, why do you think that is? Matthew: Yes, online dating has worked for me a couple times. I’ve had two serious relationships with women I met from OkCupid and they were both very positive experiences.

Both of those relationships ended because my partner moved, but I was very fortunate that I was able to get to know them and we are still good friends.

I’ve met many people from OkCupid and even though I’ve only dated two of them, it was still cool to meet people I wouldn’t normally have the opportunity to ever talk to. Carolina Miranda Carolina: To be honest, I don’t think dating has ever worked for me, online or not.

I am very quick to read people, and I really know what I want, and what I need. I never once fail to learn from any of the partners I’ve had, and I have always taken many incredibly important life lessons from these encounters.

But to this day, other than my ex-husband of ten years (a relationship that was longer than that), I have never been with anyone for more than three months. Most of the times, what I run into are men who are very intimidated by me, or who cannot keep up in a pursuit of intellectual, emotional, spiritual, and physical growth, which I firmly believe is what we are here for.

And so I soak up what they have to offer, and then it becomes clear that we need to move our separate ways because we want different things. Online dating was particularly complicated because people see my photos and they make shallow assumptions: I get a lot of the “hot Brazilian mama”. In my last attempts with online profiles, I switched all my photos for my least attractive ones, and posted very bluntly that I am an ambitious, intellectual feminist.

I sure did get a lot less matches on Tinder! And that’s where there is a huge dissonance. When they meet me, they don’t know what to do with me: I am opinionated, funny, very sensitive, very different and much more complex than the original one dimensional picture they had formed in their heads from my online profile.

I don’t think they even imagine that I go to church every weekend and that this is important to me. I also felt it took a lot of my energy and it gave me a lot of anxiety, because I just couldn’t trust them due to the nature of how we met.

So I am going back to the basics: chance encounters, and letting life happen for a change. Q: What is the most ludicrous dating experience you’ve ever had? Matthew: I’ve been lucky that the worst of my first dates have mostly just been boring, but two in particular were pretty bad.

One date I was on was going pretty well until I found out the woman was pretty racist and was worried how “black people antagonize the police.” When I tried to politely explain why that was a problematic thing to say, she doubled down and continued spouting off other racist things.

Another strange encounter happened when I met a woman from an online dating site and we talked for no more than 2 minutes. She asked me what I did, I briefly told her what I was studying, and then told me she found my work boring.

She then asked if I had another job outside of school and I told her I did not because my school paid me a small stipend. Immediately after that she told me she wanted to go home. This was odd to me because she knew I was a PhD student before we met, but she wasn’t interested in getting to know me beyond my career or how much money I made when we met in person.

But people like what they like and I’m glad it was a mutual disinterest at least. Carolina: I think it was with this guy who worked for a very high profile international, social organization. I was incredibly excited to meet him, because he had a PhD, had travelled the world, spoke five languages, and due to the nature of his organization, I was dead sure we were going to be able to skip the whole Feminism 101 thing.

Low and behold, this was the most controlling person I’ve ever met (there are wonderful things about him, don’t get me wrong – he was charming, interesting, etc.

But he was very controlling!) On our first date, he asked me if I liked to cook, to which I said yes, to which he proceeded to reply “Good girl”!

I got close to having a fit! It was also a very empowering moment, because I really stuck to my guns, and I did not care about what he thought of me at that moment. I told him how incredibly disappointing it was to hear that kind of language from a person who should know better. We got together a few more times here and there for a period of about three months (of course!), but he continued to show just what I had noticed in our first date: a disregard for women, and a very ingrained chauvinistic behaviour that eventually led me to leave him even as a friend, which I rarely do.

Q: What do you think you are looking for in a partner? Matthew: Honesty and openness and necessary traits. It’s great to have some common interests, but sharing common values is essential. I’m also passionate about science and social justice so my partner would at least have to not be bored if I want to talk about those subjects sometimes.

If they have major prejudices and refuse to reflect on them then I don’t think it could work out. I’m a pretty independent person and definitely would like to find someone who can also live their life confidently by themselves. To me, you shouldn’t need to have a partner to be happy, but they can make your life a lot happier. While I’d like to find someone also very driven, it’s important to find people who can also be silly and have fun sometimes as well.

Carolina: I used to go back and forth between wanting a light hearted relationship, someone to just have fun with, and someone who I want as a life partner. And I think I have finally come to accept that the “have fun with” or light, casual partner is not realistic or necessary for me… I have an immense amount of love and fun in my life as it is, and I don’t want to settle for any less than I know I deserve.

Someone kind, with integrity in his heart, who is gentle, who respects me, who sees me, who is an advocate for women’s rights and other social justice topics, I could go on a list that is detailed, as I have had a lot of time to think about this and I have had enough partners to show me what I don’t want.

Ultimately, I want to be able to admire that person, to feel secure with him, and to have a healthy sexual relationship (a long term relationship without healthy sex can become very depressing after awhile). There is also the fact that I have two daughters, and I really want one more child. So for now at least, this person would have to be open to having step-daughters and wanting a child of his own… It’s a lot of love to take on, and very people have such a big heart.

So I decided to no longer worry too much about it, or it would drive me crazy. Q: How has online dating changed the dating scene where you live? Matthew: As a progressive atheist living in the Bible Belt, online dating has definitely been a positive thing for me.

It’s nice to find other like-minded people since I’m very much the minority here. Carolina: I honestly don’t know. I have only been single for two years now, and I met most of my partners either through a friend or bumping into them in real life. Everyone tries to set me up with a cousin, a friend, a brother. It’s actually kind of funny! Currently however, I am not looking and I shut down all of my online profiles. I basically got tired of focusing my energy on that (it takes a massive amount of time to go on all these dates, meeting all these new people each time).

I also met someone who I am highly impressed by, completely unexpected and in a real encounter kind of way. Unfortunately for me, he has a partner right now, so I am trying to be very respectful of them, and their space and just moving on with my life. At least he gave me a sense of hope because now I know that there are men like him out there, and perhaps someone like him, but who is actually available, will cross my path.

Q: How has dating allowed you to grow as a person? Matthew: Learning from my dating experiences has provided many opportunities for personal growth. Whenever something doesn’t work out, I don’t automatically assume it was the other person’s fault. I try to use any conflict or frustrating experiences to reflect on how I can become a better person. If there isn’t much to learn from, I just try to acknowledge that sometimes relationships do not work out.

People have their own romantic interests and it’s perfectly okay if they are not mutual. Understanding that many relationships don’t succeed simply makes me appreciate the good ones so much more. Carolina: “Life revolves and then it evolves…” That’s how I see relationships, especially romantic partnerships.

We are mirrors to one another, and I believe that often, our partners come into our lives to set things into motion. They get us into our core, to learn lessons that are ultimately about healing and setting ourselves freer, taking us further into a journey of growth.

All of my partners, without an exception, have played a major role into who I’ve become. I’ve loved them much, even if briefly, with one exception (which was the one man I was briefly with against my own intuition, and so I suppose that was the lesson: listen to your intuition and not someone else’s). They’ve given me a lot to learn from in regards to what I want from my life, and what I don’t want as well. Or who I want to be as a person, as well as a partner.

I am incredibly grateful to each one of them, and I hope they know it. At some point, I hope I will meet someone who just stays and wants to be on the same path as me, growing and building with me.

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