Manchester lies at the heart of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. The city proper has a population of around half a million, while the larger conurbation, referred to as either Greater Manchester or Manchester City Region, has over 2.7 million inhabitants. Dubbed (unofficially) The Capital of the North, Manchester is known for its influence on the histories of industry and music, as well as its world-renowned sporting connections. Manchester is home to the UK's largest airport .
If there’s one cuisine that Manchester does really well, it’s Indian food. From the classic cuisine of the curry mile to the decadent in the city centre and a scattering of South , there’s a whole spectrum of Indian dishes to try in the city. Whittling down a seemingly endless number of restaurants can seem daunting, so we’ve pulled together a list of six of the very best Indian eateries. If you’re seeking Manchester’s most glamourous curry house, let Asha’s be your first port of call.
Located on Peter Street, this multi-award winning restaurant has been featured in the Michelin Guide and is a favourite haunt of local celebrities. Expect to pay more here than in other Indian restaurants in the city, but the exquisite food, elegant surroundings and attentive service all make it worthwhile. The menu takes traditional Indian dishes and gives them a contemporary twist, serving classic flavours of curry with innovative twists and unusual meats such as lobster and guinea fowl.
A newcomer to Manchester, but a firm favourite in neighbouring Leeds for some years now, Bundobust expertly combines Indian street food with craft ales, drawing in both foodies and beer lovers.
Entering through a small doorway on Piccadilly, you’ll be blown away when you step into the gigantic light-filled basement restaurant and realise that you can order everything on the menu for just £66. There’s a very casual vibe here, going up to the bar to order your food which arrives at the table in paper pots, but it works.
Already being hailed as some of the most delicious Indian food in Manchester, even meat-eaters will be delighted by the exclusively vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free menu. Highlights include biryanai bhaji balls, bundo chaat and the vada pav, Mumbai’s favourite burger.
Akbar’s may be a chain, but its Castlefield restaurant is always filled with people who have come from all across the city to sample its delicious cuisine and gigantic naan breads. This is the perfect place for lovers of a traditional English curry, as all the classics such as tikka masala, vindaloo and biryani are on the menu, but you’ll also find a delicious offering of Lahori specialities for the more adventurous.
A word of warning, the naan breads are twice as big as you would expect, but one of them dangling from a hook will complete the experience. It may be a tram journey out of the city centre and on first impressions when arriving you may seem disappointed by the casual canteen layout, but look around you.
Lily’s is always packed with queues snaking around its small interior for people ordering takeaway. Locals and foodie insiders class Lily’s as a hidden gem, one of the best Indian restaurants in Manchester. Focusing on Southern Indian cuisine, head here at lunch to enjoy a delicious thali or in the evening to indulge in a paneer curry or a masala dosa. Ensure that you order the peas kachoris on the side with a large helping of delicious luminous green coriander sauce.
Originally housed in a tiny café in Cheadle, Indian Tiffin Room’s new First Street site is now one of the most popular Indian restaurants in the city centre. South Indian street food is the main fare here, proving to be a popular option at the moment in the city. Expect their own take on traditional thalis, dosa and chaats, with an exciting mix of kebabs and curries thrown into the mix.
If you’re looking to a healthier alternative to the traditional English curry, this is the place to head for fresh natural ingredients and authentic Indian flavours. We couldn’t pull together a list of Manchester’s best Indian restaurants without including at least one eatery on the Curry Mile. Rusholme’s infamous strip of curry houses are a popular choice with those living in south Manchester, especially as many stay open much later than their city centre counterparts.
Mughli’s focus is on its grill menu, concentrating on meat cooked on its charcoal pit contrary to the vegetarian street food focus of the new restaurants in town. If you’re after kebabs, lamb chops or chicken tikka, this is the place to head for salivating flavours.
best dating an indian manchester city centre - Manchester Hotels
This article is about the city of Manchester in England. For the larger conurbation, see . For the wider metropolitan county, see . For other uses, see . : Manchester ( ) is a city and in , , with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's , with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the to the south, the to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation.
The is . , () 0161 code E08000003 UKD33 () () () () () 95.3 billion – Per capita 38,233 () () () () () Councillors 96 Website The recorded began with the civilian settlement associated with the of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers and . It was a part of , although areas of south of the were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, , was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Manchester remained a , but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century.
Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in , and resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city. Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The opened in 1894, creating the and directly linking the city to the , 36 miles (58 km) to the west. Its fortune declined after the , owing to , but the led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the ranked Manchester as a , the highest-ranked British city apart from London.
Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK, after London and . It is notable for its , , , , , , and . was the world's first inter-city passenger ; scientists first , developed the and produced in the city. Manchester hosted the . The name Manchester originates from the name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians ( ). These are generally thought to represent a of an original , either from mamm- ("", in reference to a "") or from mamma ("", in reference to a ).
Both meanings are preserved in , such as mam meaning "breast" in and "mother" in Welsh. The -chester is a survival of ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement ("fort; fortified town"). Main article: The were the major in what is now known as ; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which now stands, opposite the banks of the . Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now and .
Following the in the 1st century, ordered the construction of a named in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in () and () were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in .
The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; its appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century. After the and , the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and sometime before the after 1066.
Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent . The of 1819 resulted in 15 deaths and several hundred injured Thomas de la Warre, , founded and constructed a collegiate church for the in 1421. The church is now ; the domestic premises of the college house and . The library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a in 1282.
Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of and , and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in 's words, "The fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester.
During the Manchester strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, granted it the right to elect its own . , who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the .
He was a diligent , turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in 1656. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton , but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance. The Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The , Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at to central Manchester.
The canal was extended to the Mersey at by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton. Manchester became the dominant marketplace for textiles produced in the surrounding towns. A , opened in 1729, and numerous large warehouses, aided commerce. In 1780, began construction of Manchester's first cotton mill. In the early 1800s, formulated his atomic theory in Manchester.
Industrial Revolution Manchester's history is concerned with . The great majority of took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing, and later the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods.
Manchester was dubbed "" and "Warehouse City" during the . In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the term "manchester" is still used for household linen: sheets, pillow cases, towels, etc. The industrial revolution brought about huge change in Manchester and was key to the increase in Manchester's population. Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the .
It developed a wide range of industries, so that by 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world." Engineering firms initially made machines for the cotton trade, but diversified into general manufacture.
Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Commerce was supported by financial service industries such as banking and insurance. Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: the canal system was extended, and Manchester became one end of the world's first intercity passenger railway—the . Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down.
In 1878 the (the forerunner of ) provided its first telephones to a firm in Manchester. The was built between 1888 and 1894, in some sections by canalisation of the Rivers Irwell and Mersey, running 36 miles (58 km) from to Eastham Locks on the tidal Mersey. This enabled oceangoing ships to sail right into the Port of Manchester.
On the canal's banks, just outside the borough, the world's first industrial estate was created at . Large quantities of machinery, including cotton processing plant, were exported around the world. A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes.
One such gathering ended with the of 16 August 1819. The economic school of developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the from 1838 onward. Manchester has a notable place in the history of and left-wing politics; being the subject of ' work ; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester, and when visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library.
The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet. The first was held in Manchester (at the Mechanics' Institute, David Street), from 2 to 6 June 1868. Manchester was an important cradle of the and the Movement. At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking (the , promoting and ), new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation.
It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: "What Manchester does today, the rest of the world does tomorrow." Manchester's golden age was perhaps the last quarter of the 19th century. Many of the great public buildings (including ) date from then. The city's cosmopolitan atmosphere contributed to a vibrant culture, which included the .
In 1889, when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a with even greater autonomy. An oil painting of in 1910 by Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population.
Historian noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke". An American visitor taken to Manchester's blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments". The number of in Manchester itself reached a peak of 108 in 1853. Thereafter the number began to decline and Manchester was surpassed as the largest centre of cotton spinning by in the 1850s and in the 1860s.
However, this period of decline coincided with the rise of the city as the financial centre of the region. Manchester continued to process cotton, and in 1913, 65% of the world's cotton was processed in the area. The First World War interrupted access to the export markets. Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester. Manchester suffered greatly from the and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture.
Blitz Like most of the UK, the Manchester area was mobilised extensively during the . For example, casting and machining expertise at 's locomotive works in was switched to bomb making; 's rubber works in made ; and just outside the city in , engineers made and bombers and built the engines to power them. Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the , and by late 1940 air raids were taking place against non-military targets.
The biggest took place during the "" on the nights of 22/23 and 24 December 1940, when an estimated 474 tonnes (467 long tons) of high explosives plus over 37,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including 165 warehouses, 200 business premises, and 150 offices.
376 were killed and 30,000 houses were damaged. was among the buildings seriously damaged; its restoration took 20 years. Post-Second World War Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in 1968.
By 1963 the port of Manchester was the UK's third largest, and employed over 3,000 men, but the canal was unable to handle the increasingly large ships. Traffic declined, and the port closed in 1982. Heavy industry suffered a downturn from the 1960s and was greatly reduced under the economic policies followed by 's government after 1979. Manchester lost 150,000 jobs in manufacturing between 1961 and 1983. after the .
There were no fatalities, but it was one of the most expensive man-made disasters. A large rebuilding project of Manchester ensued. Regeneration began in the late 1980s, with initiatives such as the , the , the , and (in Salford) the rebranding of the port as . Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city.
, one of the main thoroughfares into . Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the of 1867, arson in 1920, a series of explosions in 1939, and two bombs in 1992.
On Saturday 15 June 1996, the (IRA) carried out the , the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre. The largest to be detonated on British soil, the bomb injured over 200 people, heavily damaged nearby buildings, and broke windows 1⁄ 2 mile (800 m) away.
The cost of the immediate damage was initially estimated at £50 million, but this was quickly revised upwards. The final insurance payout was over £400 million; many affected businesses never recovered from the loss of trade. Since 2000 Spurred by the investment after the 1996 bomb, and aided by the , Manchester's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration. New and renovated complexes such as and the have become popular shopping, eating and entertainment destinations.
The is the UK's largest city centre shopping centre. Large sections of the city dating from the 1960s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel.
Old mills have been converted into modern apartments, has undergone extensive regeneration programmes, and million-pound lofthouse apartments have since been developed. The 169-metre tall, 47-storey , completed in 2006, is the tallest building in the UK outside London and when finished was the highest residential accommodation in Europe. In January 2007, the independent Casino Advisory Panel awarded Manchester a licence to build the only in the UK, however plans were officially abandoned in February 2008.
Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded by sections of the international press, British public, and government ministers as being the . The BBC reports that redevelopment of recent years has heightened claims that Manchester is the second city of the UK.
Manchester and Birmingham have traditionally competed as frontrunners for this unofficial title. in , seat of local government, is an example of architecture. The City of Manchester is governed by the . The , with a , has responsibilities for economic strategy and transport, amongst other areas, on a Greater Manchester-wide basis. Manchester has been a member of the English since its inception in 1995.
The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in 1301, but lost its in a court case of 1359. Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of , the last of which was dissolved in 1846. From , the lay within the of .
wrote "That [neighbouring] and are not administratively one with Manchester is one of the most curious anomalies of England". A stroke of a 's pen is said to have divorced Manchester and Salford, though it was not Salford that became separated from Manchester, it was Manchester, with its humbler line of , that was separated from Salford.
It was this separation that resulted in Salford becoming the judicial seat of , which included the . Manchester later formed its own using the name "Manchester".
In 1792, Commissioners—usually known as "Police Commissioners"—were established for the social improvement of Manchester. Manchester regained its borough status in 1838, and comprised the townships of , , and . By 1846, with increasing population and greater industrialisation, the Borough Council had taken over the powers of the "Police Commissioners".
In 1853, Manchester was granted . In 1885, , , and parts of and townships became part of the City of Manchester. In 1889, the city became a as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by . Between 1890 and 1933, more areas were added to the city which had been administered by Lancashire County Council, including former villages such as , , , , , , and .
In 1931, the of , and from the south of the were added. In 1974, by way of the , the City of Manchester became a of the of . That year, , the village where the is located, was added to the City. In November 2014, it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a . The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area. was elected as the first in . 36 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches At , 160 miles (260 km) northwest of London, Manchester lies in a bowl-shaped land area bordered to the north and east by the , an upland chain that runs the length of , and to the south by the .
Manchester is 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-east of and 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-west of , making the city the halfway point between the two. The is on the east bank of the , near its confluences with the Rivers and , and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres (115 to 138 feet) above sea level. The flows through the south of Manchester. Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months.
Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. These features are its climate, its proximity to a at , the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves. The City of Manchester. The is overwhelmingly urban The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area.
The "Manchester City Zone", "" and the "" are all examples of this. For purposes of the , Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the , the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation. There is a mixture of high-density urban and suburban locations in Manchester. The largest open space in the city, at around 260 hectares (642 acres), is . Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with .
The and pass through the south of Manchester, through and respectively. Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being . Climate Manchester experiences a (: Cfb), like much of the British Isles, with mild summers and cool winters. Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, typically reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days throughout July and August in particular. In more recent years, temperatures now reach over 30 Celsius on occasions.
There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. The city's average annual rainfall is 806.6 millimetres (31.76 in) compared to the UK average of 1,125.0 millimetres (44.29 in), and its mean rain days are 140.4 per annum, compared to the UK average of 154.4. Manchester has a relatively high humidity level and this, along with the abundant supply of soft water, was one of the factors that led to the localisation of the textile industry in the area.
Snowfalls are not common in the city because of the effect but the to the northwest, to the northeast and to the east receive more snow, which can close roads leading out of the city. They include the via and , the , , towards , and the .
The lowest temperature ever recorded in Manchester was −17.6 °C (0.3 °F) on 7 January 2010. Climate data for Manchester (), elevation: 69 m or 226 ft, 1981-2010 normals, extremes 1958-2004 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 16.5 (61.7) 21.7 (71.1) 25.1 (77.2) 26.7 (80.1) 31.3 (88.3) 32.2 (90) 33.7 (92.7) 28.4 (83.1) 25.6 (78.1) 17.7 (63.9) 15.1 (59.2) 33.7 (92.7) Mean maximum °C (°F) 12.4 (54.3) 12.6 (54.7) 15.6 (60.1) 19.1 (66.4) 23.1 (73.6) 25.5 (77.9) 26.9 (80.4) 27.0 (80.6) 23.1 (73.6) 18.9 (66) 15.4 (59.7) 13.2 (55.8) 28.7 (83.7) Average high °C (°F) 7.3 (45.1) 7.6 (45.7) 10.0 (50) 12.6 (54.7) 16.1 (61) 18.6 (65.5) 20.6 (69.1) 20.3 (68.5) 17.6 (63.7) 13.9 (57) 10.0 (50) 7.4 (45.3) 13.5 (56.3) Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5 (40.1) 4.6 (40.3) 6.7 (44.1) 8.8 (47.8) 11.9 (53.4) 14.6 (58.3) 16.6 (61.9) 16.4 (61.5) 14.0 (57.2) 10.7 (51.3) 7.1 (44.8) 4.6 (40.3) 10.0 (50) Average low °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 1.6 (34.9) 3.3 (37.9) 4.9 (40.8) 7.7 (45.9) 10.5 (50.9) 12.6 (54.7) 12.4 (54.3) 10.3 (50.5) 7.4 (45.3) 4.2 (39.6) 1.8 (35.2) 6.6 (43.9) Mean minimum °C (°F) −4.8 (23.4) −4.2 (24.4) −2.4 (27.7) −0.9 (30.4) 2.3 (36.1) 5.2 (41.4) 8.0 (46.4) 7.2 (45) 4.6 (40.3) 0.5 (32.9) −2.4 (27.7) −5.7 (21.7) −7.4 (18.7) Record low °C (°F) −12.0 (10.4) −13.1 (8.4) −9.7 (14.5) −4.9 (23.2) −1.7 (28.9) 0.8 (33.4) 5.4 (41.7) 3.6 (38.5) 0.8 (33.4) −4.7 (23.5) −7.5 (18.5) −13.5 (7.7) −13.5 (7.7) Average mm (inches) 72.3 (2.85) 51.4 (2.02) 61.2 (2.41) 54.0 (2.13) 56.8 (2.24) 66.1 (2.6) 63.9 (2.52) 77.0 (3.03) 71.5 (2.81) 92.5 (3.64) 81.5 (3.21) 80.7 (3.18) 828.8 (32.63) Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.1 9.7 12.3 11.2 10.4 11.1 10.9 12.0 11.1 13.6 14.1 13.5 142.9 Average snowy days 6 5 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 20 Average (%) 87 86 85 85 85 87 88 89 89 89 88 87 88 Mean monthly 52.5 73.9 99.0 146.9 188.3 172.5 179.7 166.3 131.2 99.3 59.5 47.1 1,416.2 Source #1: Met Office NOAA (relative humidity and snow days 1961-1990) Source #2: KNMI Green belt Further information: Manchester lies at the centre of a region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, which is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, and preserve nearby countryside.
This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building. Due to being already highly urban, the city contains limited portions of protected green belt area within throughout the borough, with minimal development opportunities, at , , Chorlton Water Park along with the nature reserve and the floodplain surrounding the River Mersey, as well as the southern area around Manchester Airport.
The green belt was first drawn up in 1961. Religion Not Stated (6.9%) Historically the population of Manchester began to increase rapidly during the , estimated at 354,930 for Manchester and 110,833 for Salford in 1865, and peaking at 766,311 in 1931.
From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to and the increased building of by Manchester City Council after the Second World War such as and . The 2012 Mid-Year Estimate for the population of Manchester was 510,700. This was an increase of 7,900, or 1.6%, since the 2011 MYE.
Since 2001, the population has grown by 87,900, or 20.8%. Manchester was the third fastest-growing of the areas in the 2011 census. The city experienced the greatest percentage population growth outside London, with an increase of 19% to over 500,000. Manchester's population is projected to reach 532,200 by 2021, an increase of 5.8% from 2011.
This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade. The had a population of 2,553,400 (2011 est.). An estimated 2,702,200 people live in (2012 est.). 6,547,000 people live within 30 miles (50 km) of Manchester (2012 est.) and 11,694,000 within 50 miles (80 km) (2012 est.). Between the beginning of July 2011 and end of June 2012 (Mid-Year Estimate date), births exceeded deaths by 4,800. Migration (internal and international) and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3,100 people between July 2011 and June 2012.
Compared to Greater Manchester and England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly large 20–35 age group. There were 76,095 under- and post-graduate students at the , the and during the academic year 2011/12. Since the 2001 census, the proportion of Christians in Manchester has decreased by 22% from 62.4% to 48.7%.
The proportion of people with no religious affiliation increased by 58.1% from 16% to 25.3%, whilst the proportion of Muslims increased by 73.6% from 9.1% to 15.8%. The size of the Jewish population in Greater Manchester is the largest in Britain outside London.
The population of Manchester shown with other boroughs in the county from 1801 to 2011. Manchester has a disproportionately high number of gay and lesbian people.
Of all households in Manchester, 0.23% were Same-Sex couple households, compared to the English national average of 0.16% in 2011. In terms of , the City of Manchester has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester. Statistics from the showed that 66.7% of the population was (59.3% , 2.4% , 0.1% or , 4.9% – although those of mixed European and British ethnic groups is unknown; there are reportedly over 25,000 Mancunians of at least partial descent alone which represents 5.5% of the city's population ).
4.7% were (1.8% White and Black Caribbean, 0.9% White and Black African, 1.0% White and Asian, 1.0% Other Mixed), 17.1% (2.3% , 8.5% , 1.3% , 2.7% , 2.3% Other Asian), 8.6% (5.1% African, 1.6% ), 1.9% and 1.2% of other ethnic heritage. Kidd identifies , , , , as centres of population for ethnic minorities.
Manchester's Irish Festival, including a parade, is one of Europe's largest. There is also a well-established in the city with a substantial number of oriental restaurants and Chinese supermarkets. The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities, contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.
The Manchester , a measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, has a population of 2,539,100 in 2004. In addition to Manchester itself, the LUZ includes the remainder of the county of .
The Manchester LUZ is the second largest within the United Kingdom, behind that of London. See also: GVA for Greater Manchester South 2002–2012 Year GVA (£ million) Growth (%) 2002 24,011 03.8% 2003 25,063 04.4% 2004 27,862 011.2% 2005 28,579 02.6% 2006 30,384 06.3% 2007 32,011 05.4% 2008 32,081 00.2% 2009 33,186 03.4% 2010 33,751 01.7% 2011 33,468 00.8% 2012 34,755 03.8% 2013 37,560 09.6% Aerial view of from the south in 2008.
The does not produce economic data for the City of Manchester alone, but includes four other metropolitan boroughs, , , , , in an area named Greater Manchester South, which had a of £34.8bn. The economy grew relatively strongly between 2002 and 2012, where growth was 2.3% above the national average.
With a of $102.3bn (2015 est., ) the wider is the third-largest in the United Kingdom. It is ranked as a by the . As the UK economy continues to recover from the downturn experienced in 2008–10, Manchester compares favourably to other geographies according to the latest figures.
In 2012 it is shown the strongest annual growth in business stock (5%) of all the . The city experienced a relatively sharp increase in the number of business deaths, the largest increase of all the Core Cities, however this was offset by strong growth in new businesses which resulted in a strong net growth. Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen. It owns two of the country's four busiest airports and uses its earnings to fund local projects.
Meanwhile, 's competitive alternative report found that in 2012 Manchester had the 9th lowest tax cost of any industrialised city in the world, and fiscal devolution has come earlier to Manchester than to any other British city: it can keep half the extra taxes it gets from transport investment.
KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than Dutch cities, and , who all have a cost of living index less than 95. Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found. According to the 2010 Manchester is the 4th most deprived local council in England.
Unemployment throughout 2012–13 averaged 11.9%, which was above the national average, but lower than some of the country's other comparable large cities. On the other hand, Greater Manchester is home to more multi-millionaires than anywhere outside London, with the City of Manchester taking up most of the tally. In 2013 Manchester was ranked 6th in the UK for quality of life, according to a rating of the UK's 12 largest cities.
Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in terms of equal pay to men. The per hours worked is 3.3%, in contrast to 11.1% for Great Britain. 37% of the working-age population in Manchester have degree level qualifications in contrast to the average of 33% across other Core Cities, although schools under-perform slightly when compared to the national average. Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London according to GVA Grimley with a quarterly office uptake (averaged over 2010–14) of approximately 250,000 square ft – equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of , and combined and 90,000 square feet more than the nearest rival Birmingham.
The strong office market in Manchester has been partly attributed to 'Northshoring', (from ) which entails the relocation or alternative creation of jobs away from the overheated South to areas where office space is possibly cheaper and workforce market may not be as saturated. Neo-baroque . Manchester is known for opulent warehouses from the city's textile trade.
Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from to . The widespread use of characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade. Just outside the immediate city centre is a large number of former , some of which have been left virtually untouched since their closure while many have been redeveloped into apartment buildings and office space.
, in , was built in the style and is considered to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in England. Manchester also has a number of built during the 1960s and 1970s, the tallest of which was the located near until the was completed in 2006; it is an example of the new surge in high-rise building and includes a , a restaurant, and apartments.
It remains the tallest building outside London and has been described as the United Kingdom's only true skyscraper outside the capital. , opposite , is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, while the recently completed , is one of the most sustainable large buildings in the world.
The award-winning in the north of the city borough is one of the largest municipal parks in Europe, covering 610 acres (250 ha) of parkland. The city has 135 parks, gardens, and open spaces. Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. Albert Square has monuments to , , , , and . has monuments dedicated to , , and the . in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead; designed by , it follows his design for in London.
The in commemorates his role as the father of modern computing. A larger-than-life statue of by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square (having stood for many years in ) was presented to the city by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Phelps Taft of , Ohio, to mark the part that Lancashire played in the and of 1861–1865.
A is on display near Manchester Airport. Manchester has six designated which are , Blackley Forest, Clayton Vale and Chorlton Ees, Ivy Green, and . , the busiest of the four major railway stations in the with over 25 million passengers using the station in 2016. was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station, and served as the Manchester terminus on the – the world's first passenger railway. Today the city is well served by the rail network, and is at the centre of an extensive countywide railway network, including the , with two mainline stations: and .
The – comprising Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Victoria, and – is the fourth busiest in the United Kingdom, with 41.7 million passengers recorded in 2013. On 7 February 2014, construction of the £600m project, which aims to increase capacity and reduce journey times across , began with construction work commencing on a 4th platform at .
The link to Birmingham and London is also planned, which, if built, will include a 12 km (7 mi) tunnel under Manchester on the final approach into an upgraded Piccadilly station. Metrolink (tram) is the , with a total route length of 57 miles (92 km). Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern tram system when the opened in 1992. In 2016–17, 37.8 million passenger journeys were made on the system. The present system mostly runs on former commuter rail lines converted for light rail use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines.
The network consists of seven lines with . A new line to the Trafford Centre is currently under construction and is due to open by 2020. Manchester city centre is also serviced by over a dozen heavy and light rail-based park and ride sites. Bus The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the region radiating from the city. In 2011, 80% of public transport journeys in Greater Manchester were made by bus, amounting to 220 million passenger journeys by bus each year.
Following in 1986, the bus system was taken over by , which after privatisation was split into GM Buses North and GM Buses South and at a later date these were taken over by and respectively. First Greater Manchester also operates a three route bus service, called , which carries 2.8 million commuters a year around Manchester's business districts. Stagecoach Manchester is the 's largest subsidiary and operates around 690 buses.
Air is the busiest airport in the UK outside London, with of the next busiest non-London airport. Manchester, and are served by . The airport is the and the largest outside the London region. Airline services exist to many destinations in Europe, North America, the , Africa, the Middle East and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester than any other airport in Britain).
A second runway was opened in 2001 and there have been continued terminal improvements. The airport has the highest rating available: " Category 10", encompassing an elite group of airports which are able to handle " Code F" aircraft including the and . From September 2010 the airport became one of only 17 airports in the world and the only UK airport other than to operate the Airbus A380. A smaller airfield, , also exists 9.3 km (6 mi) to the west of Manchester city centre.
It was Manchester's first , and became the site of the first tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the . Today, private and use the airfield, it also has a , and both the and the have helicopters based at the airfield. Canal An extensive canal network, including the , was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed to leisure use.
In 2012, plans were approved to introduce a service between Manchester city centre and at . The Gallagher brothers of Bands that have emerged from the Manchester music scene include , , and its successor group , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
Manchester was credited as the main driving force behind British music of the 1980s led by The Smiths, later including The Stone Roses, , , and . The later groups came from what became known as the "" scene that also centred on nightclub developed by founder of . Although from southern England, subsequently formed in Manchester. Former Smiths frontman , whose lyrics often refer to Manchester locations and culture, later found international success as a solo artist. Previously, notable Manchester acts of the 1960s include , , and of the (famed in the mid-1960s for not only their albums but also their American TV show) and the earlier , who grew up in .
Another notable contemporary band from Manchester is consisting of and four close friends. Singer-songwriter is also from Greater Manchester.
The , the city's premier indoor multi-use venue and one of the in the European Union. Its main pop music venue is the , which was voted "International Venue of the Year" in 2007. With over 21,000 seats, it is the largest arena of its type in Europe.
In terms of concertgoers, it is the busiest indoor arena in the world, ahead of in New York and in London, respectively the second- and third-busiest. Other major venues include the , and the .
Smaller venues include the , the Night and Day Café, the Ruby Lounge, and The Deaf Institute. Manchester also has the most and music events outside of London. Manchester has two , the and the . There is also a , the Manchester Camerata.
In the 1950s, the city was home to the so-called "Manchester School" of classical composers, which comprised , , David Ellis and . Manchester is a centre for musical education, with the , which celebrates its 40th Anniversary since its merger, and . Forerunners of the RNCM were the (founded 1920) and the (founded 1893), which were merged in 1973. One of the earliest instructors and pianists/conductors at the RMCM, shortly after its founding was the famous Russian-born , (1859–1932), who later had the music library at the famed conservatory of music in , , named for him.
The main venue was the on Peter Street, until the opening in 1996 of the 2,500 seat . music, a tradition in the north of England, is an important part of Manchester's musical heritage; some of the UK's leading bands, such as the Manchester Band and the , are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the brass band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of and .
Performing arts The , one of Manchester's largest theatre venues Manchester has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues, including the , which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the ; and the in Manchester's former cotton exchange, the largest space in the UK.
Smaller performance spaces include the and Z-arts in Hulme. The on Oxford Road is dedicated to dance productions. In 2014, , a new custom built arts complex opened in the City. Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the and . Since 2007 the city has hosted the , a biennial international with a specific focus on original new work, which has included major new commissions by artists including .
In 's 2014 autumn statement he announced a £78 million grant to fund a new "large-scale, ultra-flexible arts space" for the city. Subsequently, the council stated that they had managed to secure a further £32 million from "a variety of sources", The £110 million venue was confirmed in July 2016. : 13–14 The theatre, to be called , after Manchester's , will provide a permanent home for the Manchester International Festival, it is due to open at the end of 2019.
: 15 Museums and galleries Manchester Art Gallery Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the , the , the Trade Union movement, and .
A reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium is open to the public in . The , housed in the former , has a large collection of , industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world's first stored computer program (known as the ). The displays a collection of historic buses and trams. Trafford Park in the neighbouring borough of Trafford is home to . The opened to the public in the 1880s, has notable and collections.
The The municipally owned on Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting, and has one of Britain's most significant collections of paintings. In the south of the city, the displays modern art, sculpture and textiles and was recently voted Museum of the Year in 2015. Other exhibition spaces and museums in Manchester include in Salford, the at , , the Manchester Costume Gallery at , the and the .
The works of -born painter , known for his "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in both the city and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and at art centre in (in the neighbouring borough of Salford) devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works. Literature , where Mrs Gaskell wrote most of her novels.
The house is now a museum. Manchester is a known for possessing a "radical literary history". In the 19th century, Manchester featured in works highlighting the changes that industrialisation had brought to Britain. These included 's novel : A Tale of Manchester Life (1848), and studies such as , written by while living and working in Manchester. Manchester was the meeting place of Engels and . The two began writing in . The library was founded in 1653 and lays claim to being the oldest public library in the English-speaking world.
Elsewhere in the city, the holds an extensive collection of early printing. The , believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display in the library. is reputed to have set his novel in the city, and while it is partly modelled on , it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell. Gaskell penned all her novels, with the exception of Mary Barton, at . On numerous occasions Gaskell's house played host to influential authors including Dickens, , and .
It is now open as a literary museum. Charlotte Brontë began writing her masterpiece in 1846, while staying lodgings in . Brontë was accompanying her father , who was convalescing in the city, having visited to undergo cataract surgery.
She likely envisioned Manchester Cathedral churchyard as the burial place for Jane's parents and the birthplace of Jane herself. Also closely associated with the city is Victorian poet and novelist , most famed for her 1876 novel .
Anglo-American author was born in the city's district in 1849, and wrote much of her classic children's novel while visiting nearby Salford's . is among the 20th century writers who made Manchester their home, he wrote the satire in 1962. Dame , the current , moved to the city in 1996 and lives in . Poet, novelist and academic also lives in the city.
the who first became famous during the punk rock era of the late 1970s when he became known as a "punk poet" grew up here. Nightlife , one of Manchester's liveliest nightspots, part of the city's gay village The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about 1993, with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities.
The more than 500 licensed premises in the city centre have a capacity to deal with more than 250,000 visitors, with 110–130,000 people visiting on a typical weekend night, making Manchester the most popular city for events at 79 per thousand people.
The night-time economy has a value of about £100 million and supports 12,000 jobs. The scene of the 1980s, from which groups including , , , the , , , and emerged, was based on clubs such as the world-famous . The period was the subject of the film . Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded (and given) and drugs were openly dealt.
Following a series of drug-related violent incidents, The Hacienda closed in 1998. In 1988, Manchester was often referred to as Madchester for its rave scene.
Owned by Tony Wilson's Factory Records, it was given the catalogue number FAC51 and official club name, FAC51 The Hacienda. Known for developing many talented 1980s influential acts, it also influenced the graphic design industry via Factory artists such as (PSA), Octavo (8vo), Central Design Station, etc. The memorabilia from this club holds a high value among collectors and fans of these artists and the club.
Peter Saville was most notable for his minimalistic influence that still affects contemporary graphic design everywhere. Gay Village in the area have had an LGBTQ+ clientele since at least 1940, and now form the centre of Manchester's LGBT+ community. Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20,000 visitors each weekend and has hosted a popular festival, , each August since 2003.
See also: There are three universities in the City of Manchester. The , and . The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom and was created in 2004 by the merger of founded in 1904 and , founded in 1956, though the university's logo appears to claim it was established in 1824.
It includes the , which offered the first MBA course in the UK in 1965. was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. It gained university status in 1992, and in the same year absorbed Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education in South Cheshire. , the largest provider of vocation legal training in Europe, has a campus in the city. The three Universities are grouped around Oxford Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher education precinct.
Together they have a combined population of 76,025 students in higher education as of 2015, although almost 6,000 of them were based at Manchester Metropolitan University's campuses at and in Cheshire.
One of Manchester's most notable secondary schools is the . Established in 1515, as a free next to what is now the Cathedral, it moved in 1931 to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body.
In the post-war period, it was a (i.e. partially state funded), but it reverted to independent status in 1976 after abolition of the direct-grant system. Its previous premises are now used by . There are three schools nearby: , and . In 2010, the Manchester was ranked last out of Greater Manchester's ten LEAs – and 147th out of 150 in the country LEAs – based on the percentage of pupils attaining at least five A*-C grades at (GCSE) including maths and English (38.6% compared with the national average of 50.7%).
The LEA also had the highest occurrence of absences, with 11.11% of "half-day sessions missed by pupils", above the national average of 5.8%. Of the schools in the LEA with 30 or more pupils, four had 90% or more pupils achieving at least five A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English (, , Manchester Islamic High School for Girls, and ) while three managed 25% or below (, North Manchester High School for Boys, Brookway High School and Sports College).
The , home to club and host stadium for the . Manchester is well known for being a city of sport. Two decorated clubs bear the city name – and . Although Manchester United play its home games at , in the neighbouring Greater Manchester borough of , the largest club football ground in the United Kingdom.
Manchester City's home ground is the (also known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes); its former ground, was demolished in 2003. The City of Manchester Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the and was subsequently reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester City's arrival. Manchester has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at , , and the . Competitions hosted in city include the (), (), (), Final (), Final (), four (, , , ) and three (, , ).
First class sporting facilities were built for the , including the City of Manchester Stadium, the and the . Manchester has competed twice to host the Olympic Games, beaten by for 1996 and Sydney for 2000. The includes a velodrome, BMX Arena and Mountainbike trials and is the home of , UCI ProTeam and .
The was built as a part of the bid for the 2000 games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling. The velodrome hosted the for a record third time in 2008. The (2,000 capacity) adjacent to the velodrome opened in 2011.
The hosted the World Swimming Championships in 2008. evolved into and play at . Manchester also hosted the in 2008, and also hosted the in July 2010. Recent hosted by Manchester include the , and the . The , built in the 1930s but since vacated by the Daily Express. Despite this, newspaper printing still takes place at the building. The franchise is partially headquartered in the old Granada Studios site on and the new location at MediaCityUK as part of the initial phase of its migration to Salford Quays.
It produces , local news and programmes for North West England. Although its influence has waned Granada had been described as 'the best commercial television company in the world'. Manchester was one of the 's three main centres in England. Programmes including , and , were made at New Broadcasting House. The Cutting It series set in the city's Northern Quarter and were set in Manchester as was . The first edition of was broadcast from a studio in on New Year's Day 1964.
Manchester was the regional base for North West Region programmes before it relocated to MediaCityUK in nearby . The Manchester television channel, , owned by the operated from 2000 but closed in 2012. Manchester is also covered by two internet television channels: Quays News and Manchester.tv. The city will also have a new terrestrial channel from January 2014 when YourTV Manchester, who won the OFCOM licence bid in February 2013 begins its first broadcast but in 2015 when took over to air on 31 May and launched on the freeview channel 8 service slot before moving to channel 7 in April 2016.
, headquarters of The city has the highest number of local radio stations outside London including , , , , , , , 96.2 , NMFM (North Manchester FM) and . Student radio stations include at the University of Manchester and at the Manchester Metropolitan University.
A network is coordinated by Radio Regen, with stations covering , and ( 96.9) and (Wythenshawe FM 97.2). Defunct radio stations include , which became , then ), and KFM which became Signal Cheshire (now ). These stations and played a significant role in the city's culture, the scene, which was based in clubs like . newspaper was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian. Its head office is still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London in 1964.
Its sister publication, the , has the largest circulation of a UK regional evening newspaper. The paper is free in the city centre on Thursdays and Fridays, but paid for in the suburbs.
Despite its title, it is available all day. The North West is available free at stops, rail stations and other busy locations. The MEN group distributes several local weekly free papers. For many years most of the national newspapers had offices in Manchester: , , , , . At its height, 1,500 journalists were employed, though in the 1980s office closures began and today the "second Fleet Street" is no more. An attempt to launch a Northern daily newspaper, the North West Times, employing journalists made redundant by other titles, closed in 1988.
Another attempt was made with the , which hoped to provide a true "regional" newspaper for the , much in the same vein as the does for or does for the ; it folded in October 2006. Manchester has formal arrangements (or "friendship agreements") with several places.
In addition, the maintains a metropolitan centre in Manchester. • , Netherlands (2007) • , Nicaragua • , Germany (1983) • • , Pakistan (1997) • , United States (2009) • , Israel • , Russia (1962) • , China (1986) Manchester is home to the largest group of in the UK outside London. The expansion of international trade links during the Industrial Revolution led to the introduction of the first consuls in the 1820s and since then over 800, from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester.
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