Best date royal crown derby mark

best date royal crown derby mark

Royal Crown Derby English Bone Chine Imari Tea Cup. his Royal Crown Derby Imari Tea Cup is in very good pre-owned condition. Enlarge photos to see details. This Royal Crown Derby English Bone Chine Im The base is date marked “LIV” for the year 1991 and has the initial marks of the artists who painted it. The base has the Royal Crown Derby back stamp and stopper. Royal Crown Derby Imari 7 1/4 Plate # 2451 Vintage [f]. $32.00. 11 ставки(ок). Flowers and leaves in an Imari style design. marked on the base Royal Crown Derby Made in England 2451 . lovely 7 1/4 plate from England. I am very easy to get along with. Royal Crown Derby Traditional Imari Footed Cup & Saucer # 2451 Vintage [g]. $49.51. 6 ставки(ок).

best date royal crown derby mark

Derby Marks Early Derby Marks and newer Royal Crown Derby base marks. Derby marks are many but most follow the same theme, with a cypher surmounted by a crown. Dating early Derby is slightly more difficult than the more modern Royal Crown Derby, but dating Derby porcelain is much easier than many of the early . Derby porcelain was produced at three main factories. Those being … Nottingham Road from 1756 to 1848 King Street from 1848 to 1935 And; Osmaston Road from 1877 to modern times.

Nottingham Road, Derby Marks (1756 to 1848) In 1775, George III granted Derby Porcelain the right to incorporate the crown into the Derby backstamp.

c1770 Derby Chelsea interlinked D and Anchor mark. William Duesbury fully acquired the famous Chelsea Works factory in 1770 and the Chelsea anchor mark and Derby ‘D’ were merged to form the Chelsea-Derby mark. Patch Period c1756-1765 Marks on the bases of early soft paste Derby figures indicate the points where supports were used to prevent the porcelain sticking during the firing of the glaze. c1782-1825 Painted mark with Crown and D. Blue / Puce – 1782-1800 Red – 1806-1825 c1806-1825 Painted mark with Crown above crossed batons and D below.

Blue/Puce – 1782-1800 Red – 1806-1825 1820s’ Large crown in red with large D below. 1825-1848 The earliest Bloor Derby Mark Robert Bloor took control of the Derby factory in 1811 and immediately began to build a team of very fine painters. 1825-1848 Later variation of the Bloor Derby Mark with crown in the centre. Incised Marks Derby also used incised marks on their early figures, consisting of N o and a number. The mark pictured showing N o314 on a seated figure. King Street, Derby Marks (1848 to 1935) A group of former employees set up a factory in King Street in Derby, and continued to use the moulds, patterns and trademarks of the original business, but not the name.

No mechanical processes were used and no two pieces produced were exactly the same. Among the items preserved was the original potters wheel used by the Duesburys. 1863-1866 Stevenson and Hancock mark Showing Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side. D below. Usually in red 1916-1935 William Larcombe mark Showing Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side.

D below and interlinked WL beneath. Usually in red 1917-1934 Larcombe and Paget mark. Showing Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side and D below but with revised Larcombe monogram showing the L rising into a P.

Usually in red c1934 Paget mark. Showing P above Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side and D below. Usually in puce. 1934-1935 Later Paget mark.

Showing Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side. With D below and crossed P’s below. Usually in red Osmaston Road, Derby Marks (1877 to modern times) In 1877, Royal Crown Derby Porcelain moved to an impressive new factory at Osmaston Road and introduced new marks. 1877-1890 Showing Crown above interlinked D’s. First mark to use the interlinked D’s below the crown. More often seen with the year cypher below. 1891-c1940 Showing Royal Crown Derby in a circle above a Crown above interlinked D’s with year cypher below.

1891-1921 with vertical ENGLAND at side 1921-1940 with MADE IN ENGLAND 1921-1965 Showing Royal Crown Derby above Crown above interlinked D’s with MADE IN ENGLAND below in red.

This mark showing pattern number 2451. 1921-1965 Showing Royal Crown Derby above Crown above interlinked D’s with MADE IN ENGLAND below in blue. This mark with pattern name KENDAL and design for 1909-1910. 1940-1945 Wartime mark usually in dark green and without year cypher. Showing Crown above interlinked D’s above ROYAL CROWN DERBY – MADE IN ENGLAND – Design Reg. No. 1921-1965 Showing Crown above interlinked D’s with ROYAL CROWN DERBY – MADE IN ENGLAND This example with retailers details for ‘Plummer of New York’ and roman Numeral based year cypher of XVII for 1954.

c1950 Showing Royal Crown Derby above Crown above interlinked D’s with MADE IN ENGLAND (BONE CHINA) above pattern number and name. In blue. 1964-1975 Showing DERBY CHINA above crown with interlinked D’s above ROYAL CROWN DERBY – ENGLISH BONE CHINA. Often including pattern name and number and with Roman Numeral year cypher.

1976 to modern times The crown and interlinked D’s are now within a circle of ROYAL CROWN DERBY – ENGLISH BONE CHINA. The © copyright character below the Derby logo. This mark including popular Imari pattern number 1128 and with Roman Numeral year cypher for 1982. Royal Crown Derby Year Cyphers (1880 to modern times) Derby porcelain also included a date cypher with most base marks produced at the Osmaston Road factory. This took the form of a small graphic illustration below the main mark and later, from 1938, a Roman numeral.

The V of 1904 can be confused with the Roman V of 1942 as can the X for 1901 and the Roman X for 1947. To differentiate both the earlier X and V you should check for ENGLAND or MADE IN ENGLAND, the later piece will have MADE IN ENGLAND. Derby Roman Numeral Year Cyphers : 1938 – I 1939 – II 1940 – III 1941 – IV 1942 – V 1943 – VI 1944 – VII 1945 – VIII 1946 – IX 1947 – X 1948 – XI 1949 – XII 1950 – XIII 1951 – XIV 1952 – XV 1953 – XVI 1954 – XVII 1955 – XVIII 1956 – XIX 1957 – XX 1958 – XXI 1959 – XXII 1960 – XXIII 1961 – XXIV 1962 – XXV 1963 – XXVI 1964 – XXVII 1965 – XXVIII 1966 – XXIX 1967 – XXX 1968 – XXXI 1969 – XXXII 1970 – XXXIII 1971 – XXXIV 1972 – XXXV 1973 – XXXVI 1974 – XXXVII 1975 – XXXVIII 1976 – XXXIX 1977 – XL 1978 – XLI 1979 – XLII 1980 – XLIII 1981 – XLIV 1982 – XLV 1983 – XLVI 1984 – XLVII 1985 – XLVIII 1986 – XLIX 1987 – L 1988 – LI 1989 – LII 1990 – LIII 1991 – LIV 1992 – LV 1993 – LVI 1994 – LVII 1995 – LVIII 1996 – LIX 1997 – LX 1998 – LXI 1999 – LXII 2000 – MM Interlinked 2001 – MMI 2002 – MMII 2003 – MMIII 2004 – MMIV 2005 – MMV 2006 – MMVI 2007 – MMVII 2008 – MMVIII All Royal Crown Derby marks can be attributed to one of the three Derby factories.

Simply compare the style of the Derby mark and date the year cypher used to come as close as possible to the date of manufacture. After dating you will want to then attribute the piece to an individual artist, if possible, and then assess how rare or sought after it may be based on it’s age and the popularity of the artist. Derby figures with the incised mark ‘ N‘ are particularly sought after and date to between c1765 and c1785. The early can be attributed to the Nottingham Road factory and date to between c1770 and c1784.

The c1782 to 1825 marks of the Nottingham Rd factory can be quite untidy in appearance. They were handrawn in blue or puce until 1806 and in red after this Some particularly fine painters worked at the King Street factory including Fredrick Chivers, Sampson Hancock, W Hargreaves and George Jessop. Any Derby piece by the above artists would be of great interest to serious Derby collectors.


best date royal crown derby mark

best date royal crown derby mark - Exhibition Marks first phase of £50,000 investment in Royal Crown Derby Visitor Centre


best date royal crown derby mark

• • • • • • A Quaint Diary-the Duesburys and their work-characteristics of Derby Porcelain-the Bloor Period-patterns and Potters-marks found on Derby Porcelain The exact date at which porcelain was first made at Derby is not known, but information culled from a work-book of William Duesbury, and quoted by Mr. Bemrose in A Chelsea-derby plate with laurel green decoration which was copied at Bristol From the Fry Collection his beautiful book, “Bow, Chelsea, and Derby Porcelain,” sheds some light on the subject, and gives us a most interesting insight into the doings of Duesbury before he settled at Derby.

A Potter’s Diary In the year 1742, when only 17 years of age, he had already left his native Staffordshire and was working in London as an enameller. From 1751 to 1753 he was employed in London, decorating china ” figars,” as he called them.

These he refers to in his work-book, or diary, as “Bow or Bogh,” “Chelsea,” “Darby “and “Staffordshire.” From this we gather that pottery works of some kind were in existence at that time in Derby. Some of the descriptions of figures noted in the book are very amusing, as, for instance, ” How to color the group, a Gentleman Busing a Lady, gentlm a gold trimd cote, a pink wastcot crimson and trimd with gold and black breeches and socs, the lade a flourd sack with yellow robings, a black stomegar her hare black, his wig powded.” Or, again, a “Chellsea Nurs,” “a pair of Baccosses,” a “harty choake.” Early Derby Porcelain In 1765 porcelain works were established at Derby.

The draft of an agreement is in existence which shows that a partnership was proposed between William Duesbury, John Heath, banker and proprietor of the Cockpit Hill pottery works, and Andrew Planche, a ” china maker.” We hear no more of Planche, who would seem to have been a French refugee, but Duesbury and Heath were partners for some years.

The factory was situated on the Nottingham Road, beyond St. Mary’s Bridge. We gather most of our information as to the articles at first manufactured here from old advertisements of sales in London. Such an advertisement appeared in December. 1756, which stated that by order of the “Derby Porcelain Manufactory, a curious collection of figures, jars, sauce-boats and services, etc., after the finest Dresden models,” would be sold at “Oliver Cromwell’s Drawing-room, near the Admiralty.” Chelsea-Derby teapot, cup and saucer, decorated in laurel green.

It was during this period that the best porcelain was made From the Fry Collection These sales must have been highly successful, as in 1758 the works were enlarged and from the South Kensington Museum the number of workmen doubled. In spite of this prosperity, however, it is a singular fact that hardly any specimen of Derby porcelain made before the year 1770 is known, nor can any Derby mark be assigned to an earlier period.

William Duesbury died in 1786, and his son of the same name carried on the business till his death, in 1797. This second William Duesbury had taken into partnership, in 1795, Michael Kean,the celebrated miniature painter. A third William Duesbury came into possession on the death of his father, and managed the works till 1811, when the factory was leased to Robert Bloor. The works were sold in 1848.

Beautifully painted teacup and saucer, with basket border. Examples of Derby porcelain of the best period Chelsea-Derby China In 1770, Duesbury purchased the Chelsea works and the two factories were carried on simultaneously till 1784, when the stock and plant were removed to Derby. Duesbury also bought the Bow and Longton Hall works, and the introduction of moulds, patterns, and workmen from these factories naturally left their mark upon the products of that period.

Derby porcelain is soft paste, and is straw-coloured when looked through in a strong light. The first body contained glassy grit and clay; then “soapy rock” was added, and in 1770 bone ash was introduced from Chelsea.

This was the Chelsea-derby period, when the best porcelain was made. During the Bloor period the paste became harder, more opaque, and lost much of its fine quality. From the first, beautiful figures and groups were made at Derby. Many of these were the work of Spengler, a modeller who came from Zurich and worked for the second Duesbury. This man seems to have been influenced by the sentimental and would-be classical taste of the day.

Pair of Chelsea-derby plates painted in colours and gilt From the South Kensington Museum of his shepherds and shepherdesses have heads copied from Roman reliefs, and bear expressions of countenance quite unsuitable to their calling.

The modelling, however, is very fine. Among other beautiful figures by Spengler are those two well-known subjects “The Dead Bird” and “The Gardener.” These and several others are in white unglazed biscuit porcelain.

The Work Of The Factory Magnificent vases were a feature of the Derby factory. These are famous for their beautiful ground colours and the excellence of their painting. Blue, green, and yellow were generally used, but a wonderful claret colour became famous, and excited great admiration, both in this country and abroad. Flowers, birds, and landscapes were painted by celebrated artists, Zacharia Boreman and William Pegg being amongst their number.

Another landscape painter, named Hill, did some fine work for Duesbury. He had lost the three first fingers of his right hand, but managed to hold his brush between the stumps.

Some beautiful and costly services were made at this factory, amongst them a dessert service for the then Prince of Wales, a service decorated with views for the Duke of Devonshire, and one painted with fruit subjects on a green ground for the Earl of Shrewsbury. The best known Derby porcelain is that called Derby-japan. Of this there are many renderings, known as “Old,” “Witches,” “Grecian,” “Rock,” “Rose,” “Exeter,” and several others. This style of decoration was introduced by William Kean, and was afterwards copied at Worcester and by Spode and the Davenports.

The colours are blue underglaze (always painted by women), green, red, and gold, for which men were employed. The design is always more or less Oriental in character, and it is said that it owed its great popularity to the fact that it was considered a “good candle-light pattern.” The first authentic mark is the combined D and anchor of the Chelsea-derby period (1770-1784), which was used at both places.

A jewelled crown was added in 1773. This is found above the anchor, or without the anchor and above the D. About 1782, two crossed batons and six dots were added under the crown, and the D, or a monogram, D K, signifying Duesbury and Kean. Chinese stands and tables in underglaze blue are found as marks on some pieces of Derby porcelain.

The D alone occurs upon earl), pieces. All these marks may be found in gold, blue, puce, brown, green, or black. The mark in red belongs to the later period, and the word Bloor, enclosed in a circular or oval strap, was used from 1811 till 1844, after which time a Roman D, surmounted by a crown, came into use.

The Costliness of Derby China Derby china has always been costly. Dr. Johnson remarked on his famous visit to the works in 1777 that he could buy silver for the price that was then charged for good specimens of this porcelain, and things have not altered very much since his day. Genuine examples of a good period command large prices when a collection comes to the hammer. For instance, at the sale of the Barry Barry china, a service of this porcelain realised nearly £500; and at the Kidd sale, in 1903, sums varying from three and a half to fifteen guineas each were easily obtained for such pieces as plates and dishes.

Specimens, however, of the Bloor period are comparatively cheap, for this period was one of undoubted decline as regards artistic value. The object of the manufacturers seems to have been that of a large output of specimens rather than the production of beautiful work, and the inevitable Nemesis of loss of reputation and inferior custom followed this short-sighted and suicidal policy.

Derby Porcelain Marks There is something reassuring about factories like Worcester and Derby which have marked much of their production since the middle of the 18th century. The marking of porcelain makes scholarship and collecting much more agreeable. However, I would like to tell a cautionary tale of hand painted Derby marks featuring the crown over a ‘D’ format used from around 1780 until 1825.

Having several examples at hand allowed me to test the conventional wisdom that pieces from the period in question could be dated by virtue of the care with which the crowned ‘D’ Derby mark was painted. Both Godden and Twitchett subscribe to the theory that the care in which the marks are painted deteriorates over time. Fig 1. This modern Royal Crown Derby mark {from 1978} is descended from the hand painted marks of the early 19th century.

To understand the assumptions underlying this theory, requires a brief review of the factory’s history. The fame of the early factory justly rests on what are called the ‘dry edged’ figures associated with Andrew Planché who established the porcelain works in Derby around 1748.

Archaeological research has revealed moulds for dry edged figures in which the initials AP are carved; evidence suggesting Planché’s rôle extended to sculptor and model maker.

There are no marks upon the pieces of this period. One of the surprises of reading Hilary Young’s recent account, English Porcelain, 1745-95, is the position enjoyed by the Derby porcelain factory.

Young constructs a ‘league ladder’ of 18th century porcelain makers based on their contemporaries’ assessments which puts Derby atop the list of English manufacturers. Part of this success can be attributed to William Duesbury, who ran the factory from 1756 to 1786. The phrase ‘ran the factory’ does not adequately describe Duesbury’s transformation of Planché’s workshop into a nationally important producer.

It was his taste and awareness of the market which allowed Derby it’s standing in Young’s ladder. Also worthy of note, is an assertion by Derby’s London agent in 1777 that ‘Duesbury had the Royal Appointment from 1775’†; which may explain the crown in their mark.

The factory was next run by Duesbury’s son, William Duesbury II. His role was crucial in combining sound business with beautiful porcelain, making Derby one of the pre-eminent factories in Europe. In 1796 William Duesbury II took Michael Kean into partnership and upon Duesbury’s death, in 1797, Kean married his widow. Kean ran the factory until 1811 when he sold it to Robert Bloor. Bloor had been a clerk to Duesbury and Kean so knew the business well. It was during the Bloor period that painters like the famous William ‘Quaker’ Pegg were engaged in creating pieces of the highest quality.

It is here our interest ends, because it was Robert Bloor who introduced the printed circular mark around 1825 (see figure 2).

Fig 2. The mark c.1825 adopted by Robert Bloor for the factory on a very typical Derby coffee can of the late 1820s. The plain loop handle has been repaired with wire staples.

Our earliest example (figure 3) is a fluted coffee can with delicate sprigged decoration in blue, green and puce enamel and gilding. With its plain loop handle and sixteen vertical facets, it is of identical shape to the example illustrated in plate 147 of Michael Berthoud’s Compendium of British Cups. The painter or gilder’s number 129 appears under the crowned ‘D’ mark.

The cup is decorated with stylised cornflowers, which would almost certainly be described as ‘Chantilly sprig’ today.

The paste is beautifully white and lustrous without any sign of the crazing which was to become a regular feature of later Derby porcelain. The gilding has worn significantly on all protruding surfaces.

Fig. 3 A Coffee can c.1795 bearing a puce mark of either William Duesbury II or Duesbury and Kean. The matching saucer is identically marked and numbered but the mark is much larger because of the greater space on the base of the saucer. Early Duesbury II marks were painted in blue or puce and this practice continued until 1806.

The lack of care taken with the mark depicted in figure 3 is noticeable. The ‘D’ looks more like a lower case ‘b’ and the crown is skewed. Fig. 4 A Derby saucer with a very faint mark in the Bute shape with pale blue border. The matching saucer, coffee can and tea cup all bear the same mark. In figure 4, we see a very faint mark on a Bute shaped saucer with pale blue border and bands of gilding and gilt foliage. The first thing we notice about this mark is the iron (ferric oxide) orange colour usually associated with production after 1806.

The style of the matching saucer, coffee can and tea cup support this, appearing to be c.1810-15 (although shapes may continue in production for years). The inclusion of the balls dotted around the top of the crown suggest this is an early orange mark. The balls upon the crown have become perfunctory and the three dots are difficult to distinguish.

This hardly agrees with conventional wisdom that the earlier marks are ‘carefully drawn until c.1820’. All of the marks on the surviving pieces of the set, including bun dishes, trios and slops bowls exhibit the same mark.

The eccentricities of the mark suggest all were painted by the same hand in fact the painter or gilder’s number ‘2’ appears in orange, near the rim on each piece. As the practice of placing the painter or gilder’s numbers near the rim started around 1810, there is support for the early dating of this piece.

In the next three examples, however, we see the need for a system that dates the marks more accurately. These three plates are all the same shape and figures 5 and 6 are of identical size. All fall within the period when Robert Bloor was the head of the works; in these cases roughly around 1820. In figure 5, we see a dessert dish decorated in a style I associate with late Georgian Derby, which includes bands of gilding, gilt foliage, brightly enamelled roses, daisies and bright green foliage.

The roses are especially charming and echo the ‘Prentice Plate’ painted by William Billingsley, c. 1790, which he painted to teach apprentices how to paint these distinctive roses. On the reverse we can see characteristic crazing and a crowned ‘D’ mark painted with some skill and great speed as well as a small painter or gilder’s number (27) near the rim.

The balls from the crown have disappeared, the cross has lost its shape, but the three dots either side of the crossed strokes are clearly distinguishable.

Fig. 5 A Derby dessert dish c. 1820, with a border of gilded foliage, half hearted daisies and skilfully executed roses. The dating of the next plate (figure 6) is a little more difficult. It appears to be a descendant of the almost geometrical swirling border patterns of around 1800 but incorporates bolder, more varied colours and intricate foliage.

In this set, the painter or gilder’s numbers are much higher (one is 68 the other is 74). Each plate also has another number under the central mark (11 in the case of 68, 22 and 39 in the case of 74). It is fascinating to have six plates by at least five different artists and note the slight variations in shapes and spacial arrangements. In this case the marks appear to be painted by the artist whose number appears closet to the mark; probably at the same time. This suggests the rim marks may be gilder’s marks.

These plates present a problem, too. There are two examples (figure 6a) of a mark painted by ‘39’ which have the balls on the crown rather like the marks in figure 3. The crossed lines and balls below the crown are different, as are ‘D’s.

This makes the mark look like a very early mark… which I don’t think it can be. Fig. 6 One of six Derby dessert plates, c. 1820. Fig. 6a The mark which appears on two of the Dessert plates of the same pattern as figure 6. It appears on intital inspection to be like the mark in figure 3.

The third example (figure 7), like that in figure 5, has a characteristic Derby decoration including ‘Billingsley’ roses.

The other stylised flowers represent cornflowers and honeysuckle. It has a small painter or gilder’s number (23) on the base, close to the foot rim. In spite of characteristic crazing, this plate still has a shiny, attractive glaze. The mark has taken on quite impressionistic qualities; it has only a passing similarity to a crown and ‘D’.

Fig. 7 A Derby plate with cornflowers, roses and honeysuckle in a band around the rim with gilded bands. The mark is almost ‘impressionist’ it is executed with so little care. While it is tempting to assume that the plates in figures 5, 6 and 7 can be safely dated by the years when the patterns on them were most fashionable, difficulties present themselves. Patterns remained in the books for much longer periods than the ten years with which we are dealing.

All these patterns could have been produced simultaneously. The care with which the marks are painted, however, appears to support a chronology of figure 5 first, followed by 6 and then 7. Holding the plates and inspecting them closely, this appears to be perfectly reasonable.

Remember, however, the plates in the dessert set of six (figure. 6) have widely varying marks: two bear marks that look earlier than figure 5.

Fig. 8 A Bloor Derby coffee can and its mark. Another reason why I would doubt dating based soley on the painted mark, is the example of the coffee can in figure 8. It features a Japanese inspired pattern based on cobalt blue, iron (ferric oxide) orange and gilding. Its earlier date may be reflected in the more restricted colour palette than the later example (figure 2) but both retain an oriental feel. The square handle, which is obviously a derived from the square handle referred to as ‘French handle’, would have been the height of fashion in 1810.

The mark however, which is the second most imprecise observed here, would suggest the mid 1820s with conventional mark dating. Although this coffee can has a repaired square handle, the same pattern appears in Twichett’s Derby Porcelain*, with a Grecian handle and is dated between 1810-20. The ‘H’ beneath the mark remains a mystery to me, but may be related to the painter number, II, beneath the mark in figure 6.

In Conclusion, I am fairly sure that there is no simple chronological progression from well painted to badly painted marks. The presence of painter or gilder’s numbers suggest there was no reason for each painter to personalise their version of the Derby mark but there is clear evidence that they did. The fact is, we still need to take into account all the factors involved in dating a piece of ceramic (the weight and translucency of the body, the lustre or crazing of the glaze, style, decoration, abrasions and marks) when assessing the age of Derby china of the Duesbury & Kean and Bloor periods.

While we can add the care with which the mark is painted to the list of these factors, we can not rely on it as the sole dating technique. Bow (1-39) Soft paste porcelain factory established in 1744. Transferred to Derby in 1776. Some of the marks given have been hesitantly attributed to Bow and a number of them are questionable.

They are generally incised or painted in blue or red. 1-14 15-21 Painted in red and blue. 22 Monogram of Tebo? Impressed. 23,24 Monogram of Thomas Frye? 25-30 Various workmen’s marks. 31 Frye? 32-39 Brampton (40,41) Established in the 18th century. A few factories here in the 19th century producing brownware.

40, 41 From 1826. Factory originally Oldfield, Madin, Wright, Hewitt & Co., est. 1810. Bristol (42-44) (1-28) Pottery made here in early 18th century, porcelain later in same century.

Champion’s porcelain factory established about 1770 under name, Wm Cookworthy & Co. Formerly at Plymouth, the work is similar.

Factory was sold about 1778. Marks are in red, blue, gold, etc. 42 Joseph Flower. From 1743. On Delft. 43 Michael Edkins. Painter on Delft. 44 About 1750. In relief. Derby porcelain also included a date cypher with most base marks produced at the Osmaston Road factory. This took the form of a small graphic illustration below the main mark and later, from 1938, a Roman numeral.

The V of 1904 can be confused with the Roman V of 1942 as can the X for 1901 and the Roman X for 1947. To differentiate both the earlier X and V you should check for ENGLAND or MADE IN ENGLAND, the later piece will have MADE IN ENGLAND.

c1782-1825 Painted mark with Crown and D. Blue / Puce – 1782-1800 Red – 1806-1825 c1806-1825 Painted mark with Crown above crossed batons and D below. Blue/Puce – 1782-1800 Red – 1806-1825 1820s Large crown in red with large D below.

1825-1848Later variation of the Bloor Derby Mark with crown in the centre. The earliest Bloor Derby Mark 1825-1848 Robert Bloor took control of the Derby factory in 1811 and immediately began to build a team of very fine painters. c1770 Derby Chelsea interlinked D and Anchor mark.

William Duesbury fully acquired the famous Chelsea Works factory in 1770 and the Chelsea anchor mark and Derby ‘D’ were merged to form the Chelsea-Derby mark. c1756-1765 Marks on the bases of early soft paste Derby figures indicate the points where supports were used to prevent the porcelain sticking during the firing of the glaze. A group of former employees set up a factory in King Street in Derby, and continued to use the moulds, patterns and trademarks of the original business, but not the name.

No mechanical processes were used and no two pieces produced were exactly the same. Among the items preserved was the original potters wheel used by the Duesburys. 1863-1866 Stevenson and Hancock mark Showing Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side. D below. Usually in red c1934 Paget mark. Showing P above Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side and D below.

Usually in puce. 1934-1935 Later Paget mark. Showing Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side. With D below and crossed P’s below. Usually in red 1916-1935 William Larcombe mark Showing Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side. D below and interlinked WL beneath. Usually in red 1917-1934 Larcombe and Paget mark. Showing Crown above crossed batons with S and H at either side and D below but with revised Larcombe monogram showing the L rising into a P.

Usually in red Ormaston Road 1877- Modern Times 1877-1890 Showing Crown above interlinked D’s. First mark to use the interlinked D’s below the crown. More often seen with the year cypher below.

1891-c1940 Showing Royal Crown Derby in a circle above a Crown above interlinked D’s with year cypher below. 1891-1921 with vertical ENGLAND at side 1921-1940 with MADE IN ENGLAND 1921-1965 Showing Royal Crown Derby above Crown above interlinked D’s with MADE IN ENGLAND below in blue.

This mark with pattern name KENDAL and design Registration Number for 1909-1910. 1921-1965 Showing Royal Crown Derby above Crown above interlinked D’s with MADE IN ENGLAND below in red. This mark showing pattern number 2451. c1950 Showing Royal Crown Derby above Crown above interlinked D’s with MADE IN ENGLAND (BONE CHINA) above pattern number and name. In blue. 121-1965 Showing Crown above interlinked D’s with ROYAL CROWN DERBY – MADE IN ENGLAND This example with retailers details for ‘Plummer of New York’ and roman Numeral based year cypher of XVII for 1954.

1976-modern times The crown and interlinked D’s are now within a circle of ROYAL CROWN DERBY – ENGLISH BONE CHINA. The © copyright character below the Derby logo. This mark including popular Imari pattern number 1128 and with Roman Numeral year cypher for 1982.

1940-1945 Wartime mark usually in dark green and without year cypher. Showing Crown above interlinked D’s above ROYAL CROWN DERBY – MADE IN ENGLAND – Design Reg. No. 1964-1975 Showing DERBY CHINA above crown with interlinked D’s above ROYAL CROWN DERBY – ENGLISH BONE CHINA.

Often including pattern name and number and with Roman Numeral year cypher. Credits: antiquesndynasties.com Mrs. Willoughby Hodgson © 2013 gauk Network Copyright & Trademark Notices gauk Media Ltd All Rights Reserved artiFact™ is an established Trade Mark No part of this site shall be copied or reproduced in any way whatsoever without first agreeing to the licences outlined under copyright.

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best date royal crown derby mark

Pair of vases, 1772-1774, Derby Porcelain Factory ( no. 485-1875) The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company is the oldest or second oldest remaining English manufacturer, based in , (disputed by , who claim 1751 as their year of establishment).

The company, particularly known for its high-quality , having produced and ornamental items since approximately 1750. It was known as '' until 1773, when it became 'Crown Derby', the 'Royal' being added in 1890. The factory closed down in the past under ownership, but production was revived under the renewed ownership of Hugh Gibson and Pearson family.

Three figures dated 1758 - now in In 1745 André Planché, a immigrant from , settled in Derby, where between 1747 and 1755 he made vases and . At the beginning of 1756 he formed a business partnership with (1725–1786), a formerly at and , and the banker John Heath.

This was the foundation of the Derby company, although production at the , just outside the town, had begun before then, as evidenced by a jug dated 1750, also in the possession of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Planché disappeared from the scene almost at once, and the business was developed by Duesbury and Heath, and later Duesbury alone.

A talented entrepreneur, Duesbury developed a new body which contained glass frit, and calcined bone. This enabled the factory to begin producing high-quality tableware.

He quickly established Derby as a leading manufacturer of dinner services and figurines by employing the best talents available for modelling and painting. Figure painting was done by Richard Askew, particularly skilled at painting , and James Banford. Zachariah Boreman and John Brewer painted landscapes, still lifes, and pastorals. Intricate floral patterns were designed and painted by .

In 1770, Duesbury further increased the already high reputation of Derby by his acquisition of the famous Chelsea porcelain factory in London.

From this point the Derby paste included . He operated the Chelsea factory on its original site until 1784 (the products of this period are known as 'Chelsea-Derby'), when he demolished the buildings and transferred the assets, including the stock, patterns and moulds, and many of the workmen, to Derby. Again, in 1776, he acquired the remainder of the formerly prestigious , of which he also transferred the portable elements to Derby.

In 1773, Duesbury’s hard work was rewarded by , who after visiting the Derby works granted him permission to incorporate the royal crown into the Derby backstamp, after which the company was known as 'Crown Derby'.

In 1786, William Duesbury died, leaving the company to his son, (1763–1796), also a talented director, who besides keeping the reputation of the company at its height, developed a number of new and body types.

Michael Kean William Duesbury II did not live to fulfil his promise: he died in 1797 at the age of 34 and the company was taken over by his business partner, an Irishman named , who later married Duesbury's widow. He seems not to have enjoyed good relations with the highly skilled workforce, and many eminent artists left.

Others however produced good work under his management, including Moses Webster, a flower painter who replaced Billingsley, Richard Dodson (who specialised in birds), George Robertson (land- and seascapes) and Cuthbert Lawton (hunting scenes). The best-known artist of this time was , a , famed for his striking and idiosyncratic flower painting. He started in 1797 but his religious beliefs led him to the conclusion that painting was sinful and he left in 1800.

He returned in 1813, but left again in 1820. Despite much good work, the Kean period was disruptive and the company suffered financially. William Duesbury III, born in 1790, son of William Duesbury II, took over the factory when he came of age, and Kean having sold his interest to his father-in-law, William Duesbury's grandfather, named Sheffield, the concern continued under the name of Duesbury & Sheffield. Robert Bloor in the shape of a stacked pile of Derby porcelain plates. Made by Hudson Scott & Sons for , 1906 In 1815, the factory was leased to the firm's salesman and clerk, Robert Bloor, and the Duesburys played no further part in it.

Bloor borrowed heavily to be able to make the payments demanded but proved himself to be a highly able businessman in his ways of recouping losses and putting the business back on a sound financial footing.

He also possessed a thorough appreciation of the aesthetic side of the business, and under him the company produced works that were richly coloured and elegantly styled, including brightly coloured Japanese patterns, generally featuring intricate geometric patterns layered with various floral designs.

These designs proved extremely and lastingly popular, and Derby continued to thrive. In 1845, however, Bloor died, and after three years under Thomas Clarke, the Cockpit Works were sold and the factory closed in 1848. King Street A group of former employees set up a factory in King Street in Derby, and continued to use the moulds, patterns and trademarks of the former business, although not the name, so keeping alive the Derby traditions of fine craftsmanship.

No mechanical processes were used, and no two pieces produced were exactly the same. Among the items preserved was the original of the Duesburys, still owned by the present Royal Derby Company. Osmaston Road In 1877, an impressive new factory was built by new owners of the Crown Derby name in Osmaston Road, Derby, thus beginning the modern period of Derby porcelain.

Crown Derby’s patterns became immensely popular during the late , as their romantic and lavish designs exactly met the popular taste of the period.

Royal Crown Derby In 1890, appointed Crown Derby to be "" and by granted them the title "The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company". In 1935 Royal Crown Derby acquired the King Street factory, thus reuniting the two strands of the business. Allied Potteries In 1964, the company was acquired by S. Pearson and Son and became part of the Allied English Potteries Group, later to be joined by . In 2000, Hugh Gibson, a former director of and a member of the Pearson family, led a buy-out, making Royal Crown Derby once again an independent and privately owned concern, which at present (2006) employs about 300 people at the Osmaston Road works.

Present product lines include paperweights, introduced in 1981 and immensely popular. Royal Crown Derby also continue to produce patterns in the Imari style, distinguished for its rich colours and intricate gilding, including the dinnerware ranges Old Imari, Traditional Imari, Red Aves, Blue Mikado (designed by Thomas Amos Reed), and Olde Avesbury.

In 2013, Hugh Gibson retired and sold the company to of Stoke-on-Trent. The Derby factory and visitor centre remain open. According to the Royal Crown Derby website, Steelite "remains firmly committed to the highest quality UK manufacture and sets its sights on launching into a new market with a new brand ‘Royal Crown Derby Entertains’ providing fine bone china tableware to major hotels restaurants and hospitality venues throughout the world." In 2016, the company was bought by Kevin Oakes, formerly chief executive of both Crown Derby and Steelite.

• The original agreement survives in the . • Honey, 150 • . Retrieved 15 December 2013. • . Derby Telegraph. 28 June 2016 . Retrieved 30 June 2016. • J. F. Blacker. he ABC of collecting old English china (London : Opinion Curio Club, 1908) p.

101. • Honey, W.B., Old English Porcelain, 1977 (3rd edn.), Faber and Faber, • Barret, Franklin A[llen], and A.L. Thorpe. Derby Porcelain (London) 1971. • Bradley, Gilbert, Judith Anderson, and Robin Barkla. Derby Porcelain, 1750-1798 (Heneage) 1992. Gilbert Bradley edited a Derby Porcelain International Society Newsletter, c.

1985-95. • Bradshaw, P., Derby Porcelain Figures 1750-1848 (London: Faber Monographs), 1990. • John W, William Billingsley 1758-1828 1968.

• Murdoch, J. and J. Twitchett. Painters and the Derby China Works 1987. • Rice, Dennis. Derby Porcelain: The Golden Years 1750-1770 1983. • Sargeant, M, Royal Crown Derby (Princes Risborough), 2000. • Twitchett, John, Derby Porcelain (London: Antique Collectors' Guide), (1980), 2006.

• Twitchett John and Henry Sandon. Landscapes on Derby and Worcester Porcelain 1984. • Twitchett, John and B. Bailey, Royal Crown Derby 1988.


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