List of Urdu-language writers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. This is a list of notable Urdu language writers. Contents. As a young man, Azad composed poetry in Urdu language, as well as treaties on religion and he rose to prominence through his work as a journalist, publishing works critical of the British Raj and espousing the causes of Indian nationalism. Azad became the leader of the Khilafat Movement, during which he came into contact with the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi He has written books on Urdu literature. His important work was about Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Mirza Ghalib and he was awarded with several awards for his literary work.
دفعہ ۱۔ تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوئے ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہے۔ اس لئے انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہیئے۔ دفعہ ۲۔ ہر شخص ان تمام آزادیوں اور حقوق کا مستحق ہے جو اس اعلان میں بیان کئے گئے ہیں، اور اس حق پر نسل، رنگ، جنس، زبان، مذہب اور سیاسی تفریق کا یا کسی قسم کے عقیدے، قوم، معاشرے، دولت یا خاندانی حیثیت وغیرہ کا کوئی اثر نہ پڑے گا۔ اس کے علاوہ جس علاقے یا ملک سے جو شخص تعلق رکھتا ہے اس کی سیاسی کیفیت دائرہ اختیار یا بین الاقوامی حیثیت کی بنا پر اس سے کوئی امتیازی سلوک نہیں کیا جائے گا۔ چاہے وہ ملک یا علاقہ آزاد ہو یا تولیتی ہو یا غیر مختار ہو یا سیاسی اقتدار کے لحاظ سے کسی دوسری بندش کا پابند ہو۔ From : The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
It is a modification of the Persian alphabet known as Perso-Arabic, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic alphabet. The Urdu alphabet has up to 58 letters. With 39 basic letters and no distinct letter cases, the Urdu alphabet is typically written in the calligraphic Nastaʿlīq script, whereas Arabic is more commonly in the Naskh style.
... The Nastaʿlīq calligraphic writing style began as a Persian mixture of scripts Naskh and Ta'liq. After the Mughal conquest, Nasta'liq became the preferred writing style for Urdu.
It is the dominant style in Pakistan, and many Urdu writers elsewhere in the world use it. Nastaʿlīq is more cursive and flowing than its Naskh counterpart. Urdu uses the Arabic script with extensions to covers its much wider repertoire of sounds. A number of the extensions are based on those developed for Persian (Farsi).
See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the Arabic script, taken from the . The script type is abjad, ie.
the script is largely consonantal and short vowel sounds are typically not shown. Some of the consonant characters double as long vowels (eg. ی and و). The vowels are not usually clearly defined, but when necessary, vowel information can be represented by combining marks appearing above or below the base consonant. The absence of a vowel and doubling of consonants can be indicated in the same way. The alphabet includes aspirated letters that have to be composed with two Unicode characters and a je letter that uses different Unicode characters depending on the context.
Although it is not always easy to guess the vowel sounds in a word, the consonants are largely reliable phonetically. There is mostly a one-to-one correspondance between letters and sounds. Character lists Follow this link for information about characters used for the Urdu language.
The numbers in parentheses are for non-ASCII characters. • (45 letters, 8 marks, 11 punctuation, 10 numbers, 17 infrequent : total 91) For character-specific details see the . The Urdu alphabet includes the following characters over and above those listed for Arabic. ى There are a good number of other characters in use for Urdu text that are not used for Arabic.
Most of them are described in this page. More detailed descriptions may be available by following the links from the text in red. The alphabet standardised by the National Language Authority in Pakistan counts 59 letters, of which 18 are digraphs representing aspirated consonants.
The basic letters are: ۂ ي  is only found in decomposed forms of ئ . The absence of a vowel sound can be indicated with the diacritic ْ, called sukūn or jazm, although this diacritic is not normally shown in text, eg.
سَخْت saxt hard. It has various possible forms, including a small round circle, something that looks like peʃ, and something like a circumflex. This diacritic is never written above the final character in a word, because as a rule a short vowel is not pronounced in this position. Consonant sounds can be lengthened. In vowelled text, which is very rare, this is shown using the diacritic ّ, called taʃdiːd, eg. ستّر sattar, seventy. More often than not, this is not written.
The pronunciation of ال ( alif followed by lām) varies when it represents the Arabic definite article. This affects many words in Urdu that have come from Arabic, in particular names and adverbial expressions. The lām is not pronounced if it precedes one of the following characters: ن Instead, the following sound is doubled.
A tašdīd may sometimes be used to indicate this. Example: السلام علیکم asːalɑːm alaikum greetings. Often the alif is not pronounced after a short preceding word that ends in a vowel. If the preceding vowel was long, it is shortened in this process. Examples: بالکل bɪlkul absolutely; فی الحال filhɑːl at present. Often the vowel is pronounced ʊ, eg. دارالحکومت dɑːrʊlhʊkuːmat capital. There are 10 vowel sounds, though there are also allophonic variants.
They are usually grouped into pairs of 'short' and 'long' sounds - although the difference is qualitative, rather than just length. The basic phonemes are as follows: ə ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ ɑː iː uː e o The phoneme ə is sometimes written a in phonemic transcriptions in this material. (This is the letter usually used in other sources too.) Urdu follows Arabic in using diacritics to express short vowel sounds, but also rarely uses them in normal text. The basic set of diacritics used for vowels is as follows.
-٘ Given the extra sounds in Urdu, compared to Arabic, the way characters are used to express vowels is much more complicated. The following table shows the standard ways of indicating vowel sounds, and shows what diacritics would be used if they were shown.
Note however, that context can change the value of a vowel diacritic (such as a following 'ain or he) – these are detailed below the table. Three short vowels are not typically found in final position. The examples only show diacritics for the sound currently being discussed. sound final medial initial base component final medial initial ə zabar بَب bəb اَب əb ɪ zer دِن dɪn اِن ɪn ʊ peʃ سُست sʊst اُس ʊs ɑː alɪf لکھنا lɪkʰnɑː باغ bɑːɣ آج ɑːʤ e je بجے baʤe بیٹا beʈɑː ایک ek iː zer+je / je گاری gɑːriː تِین tiːn اِینٹ iːnʈ ɛ zabar+je ہَے hɛ کَیسا kɛsɑː اَیسا ɛsɑː o vɑːuː کو ko ٹوپی ʈopiː اوس os uː peʃ+vɑːuː or vɑːuː+inverted peʃ ہندُو hɪnduː ہندوٗ hɪnduː پُورا puːrɑː ثوٗرا puːrɑː اُوپر uːpar اوٗپر uːpar ɔ zabar+vɑːuː نَو nɔ شَوق ʃɔq اَور ɔr The letter ع is used in words of Arabic origin.
In these words it is typically not pronounced but can support vowels. In this way, at the beginning of a word it can fulfill the same function as the alif, eg. عَرب arab Arab. The Urdu word اَرَب arab necessity, though pronounced the same, becomes a completely different word by its spelling. Note, in particular, that the equivalent of آ ɑː is عا, as in عادت ɑːdat habit. A following ع may also affect a short vowel diacritic to produce a long vowel sound as follows: • ɑː from zabar followed by 'ain, eg.
بَعد bɑːd after • e from zer followed by 'ain, eg. شِعر seːr verse • o from peʃ followed by 'ain, eg. شُعلہ ʃolɑː flame The letters ہ and ح can also modify preceding short vowels as follows: • ɛ from zabar followed by he, eg.
اَحمد ɛhmad Ahmed, رَہنا rɛhnɑː to remain • ɛ from zer followed by he, eg. مِہربانی mɛhrbɑːniː kindness, and واضِح vɑːzɛh clear • o from peʃ followed by 'ain, eg. شُہرت ʃohrat fame, and توجُّہ tavajːoh attention The so-called 'silent' he that appears at the end of many words of Arabic or Persian derivation is pronounced ɑː, مکَہ makːɑː Mecca. The diacritic ◌ٰ  is used in a few Arabic words over the final form of ی to produce the sound ɑ: eg.
اعلیٰ alɑː ( paramount, highest); دعویٰ davɑː ( law suit, claim). The similar diacritic ◌ٖ  is used to indicate that a vowel is iː or i rather than e, eg. نُحْیٖ. This diacritic is not usually needed, and serves only to emphasise that the vowel is long. ◌ٗ  is used to indicate that the vowel is uː or ʊ rather than ɔ, eg. حبل حلالہٗ.
It is not usually needed, and serves only to emphasise that the vowel is long. The doubled vowel diacritics, ◌ً , ◌ٌ , and ◌ٍ  are used at the ends of certain Arabic adverbs.
The doubled zabar (fathatan) is the most common of the three marks of this type. Although the mark appears over an alif the vowel sound is short. Examples, یقیناً yakiːnan ( certainly); مثلاً masalan ( for example). Vowels may be nasalised, like at the end of the French word élan. This is indicated in Urdu by a glyph called nun ghunna that looks like the letter nun except that in word final position it has no dot, eg. ماں mãː, mother, ٹاںگ tãːg leg, and کروں karũː, I may do.
In Unicode there are different characters for each of these uses. The diacritic ◌٘  is used when people want to make it clear that a noon character represents nasalisation rather than the sound n, eg.
ٹان٘گ tãːg leg. It is not used in a standard way, just when the user prefers, and is fairly uncommon. A hamzā plays more than one role in Urdu. One such role is to indicate the boundaries between vowel sounds when there is no intervening consonant. Depending on the vowels concerned, it is used in a number of different ways.
It can also have two different shapes, one like the initial form of 'ain and the other more like an italic 's'. In this example we see hamza in its isolated form, انشاءﷲ ɪnʃalːaː God willing.
When the second vowel is an iː or e represented by ی or ے, the hamzā 'sits on a chair' before the letter representing the second vowel. Usage tip The hamza on its chair should be written using ئ, eg. کئی kaiː several; تیئیس teiːs twenty-three; کوئی koiː someone; گئے gae they went; گائے gɑːe they sang.
Note that ئ is ي + ◌ٔ [ + ] when decomposed. The 'chair' doesn't use ی. The short vowel ɪ as a second vowel is also represented by hamzā 'on its chair' alone, eg. کوئلہ koɪlɑː coal; لائن lɑːɪn queue. When the second vowel is an uː or o represented by و, the hamzā typically sits directly on top of the و, eg. آؤ ɑːo come; جاؤں ʤɑːũː I may go. Note that often the hamzā is omitted in this situation. To represent this in Unicode use ؤ.
Many words have the vowel combinations iːɑ̃ iːe iːo, where hamzā is not typically used, eg. لڑکیاں laɽkiːɑ̃ː girls; چلیے ʧaliːe come on; لڑکیوں کا laɽkiːõ kɑː of the girls.
Hamzā is also used to represent izāfat when the preceding word ends in either choṭī he or ye (see below). Izāfat ɪzɑːfat is the name given to the short vowel ɛ used to describe a relationship between two words. It may be translated of, eg. as in the Lion of Punjab. This sound occurs at the end of a word and is mostly represented using zer. Sometimes, however, the combining mark is not shown, even though pronounced.
Examples: شیرِ پنجاب ʃer ɛ panʤɑːb Lion of the Panjab; طالبِ علم tɑːlɪb ɛ ɪlm seeker of knowledge (a student). When the preceding word ends in a silent choṭī he ہ , izafat is represented by a combining hamza, eg. قطرۂ آب qatra ɛ ɑːb drop of water. Note that if the choṭī he is pronounced, then zer is used, eg.
آہِ گرم āh-e garm hot sigh. When the preceding word ends in ye ی, sources differ on the approach to take. Some sources say that you should just add zer, as described before.
Others say that izafat is represented by a combining hamza, eg. ولیٔ کامل valiː ɛ kɑːmɪl perfect saint. Question Should you use ئ or ی + combining hamza? Most of the sources proposing this approach seem to use the former. With Google fonts the result looks the same either way. With Nafees Nastaleeq only the latter works. The latter seems more logical, wrt searching, semantics, etc. When the preceding word ends in a long a or u vowel, izafat is represented using hamza 'on it's chair', ie.
ئ, plus ے, eg. صدائے بلند sadɑː ɛ buland a high voice; روئے زمین ruː ɛ zamiːn the surface of the ground. Sometimes, however, the hamza is not shown. [2 p99]  Arabic script joins letters together. This results in four different shapes for most letters (including an isolated shape). ع قل ودیع ت The letter ع  in 2 different joining contexts.
A few Arabic script letters only join on the right-hand side. As in Arabic, lam followed by alef ligate, eg. اسلام islam Islam. The following invisible Unicode formatting characters can be used to control cursive joining. • (ZWNJ), prevents cursive joiing between adjacent characters, eg. انسان • produces a joining glyph when a character wouldn't otherwise join with something, eg. ان س ان. Since the script is cursive (ie. letters are typically joined) the letter forms can vary considerably according to position.
Urdu is typically written in a nasta'liq style, ie. the connected letters in a word tend to follow a sloping baseline. This is achieved in Unicode by applying the correct font – the underlying characters used are not different for nasta'liq vs.
other styles. مستحق • شخص • کیفیت Sloping baselines in Urdu nastaliq text. Urdu uses the extended arabic-indic digits in the Arabic block. ۹ This is a separate set of characters from those used for Arabic, to accommodate different shaping and directional behaviour. Shapes differ from those of Arabic for the digits 4, 5, and 7. Urdu Persian Arabic Comparison of digit shapes in Urdu, Persian and Arabic.
Persian also uses the same characters for digits, but there are some systematic shape differences between Persian and Urdu for the digits 4, 6, and 7. Urdu has special characters for the thousands and decimal separators: ٬  and ٫ . It also uses ٪ . Need to clarify whether the percent sign appears to the right or left of the number. When typed after, it appears to the right. ٪۵٬۴۳۲٫۱ The figure 5,432.1% using Urdu characters.
That said, currently uses European digits and ، [ U+060C ARABIC COMMA] and . [ U+002E FULL STOP], respectively, for thousands and decimal separators. (English) says that In Pakistan, Western Arabic numerals are more extensively used as a considerable majority of the population is anglophone. Eastern numerals still continue to see use in Urdu publications and newspapers, as well as sign boards. Urdu also has a sign  which can be used to indicate a number, eg. ۱۲۳. [The Noto Nastaliq Urdu webfont doesn't seem to extend the sign below the number, whereas the same font on the system does.
Both that font and Nafees Nastaleeq require this sign to be added after the number, and appear to treat it like a fixed width combining mark, rather than a subtending mark that grows with the number.] ؍  is used in Urdu.
[Find out how and how often it is used.] Dates are indicated by placing the long sweep of  below the year digits. For the Gregorian calendar this is followed with the word عیسوی iːsviː Christian era, usually abbreviated as a hamza ء. Dates using the Muslim calendar are followed by the word ہجری hɪʤriː, abbreviated with the symbol ھ. The sanh sign is typed before the digits (in a rtl context): eg. ۲۰۰۴ء ( 2004). It is not a combining character, even though it displays beneath the digits.
The length of the symbol may vary according to the number of digits. It is terminated by a non-digit character.
 is another subtending mark, intended to indicate a year in the Śaka calendar. The following combining characters are used with names as honorifics, eg. قاضی نور محمّدؒ kaziː nur mamed rahmatulla alayhe Qazi Nur Muhammad, may God have mercy upon him!. They are combining characters that appear over the name at a point chosen by the author. -ؐ ﷽  is used by Muslims in various contexts including the constitutions of countries where Islam has a significant presence. The shape varies significantly from font to font and usage to usage.
Arabic script is written horizontally and right-to-left in the main, but as with most RTL scripts, numbers and embedded LTR script text are written left-to-right (producing 'bidirectional' text). رکھتا ہے اور 2009ء میں UEFA کپ کے Urdu words are read RTL, starting on the right, but numbers and Latin text are read left-to-right.
Unicode provides a set of 10 formatting characters that can be used to control the direction of text when displayed. These are listed in the article . The alphabetic baseline is a strong feature of Arabic script on the whole, since characters tend to join there. The nastaliq style of the script, on the other hand, uses arrangements of joined glyphs that cascade downwards from right to left, and ressemble a strongly sloping baseline. See the example in Fig.
fig_baseline. Words are separated by spaces. Urdu uses a mixture of western and arabic punctuation. For separators at the sentence level and below, the following are used in Urdu text, where the right column indicates approximate equivalences to Latin script.
comma ، semi-colon ؛ colon : [ U+003A COLON] sentence ۔  question mark ؟ معاشرے، … پڑے گا۔ Urdu text using an Arabic comma, and an Arabic full stop. In poetry, ؎  is used to mark the beginning of poetic verse, and ؏  is used to indicate a single line ( misra) of a couplet ( shayr) from an Urdu poem, when quoted in text.
It is used at the beginning of the line, and is followed by the line of verse. For more information and examples, follow the links on the character names.  is used to indicate that a number is a reference to a footnote. The number sits above the symbol, although this is not a combining character. The marker should come before the number in logical order, eg.
؎۵. (Note that, although it looks very similar, this is not the same character as ؎ .) • [Matthews] David Matthews & Mohamed Kasim Dalvi, Teach Yourself Urdu, Hodder & Shoughton, ISBN 0-340-67027-4 • [Delacy] Richard Delacy, Beginner's Urdu Script, ISBN 0-340-86028-6 • [Daniels] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0 • [Hugo] : Alphabet • [Hugo2] : Vowels • [Hussain] Sarmad Hussain, • [Kew] Jonathan Kew, • [URLSDF] Urdu and Regional Language Software Development Forum, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan, • [Abdali] Kamal Abdali, • [WPBasmala] Wikipedia, • [Khan] Mohamed Khan,
best date in urdu language written - اردو زبان کا تاریخی پس منظر
TL;DR Yes, they are essentially the same language. To understand why they are often called as two different languages, we must first understand the . Before the British Raj, the court language of the Muslim courts and some Hindu also was Farsi.
The spoken language of the people in North India was Hindustani. It has been called by lots of names over the years but in the British Raj, it was called mainly by three names Hindustani, Hindi and Urdu. To sustain their rule over India, the British adopted the policy of divide-and-rule.
One of their policies was a separate language for Hindus and another for Muslims. They encouraged Hindu intellectuals of the to use and promote a different script, Devnagari, which was used by Hindu priests in to write Sanskrit, as an alternate to the Perso-Arabic script which was mainstream at this time.
When India and Pakistan got independence, because of the brutality of the , both the governments decided on separating their languages. Because of this, the language exists with triglossia (three standards) and digraphia (two scripts).
India adopted as it’s official language, which was based on the Benarasi dialect and written in Devnagari. All Arabic, Persian and Turkish words and grammar were replaced by Sanskrit words and grammar. India’s national anthem is in Sanskritized Hindi.
Pakistan adopted as it’s official language, written in the Perso-Arabic script. All Sanskrit and Prakrit words are replaced by Arabic or Persian words. Pakistan’s national anthem is in Persianized Urdu. The spoken language of the people of North India and Pakistan is which is a blend of Sanskrit, Prakrit, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Portuguese and English.
It is what Bollywood uses. Although this is changing in Pakistan where Urdu is a second language; it is gravitating more towards Standard Urdu. Notice in both the national anthems only nouns and adjectives are used. That is done to keep up the appearance of Sanskrit and Persian. This also makes the common folk unable to understand their national anthems without formal studies in Sanskrit and Persian.
A good contrast between the three standards can be made by comparing the anthem of the Independence movement ( ) in Hindustani, the Indian national anthem ( ) in Standard Hindi and the Pakistani national anthem ( ) in Standard Urdu.
Urdu language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. Urdu is spoken by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India. It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India.
Significant speech communities exist in the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States as well. Notably, Urdu and Hindi are mutually intelligible. Hindi Hindi language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is the preferred official language of India, although much national business is also done in English and the other languages recognized in the Indian constitution.
In India, Hindi is spoken as a first language by nearly 425 million people and as a second language by some 120 million more. Significant Hindi speech communities are also found in South Africa, Mauritius, Bangladesh, Yemen, and Uganda.
Comparison of Hindi and Urdu Other than this there are lots of similarity between these two like most of the words used in these two language are almost same and if not then most of the verbs from one language can be used in other. But there are some words that has core Persian or Arabic origin so aren’t used in Hindi and the words having core Sanskrit origin aren’t used in Urdu often.
Hindi has been very much influenced by Urdu. for example earlier Hindi didn’t have ( ़) character and we used to write ज़मीन as जमीन, क़लम as कलम and ख़राब as खराब etc.
Some of us still write without ( ़) many a times and is mostly acceptable. English Hindi and Urdu Come - Aanaa Go - Jaana Eat - Khaana Sleep - Sonaa Weep - Rona Speak - Bolna Other than verbs, there are many same or similar words used in both the languages.
It has so many similarity that sometimes you won't be able to distinguish between these language. Like people use Aasmaan, Zameen, Din, Raat... etc in both languages. Not all Urdu/Hindi speaker will be able to guess which language does these words really belong. Both language are considered to be one of the best language for poetry and literature. Both language is well understood by the native speaker of any of these language, that's why you will often see Urdu poet in Hindi Kavi-Sammelan and Hindi poet in Urdu Mushaira, and I think Kavita has special flavor if it is written in Hindi similarly Ghazal will always be special when it is written in Urdu.
Source used are and Edit: This answer was edited to make a few corrections, thanks to the people who highlighted those mistakes. rightly pointed that the grammar that these two language share is mostly same, and that’s what makes it easier to be understood by speakers of both the languages. Urdu is as good as Hindi as a language. If you know how to speak Hindi, you automatically know to speak in urdu. It is also believed by some of the scholars that Hindi and Urdu are one and the same.
They are the same languages written in two different scripts. Now you can have a question that how a language with two different scripts can be the same?
It happens, Earlier Punjabi was written in Gurumukhi as well Urdu/ Persian(scripts), even now they are written in two different scripts on different sides of the border.
My language Maithili for instance, has its own script named Mithilakshar but popularly its written in Devnagri.
They differ in vocabulary, where Urdu looks towards Arabic and Persian fr its words, Hindi goes for Sanskrit and Awadhi but when both the speakers whether of so called Urdu or so called Hindi simplify their languages, they have to spaeak the same language. Now the question may arise if two of languages have different script as well as vocab then on what ground can we say that they are the same. Then I would say it is neither script nor vocab that makes a language but the SYNTAX or Grammer makes a language.
Had script been synonymous to language , then all the SMSs that we write in Roman script would have been considered English and If Vocabulary would be considered a language than OXFORD will never allow new words to enter in the world of English. Hindi and Urdu are not quite the same language. Let us start by asking what happens when a speaker of Hindi and a speaker of Urdu meet.
Hindi and Urdu speakers can have a conversation just fine -- as long as they keep the language simple, and not make it too complicated. That is the simplest way to put it. I wrote the answer this way so that it is intelligible to a layman, but there is a lot of richness to this matter, linguistically speaking. So let us speak linguistically. Linguistically speaking, the situation with Hindi and Urdu may be described as digraphia, one languages with two writing systems.
Although Hindi and Urdu are two different languages, they may be, for certain purposes, treated as a single language and the term "Hindi-Urdu" is sometimes used to refer to this language. It should be noted, however, that most people know only one of the two scripts. Thus, if you denote the entire population by P, there are three parts to the population: P1 denoting people who know only the Hindi script, P2 denoting people who know only the Urdu script and P3 denoting people who know both.
(P3 is quite small as a fraction of P, but, by no means, is it an insignificant number of people). Typically, people in India learn Hindi as part of their curriculum whereas people in Pakistan learn Urdu. In addition, some people in India also learn Urdu, and usually, they come from a Muslim background. But for the most part, people are in either set P1 and P2 - so they go either Hindi-ward or Urdu-ward. The people who go Hindi-ward, generally people in India, often pick up the peculiarities of the Hindi language along the way, especially the use of Sanskrit-based vocabulary when they want to speak in a certain register.
But this is not necessary. Some people who grow up in India pick up, instead, the peculiarities of the Urdu language as they learn the language and their use of the language is marked by greater use of words derived from Persian, Arabic, et cetera.
The people who grow up in Pakistan seldom go Sanskrit-ward. (When I say seldom, I mean "virtually never". There just aren't very many Sanskrit scholars in Pakistan). Instead, they, like the people in India, pick up the peculiarities of the Urdu language only. There are some important differences between Hindi and Urdu. Here are a few. • Hindu uses the Devanagari script. Urdu script is an extension of the Persian script.
• In Urdu, the use of words of non-Indic origin is considered to be the more polite form of speaking. (Indeed, there are multiple tiers of politeness.) In Hindi, by way of contrast, the use of Sanskrit is considered to render the speech more technical (rather than more polite). • Standard Hindi derives its vocabulary primarily from Sanskrit while Standard Urdu derives its vocabulary from Persian.
All the same, there are also significant commonalities. Without getting into the details regarding the two languages, the best way to summarize the situation is to say that Hindustani has two registers - Hindi and Urdu.
A register in linguistics refers to "a set of specialized vocabulary and preferred (or dispreferred) syntactic and rhetorical devices/structures, used by specific socio-professional groups for special purposes." Note that a register is "a property or characteristic of a language, and not of an individual or a class of speakers." Ultimately, the commonalities are very, very significant.
The languages are so similar that as long as the speaker of the Hindi or the Urdu language keeps the use of his or her language simple, you can be guaranteed that a speaker of Hindi will understand a speaker of Urdu.
And vice versa. But whether they should be considered the same language or not depends on where you draw the boundary in terms of when something should be considered a dialect and when something should be considered a separate language.
The Urdu language is an Indo-Aryan language that is spoken by over 100 million people, which makes it another important language to study.
The language is dominant in India and Pakistan, and spoken by large communities in the United States, the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. The language The Urdu language is a variant of Hindustani that evolved from the 6th century up to the 13th century from a form of Apabhraṃśa that came from the Shauraseni language. The latter is a Middle Indo-Aryan language from which other languages such as the Punjabi dialects came from. About 75% of Urdu words and 90% of verbs have roots from Prakrit and Sanskrit.
The Persian language was heavily influential in the development of Urdu, with some help from Arabic. Urdu came from orda or ordu, which is a Turkic word for ''army.'' This is also the origin of the English word ''horde.'' This does not mean that Urdu is akin to the Turkic languages. There was no direct borrowing of Urdu from Turkish words. Words that originated from Arabic and Chatagai (a Turkic language) were borrowed from Persian instead of from Turkic. Since Turkish and Urdu both borrowed from Persian and Arabic, the pronunciation of many words in Urdu and Turkish are similar.
The influence of the Arabic language in the region started in the first millennium when the Indian subcontinent was conquered by Muslims. Through the several Afghan and Persian dynasties that came later, the Persian language became prominent and influenced Hindustani which was still developing back then. First use of Urdu Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi used the term Urdu for the first time in 1780. It used to be called Hindi from the 13th to the 18th centuries. However, Urdu was also called other names, like Dehlavi and Hindavi.
In written form, it used the Persian script that Hindus and Muslims used. The practice continued until 1837 when Hindustani replaced Persian as the official language together with English. Hindustani enjoyed patronage outside of the Indian subcontinent.
Because India came under British rule, Hindustani was well promoted by the policies issued by the British to parry the focus on the Persian language. Division The literary community in northwestern India protested the move and wanted the language to use the local Devanagari script.
It was called the literary standard of Hindi and became Bihar's official language after it replaced Urdu in 1881. Because of this, a sectarian divide was established. Hindi was used by Hindus and the Muslims used Urdu. It became a formal linguistic division when Pakistan and India separately gained independence. Hindi and Urdu are closely related and they share similar grammar and phonology.
However, the lexicons of each language were borrowed from different sources. Hindi borrowed heavily from Sanskrit while most of Urdu's words came from Persian and Arabic. The distinction between the two is more pronounced in their written form. Hindi employs Devanagari script while Urdu uses the Perso-Arabic script in a modified form.
Only minor variations in short vowel phonemes exist between Urdu and Hindi. Urdu also has retroflex stops and the full set of aspirated stops characteristic of the Indo-Aryan language but not the full set of Perso-Arabic consonants. Pakistan's official language is Urdu, which is also one of India's official languages. Urdu's literary tradition is very rich, with poetry and prose being written since the 17th century and the 19th century, respectively. Strategically, Urdu is a vitally important language in the region.
Learning Urdu India is growing to be a very important country in the modern world as its people provide the web with plenty of content. It is also one of South Asia's most important consumer markets.
Urdu's grammar is quite easy and almost the same as the English grammar, as it contains all of the English language's grammatical concepts, which is one of the reasons why students find the concepts easy to grasp.
Although the speed in learning a language depends on the learner, it could take about six months to learn speaking, writing and reading in Urdu. Urdu is spoken in Pakistan, many parts of India, the Middle East, Nepal, Bangladesh and many other locations worldwide. In India, most of the Urdu speakers live in huge Muslim communities and in cities that used to be the power centers, like Hyderabad, Bhopal, Kashmir, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.
Learning the Urdu language allows you to gain access to other languages in the region. For one thing, it is closely related to Hindi, so you'll have a head start in this language if ever you want to pursue it after learning Urdu.
In terms of the writing system, Urdu uses the Nastaliq script, a modified Persian script that is a type of modified Arabic script. This particular script is also used to write Pashto, Persian, Punjabi and Kashmiri. You do not have that many characters to remember when writing Urdu. The language only has 35 scripts while Hindi has 46. Outside South Asia It's been said often that the British should learn to speak other languages, which is one of their weak points, considering that the country has international economic concerns.
While English the lingua franca in business, other languages are quickly gaining ground. With Brexit, the British should also think about learning other European languages. Britain used to be a mighty force in parts of Asia, a region of the world that is gaining ground in international trade.
Many companies in the West are trying to establish offshore bases in the region. If you are from any part of the West whose career goal is to be part of a multinational company that has multilingual staff, think of learning Urdu instead of learning German or French. It is not undermining the importance of German and French, but it is a fact that the number of students learning these language is going down. The new groups of languages students are most interested in are Portuguese, Urdu, Russian and Chinese.
The UK projects that these four languages would be dominant in the very near future as the countries where these languages are spoken are foreseen to be the new world markets. Thus they are encouraging more students to learn any of these languages. Other South Asian languages that are gaining interest include Punjabi, Gujarati and Bengali. Just imagine. Learning Urdu will help you to learn other South Asian languages, which could be a very distinct advantage.
You can work for a global company, teach or become a translator. It would be easier for you to study a host of regional languages, including Sindhi, Pashto, Punjabi, Balochi and Kurdish.
In the United States, the U.S. Department of Education and Department of State provide scholarship grants to study Urdu through the Foreign Language and Area Studies and Critical Language Scholarship. Aside from a career angle, knowing Urdu would allow you to understand the rich literary gems from the Indian subcontinent and fully enjoy the movies produced by Bollywood, which is the biggest film producer in the world.
Benefits of learning the Urdu Language While we are mentioning the many positives you can gain from learning Urdu, still a lot more benefits are forthcoming. • Learning Urdu helps improve your cognitive abilities. It trains your brain and keeps it strong and healthy. The introduction of new grammatical rules, new vocabulary, new sentence structures and forming new words are good exercises for the brain. • It increases your skills set. Globalization diminishes the boundaries among countries.
In order to survive the new environment, it is important to improve your set of skills, to have a market edge and more job chances. • As mentioned, India and Pakistan have rich histories and learning Urdu will open the doors to fascinating, mystical and intriguing cultures – from their age-old practices, traditions, values and norms.
You'll be able to read classic literature from the 14th century. You could read over 4,000 journals, understand shows from 74 TV stations and 70 radio stations.
• Neuroscientists say that that the graphic structure and sound system that are unique to the Urdu language activates the front part of the brain. This helps improve your analytical skills and heighten your capacity for making decisions. As you can see, a surplus of advantages can be gained from learning Urdu. Gaining access to other languages and learning the culture of India and Pakistan.
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Learn Urdu Through Hindi (हिंदी के माध्यम से उर्दू जानें) - Lesson - 1