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This article is about the capital of New Brunswick. For other uses, see . Fredericton ( ; French pronunciation: ) is the capital of the of . The city is situated in the west-central portion of the province along the , which flows west to east as it bisects the city. The river is the dominant natural feature of the area. One of the main urban centres in New Brunswick, the city had a population of 56,224 in the 2011 census. It is the third-largest city in the province after and .
Map 021G15 Code DAFMJ Website An important cultural, artistic, and educational centre for the province, Fredericton is home to two universities, the , and cultural institutions such as the , the , and , a performing arts venue. The city hosts the annual , attracting regional and international , , , and artists. Fredericton is also an important and vibrant center point for the region's top visual artists; many of New Brunswick's notable artists live and work there today. Fredericton has also been home to some great historical Canadian painters as well, including , and and .
As a provincial capital, its economy is tied to the public sector; however, the city also contains a growing IT and commercial sector. The city has the highest percentage of residents with a post-secondary education in the province and one of the highest per capita incomes.
See also: ; ; and The earliest known inhabitation of the area dates back 12,000 years, according to archaeologists, evidenced by recent finds. Excavations unearthed a campsite with firepit and more than 600 artifacts including stone tool fragments and arrowheads. The area of the present-day city of Fredericton was first used for seasonal farming by the peoples.
Maliseet cultivated food plants including: beans, pumpkins, Jerusalem artichokes, ground nuts, and maize on the river banks and islands of the Saint John River. In the mid-18th century their principal village of Aucpaque was located several kilometres upriver from the site of present-day Fredericton. Colonial history (1690–1867) The first European contact was by the in the late 17th century. received a land grant and was appointed governor of Acadia.
During , Villebon built on the north side of the Saint John River, at the mouth of the . For most of the war, Fort Nashwaak served as the capital of the French colony of ; forces from here conducted numerous military raids on English settlers on the New England/ Acadia border. Built in 1692, was the capital of the French colony of , after the .
Nashwaak was later by the English in 1696. French and English hostilities continued along the border. Within weeks of an attack of French and Indigenous forces launched from Fort Nashwaak on (present day ), the New Englanders struck back.
In 1696, an expedition under command of Major set out to destroy Fort Nashwaak (present-day Fredericton). Commander Villebon had been alerted and prepared his defences. On 18 October, the British troops arrived near the fort, landed three cannons, and assembled earthworks on the south bank of the Nashwaak River. The last for two days gunfire was fiercely exchanged, with the advantage going to the better-sited Acadian guns.
The New Englanders were defeated, with 8 soldiers killed and 17 wounded. The Acadians sustained losses of one killed and two wounded. After Villebon's death in 1700 and a devastating flood that destroyed several French farms in the area, the fort was abandoned. The Fredericton area was first permanently settled and named Pointe-Sainte-Anne (later often anglicized to "Ste. Anne's Point") in 1732 by Acadians fleeing after the took over the territory (1710).
Their townsite was on the south side of the river, approximately a mile upriver from Fort Nashwaak. The British captured Ste.
Anne's Point during the , burning the settlement to the ground in the (1759) during the French and Indian War, the North American front of their in Europe against France. A 1762 settlement attempt by the British was unsuccessful due to the hostility of local Acadian and Aboriginal populations. These settlers eventually erected a community downriver at what is today the town of (pronounced "majorville").
However, three settled permanently here in 1768. Depiction of the arrival to . New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia in 1784, with Ste. Anne Point selected as its capital. In 1783, were settled in Ste. Anne's Point after the , having left their properties in the United States. They were granted land in compensation in British North America by the Crown. Many died during the harsh and long first winter in Fredericton.
The dead were buried in what became the Loyalist cemetery, which is still found on the south bank of the Saint John River. When spring came, more Loyalists left the new settlement to take up land grants in other areas. When New Brunswick became a separate colony from Nova Scotia in 1784, Ste.
Anne's Point became the provincial capital, winning out over Parrtown (present-day ) due to its central inland location. This made it less prone to American attack from the sea. A street plan was laid out to the west of the original townsite, King's College (now the ) was founded, and the locale was renamed "Frederick's Town", in honour of the second son of King , .
The name was shortened to Fredericton shortly after the city became the official provincial capital of New Brunswick on 25 April 1785. Thus, in a period of less than three years, the area of Fredericton went from being a sparsely populated region to being the capital of the new colony of New Brunswick. The same attributes that made Fredericton the capital city also made it an ideal spot for a military installation.
Many of the original military buildings downtown still stand, and are now tourist attractions. Modern history (1867–present) The building constructed to house the colonial-era legislative assembly in 1788 was destroyed by a fire in 1880. Two years later, the present was constructed. The first major expansion of the city occurred on 1 July 1945 when it amalgamated with the town of Devon. Today the city of Fredericton comprises Fredericton proper, and the boroughs of Silverwood, , Barker's Point and , which were incorporated into the city in 1973.
The commemorative brass plaques were stolen in October 2015, and were replaced by replicas cast by an foundry called Liberty Enterprises. One of the communities amalgamated into Fredericton in 1973, Marysville, has a unique and distinctive history of its own.
Marysville is located on the , a tributary of the Saint John River, just north of pre-1973 Fredericton. The community is distinguished by its 19th-century mill and historic buildings, which include 19th-century company houses and buildings patterned after those of British industrial towns.
View of the Marysville in 1885, two years after it first opened. Marysville can be described as a prime example of a 19th-century mill town.
In the 1830s a was built on the site of Marysville by two local entrepreneurs. However, the mill frequently changed ownership and never showed a profit. (popularly referred to as "Boss Gibson") turned this situation around and built a prosperous industrial town. In 1883, under the direction of Gibson, construction began of a , which was state-of-the-art for its time. "Boss" Gibson named the company town that grew up around the mill Marysville in honour of his wife.
In 1908, having faced financial problems, Gibson sold the mill to a Montreal-based company which, in turn, sold it to Canadian Cottons Ltd. After World War II, foreign competition devastated the mill's business; jobs moved offshore and it ceased operations in 1954. There were numerous attempts to re-open the mill; however, in 1980, it closed its doors permanently.
The mill was renovated and re-opened in 1985 for use as provincial government offices. The mill remains the dominant feature in the Marysville skyline. On August 10, 2018, a took place on Brookside Drive that left four people dead, including two police officers.
13 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches The Saint John River runs through Fredericton, with most of the city's post-war suburban development occurring on the gently sloping hills on either side of the river (although the downtown core is flat and lies low to the river).
Fredericton's climate is influenced by its inland position, resulting in colder winters than most other coastal areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. At an altitude of about 17 m (56 ft) above sea level, Fredericton is nestled in the Pennsylvanian Basin.
It differs markedly from the geologically older parts of the province. There are prominently two distinct areas in the region that are divided around the area of Wilsey Road, in the east end of the city. In the west side, the bedrock underneath the earth is topographically dominant, whereas the other is controlled by Pleistocene and recent deposits leading to the rivers (resulting in the area being shallow and wide). Fredericton and its surroundings are rich in water resources, which, coupled with highly arable soil, make the Fredericton region ideal for agriculture.
The Saint John River and one of its major tributaries, the , come together in Fredericton. The uninhabited parts of the city are heavily forested. Fredericton has a ( Dfb). The average January low temperature is −16 °C (3 °F), while the average high in July high is 26 °C (79 °F). On average, Fredericton receives approximately 1,100 mm (43 in) of precipitation per year. Snowfall is common between late November and early April, and snow usually stays on the ground beginning in December.
occurs during the spring of most years on area rivers and affects the city's low-lying neighbourhoods. Its climate is somewhat influenced by its inland position, with warmer summers and colder winter nights than expected for coastal areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
The highest temperature ever recorded in Fredericton was 38.9 °C (102 °F) on 18 August 1935. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −38.9 °C (−38 °F) on 19 January 1925. Climate data for Fredericton CDA, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1871–present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 15.0 (59) 19.0 (66.2) 26.5 (79.7) 30.5 (86.9) 35.5 (95.9) 35.6 (96.1) 36.1 (97) 38.9 (102) 33.7 (92.7) 28.9 (84) 21.7 (71.1) 16.1 (61) 38.9 (102) Average high °C (°F) −4.4 (24.1) −2.1 (28.2) 2.8 (37) 9.9 (49.8) 17.6 (63.7) 22.7 (72.9) 25.4 (77.7) 24.5 (76.1) 19.6 (67.3) 12.8 (55) 5.5 (41.9) −1.0 (30.2) 11.1 (52) Daily mean °C (°F) −9.4 (15.1) −7.5 (18.5) −2.2 (28) 4.8 (40.6) 11.3 (52.3) 16.4 (61.5) 19.4 (66.9) 18.6 (65.5) 14.0 (57.2) 7.8 (46) 1.8 (35.2) −5.3 (22.5) 5.8 (42.4) Average low °C (°F) −14.4 (6.1) −12.8 (9) −7.2 (19) −0.4 (31.3) 5.1 (41.2) 10.1 (50.2) 13.3 (55.9) 12.6 (54.7) 8.3 (46.9) 2.8 (37) −2.0 (28.4) −9.5 (14.9) 0.5 (32.9) Record low °C (°F) −38.9 (−38) −38.3 (−36.9) −32.8 (−27) −20.0 (−4) −6.7 (19.9) −2.2 (28) 1.7 (35.1) 1.7 (35.1) −4.4 (24.1) −11.1 (12) −26.7 (−16.1) −35.6 (−32.1) −38.9 (−38) Average mm (inches) 101.9 (4.01) 70.1 (2.76) 90.1 (3.55) 81.6 (3.21) 103.8 (4.09) 86.3 (3.4) 89.0 (3.5) 85.9 (3.38) 94.7 (3.73) 89.7 (3.53) 109.9 (4.33) 91.8 (3.61) 1,094.7 (43.1) Average rainfall mm (inches) 42.4 (1.67) 31.7 (1.25) 45.2 (1.78) 68.1 (2.68) 103.1 (4.06) 86.3 (3.4) 89.0 (3.5) 85.9 (3.38) 94.7 (3.73) 89.3 (3.52) 96.3 (3.79) 54.0 (2.13) 885.9 (34.88) Average snowfall cm (inches) 63.6 (25) 39.1 (15.4) 42.4 (16.7) 13.5 (5.3) 0.6 (0.2) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.4 (0.2) 13.9 (5.5) 41.4 (16.3) 214.8 (84.6) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.6 10.2 12.4 12.6 14.9 13.6 14.5 12.7 13.7 13.5 13.8 12.5 156.7 Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.5 4.2 7.1 10.8 14.8 13.6 14.5 12.7 13.7 13.5 11.7 6.0 126.9 Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 9.4 7.2 7.0 2.4 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.11 3.2 7.5 37.0 Mean monthly 119.5 130.8 148.9 162.2 206.9 224.3 239.7 226.2 172.4 142.5 95.8 102.2 1,971.2 Percent 42.4 44.8 40.4 40.0 44.7 47.7 50.4 51.6 45.7 41.9 33.6 37.8 43.4 Source: Climate data for , 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1951–present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high 17.1 17.3 28.0 33.3 38.1 43.5 44.5 43.3 39.6 32.0 25.0 19.5 44.5 Record high °C (°F) 14.6 (58.3) 18.6 (65.5) 27.2 (81) 30.3 (86.5) 35.2 (95.4) 35.3 (95.5) 36.7 (98.1) 37.2 (99) 34.1 (93.4) 27.8 (82) 21.1 (70) 15.9 (60.6) 37.2 (99) Average high °C (°F) −3.8 (25.2) −2.0 (28.4) 3.0 (37.4) 10.0 (50) 17.6 (63.7) 22.7 (72.9) 25.5 (77.9) 24.8 (76.6) 20.0 (68) 13.2 (55.8) 6.0 (42.8) −0.7 (30.7) 11.4 (52.5) Daily mean °C (°F) −9.4 (15.1) −7.9 (17.8) −2.4 (27.7) 4.5 (40.1) 11.1 (52) 16.2 (61.2) 19.3 (66.7) 18.4 (65.1) 13.6 (56.5) 7.5 (45.5) 1.5 (34.7) −5.7 (21.7) 5.6 (42.1) Average low °C (°F) −15.0 (5) −13.7 (7.3) −7.8 (18) −1.0 (30.2) 4.6 (40.3) 9.7 (49.5) 13.0 (55.4) 12.1 (53.8) 7.1 (44.8) 1.6 (34.9) −3.0 (26.6) −10.7 (12.7) −0.2 (31.6) Record low °C (°F) −35.6 (−32.1) −37.2 (−35) −28.9 (−20) −15.1 (4.8) −6.7 (19.9) −0.6 (30.9) 1.7 (35.1) 1.3 (34.3) −3.9 (25) −8.9 (16) −20.2 (−4.4) −33.8 (−28.8) −37.2 (−35) Record low −45.1 −46.4 −38.0 −26.1 −12.5 −4.3 0.0 0.0 −6.6 −13.1 −26.5 −42.2 −46.4 Average mm (inches) 95.3 (3.75) 73.1 (2.88) 93.2 (3.67) 85.9 (3.38) 96.2 (3.79) 82.4 (3.24) 88.3 (3.48) 85.6 (3.37) 87.5 (3.44) 89.1 (3.51) 106.3 (4.19) 94.9 (3.74) 1,077.7 (42.43) Average rainfall mm (inches) 38.0 (1.5) 31.4 (1.24) 46.7 (1.84) 68.3 (2.69) 94.5 (3.72) 82.4 (3.24) 88.3 (3.48) 85.6 (3.37) 87.5 (3.44) 88.2 (3.47) 92.9 (3.66) 55.3 (2.18) 859.1 (33.82) Average snowfall cm (inches) 69.9 (27.5) 47.5 (18.7) 49.4 (19.4) 18.6 (7.3) 1.4 (0.6) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.8 (0.3) 14.3 (5.6) 50.5 (19.9) 252.3 (99.3) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 14.2 11.3 13.0 13.2 13.9 12.2 12.3 10.6 10.3 11.4 13.2 13.4 148.9 Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 5.1 4.3 7.3 10.8 13.8 12.2 12.3 10.6 10.3 11.3 11.1 6.3 115.4 Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 11.7 9.1 8.5 4.7 0.38 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.42 4.2 10.0 48.9 Average (%) 75.1 74.9 77.1 80.6 83.6 86.4 89.5 90.4 91.1 87.6 83.8 80.0 83.3 Source: is the .
Fredericton has a and form of government, with the mayor and council serving fixed four-year terms (three years until 2004), and elections held in May. The current mayor is Mike O'Brien, who was elected in 2016. The city is divided into twelve (six on each side of the Saint John River), with each ward electing one councillor.
The Boyce Farmers Market, open on Saturday mornings, is a place where municipal, provincial and federal politicians frequently visit to mingle with their electorate - something which has evolved into a political tradition.
Federal and provincial Provincially, Fredericton elected Progressive Conservatives from 1952 until electoral sweep of the Liberal Party in 1987 when they won every seat in New Brunswick under . Since then there has been greater political alteration in the provincial electoral landscape in Fredericton. In 1991, the right-wing won the riding of Fredericton North (along with several other nearby ridings). In 1999 Progressive Conservatives swept all three Fredericton area seats; however, in 2003, Fredericton-North and Fredericton-Fort Nashwaak returned to the Liberals.
Federally, the city forms most of the riding of . This riding was known as Fredericton-York-Sunbury but was redistributed prior to the 1997 general election. From 1957 until 1993 Fredericton returned Progressive Conservatives. In the 2008 federal election, the candidate of the Conservative Party of Canada, former New Maryland MLA , won this seat with 42% of the popular vote.
Downtown Fredericton is the city's . Located on the south side of the , it also hosts a number of the city's cultural attractions. Architecturally, Fredericton spans more than two centuries. The city features an eclectic mix of buildings and residences ranging from classical style to modern office buildings and architecture. Fredericton’s skyline is also distinguished by many historic churches.
There are 12 in Fredericton. Neighbourhoods in Fredericton include: • • Brookside West • Devon • • (CBD) • • Lincoln Heights • • • North Brook • Silverwood • Skyline Acres • Southwood Park • • Sunset Acres • Sunshine Gardens • Town Platt • West Platt The City of Fredericton is bisected by the Saint John River.
This has created two distinctive regions of the city characterized as the "Northside" and the "Southside". The Southside is characterized by a downtown core consisting of provincial government departments, historical buildings, and numerous business establishments, banks, and law firms. Downtown also hosts many of the city's cultural attractions, such as , the (formerly the York-Sunbury Museum), the and , New Brunswick's science centre.
Many notable historical buildings are also located in or near downtown, including grand Victorian-era residences, the , and Christ Church Cathedral. South of downtown, the city's elevation rises along a sloping hill (part of the river valley feature of the city).
"The Hill", as it is called, includes an area known as "College Hill", where the adjoining campuses of the and are located, slightly southeast of the downtown area. Southwest of the universities on the crest of the hill, near the highway interchange between and , is the . East of the universities is the Skyline Acres/Southwood Park area, consisting of a core of older established suburbs, and newer, more affluent areas such as Poets Hill.
Residential area of Marysville. The neighbourhood is located on the north side of the Saint John River. Occupying the hill southwest of downtown is Odell Park, a large preserved forest area. Its trails and wooded areas are a favourite for hiking, jogging, dog walking, and cross-country skiing for city residents.
borders on the . West of the park and garden is Hanwell Road, Golf Club Road, and Silverwood neighbourhoods consisting largely of suburban residences. South of the "Hill Area", where it plateaus, is a sizeable shopping district consisting of the city's largest mall, the ; two big-box retail complexes, and ; and numerous adjacent strip malls and restaurants.
The city's "Northside" consists of several boroughs which were, at one time, separate communities. These include Devon, , and . These communities are largely suburban neighbourhoods and retail outlets. Main Street (in Nashwaaksis) which becomes Union Street in Devon, runs along the northern bank of the Saint John River.
It includes numerous retail outlets as well as an eclectic array of businesses including IT firms, law firms, and real estate agents. Also located on the Northside is the , a retail mall anchored by , and a store as well as government offices. A new retail "power centre" development including /, and a , is located at .
Willie O'Ree Place - a new multimillion-dollar hockey complex - opened in the same area in 2007. The Northside is also home to the , which includes a community centre and a shopping centre.
During the Christmas season, the neighbourhood has some of the most spectacular and creative decorations in the city. Due to the presence of the universities, Fredericton is more cosmopolitan than many cities its size. [ ] This is reflected in cuisine offered by local ethnic restaurants (which include Caribbean, Chinese, Greek, Indian, Korean, Italian, Japanese, Lebanese, Mexican, Pakistani and Vietnamese foods).
There are also several retail outlets that sell ethnic products and artifacts. The federal government named Fredericton the "Cultural Capital of Canada" for the year 2009.
Officers' Square is an outdoor public space located at the centre of the city. It serves as a venue for outdoor concerts during the summer, featuring a variety of local and national talent.
During the winter, Officers' Square is transformed into an outdoor skating rink. The is New Brunswick's provincial . Arts Fredericton is an important cultural centre of the region featuring art galleries, the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design, museums and theatres which promote local artistic and literary talent. The is New Brunswick's provincial art gallery. It was established in 1959 by as a gift to his native province.
Fredericton is also home to several commercial art galleries. The hosts plays and musicals throughout the year, as well as presenting visiting comedians and musical performances by both Canadian and international artists.
The Playhouse is the main venue for Theatre New Brunswick (TNB). TNB was founded by prominent Canadian director in 1969, and is the province’s largest professional theatre company.
Every fall Fredericton hosts the . The week-long festival draws artists from all over North America. Since its inception in 1991, the event has grown into a large, diverse festival which has attracted artists from around the world including , Warren Haynes, , and Parliament. Built at the behest of , the is a non-profit organization venue for hosting local and touring performers. Fredericton is home to the , which, each August, features professional chamber music by top local players and nationally renowned performers.
, NB’s contemporary music organization, is also based here. In addition, performs most of its season in Fredericton. Every November Fredericton hosts the Silver Wave Film Festival.
Originally called the Tidal Wave Film Festival, it has been running since 2001. Each year attendance and interest in the festival has risen. Because of the its relationship with the , the Silver Wave Festival offers Frederictonians the opportunity to see films that would otherwise be overlooked in their smaller market.
Films created by New Brunswickers are also screened at the festival. Many of the local films come from shorts created through the and the New Brunswick Filmmaker's Co-operative. Fredericton has been called the Poets' Corner of Canada, because it was the birthplace of , and .
For many years, it was the home of the acclaimed -winning poet, playwright, and journalist . Prominent writers and poets living in Fredericton include , Robert Gibbs, M.T. Dohaney, , Wayne Curtis, , Robert Hawkes, Shari Andrews, , and Joe Blades. Attractions • • • • Historic Garrison District • • Boyce Farmers Market • • • Gallery 78 • • Loyalist Cemetery • Old Burial Ground • Parks and public spaces Fredericton contains many public parks featuring preserved forest lands - such as Odell Park and Reading Park.
Odell Park is adjacent to the Fredericton Botanic Garden. Furthermore, Fredericton features tree-lined streets and elm trees in particular which have earned the city its nickname "The City of Stately Elms". Fredericton's parks and public spaces include: Queen Square Park is a large urban park located in Downtown Fredericton. • Carleton Park - A part of the Northside Riverfront Trail, Carleton Park boasts a large open field and a boat launching area.
The park, which was once the site of , is adjacent to the , which provides easy access to the Southside of the City. • The Green - along the north and south banks of the Saint John River, the green is primarily a walking and biking trail flanked by grassy areas for picnics and sun bathing. Along Waterloo Row, the Green becomes Morrell Park which features two football/soccer fields and a baseball field. Closer to the Downtown, across Saint Annes Point Drive from Officers' Square is the Lighthouse which is an ice cream parlour and tourist attraction, as well as hosting a Tourism Fredericton Information Desk.
• Killarney Lake Park - A lakeside park with a beach and picnic spots as well as an extensive network of nature trails • Odell Park - features preserved forested areas and well groomed trails, as well as recreational spaces for picnics and outdoor gatherings. In the lower centre of the park is a lodge for events such as wedding receptions and adjacent to Prospect street at the top of the park is the and the Prospect Street Softball Fields.
• Officers' Square - Officers' Square is adjacent to the former Officers' Quarters, which houses the . The holds daily shows on a permanent stage every weekday throughout the summer. As well, the Fredericton City Guard holds a parade in the Square several times a day throughout the summer. The Square is also a popular venue for outdoor concerts and boasts an outdoor skating rink in the winter. • Queen Square Park - this popular park, located in the heart of Downtown Fredericton, features a new pool (a hybrid of a kids wading pool with fun water toys and a lap pool), playground, tennis courts and 2 baseball fields.
• Reading Park - a 33-acre (130,000 m 2) passive use park incorporating an open meadow, and a 1.1 kilometre walking trail through a beautiful old-growth forest.
• Wilmot Park - a recreational park in the downtown, across from featuring a splash pad, playground, outdoor basketball and tennis courts and the Fredericton Lawn Bowling Centre. Sports There are no professional sports teams in Fredericton, although both universities have extensive athletic programs. The and are rivals in most sports. When their men's hockey teams play (UNB has no women's hockey program in the AUS), the matches are called the "Battle of the Hill".
The first National Champions ever produced at UNB was in the fall of 1980. The men's soccer team under the leadership of Coaches Gary Brown and Robin Hopper defeated Sir Wilfred Laurier 3-1 on a frigid day in November.
The UNB Varsity Reds men hockey team has experienced recent success in national competition, winning the (CIS) championships in the 2008–2009, 2010–2011, 2015–2016, and 2016-2017 seasons.
They also finished in second place to the during the 2007–2008 championship. Other varsity (AUS) sports at UNB include women's soccer and swimming, along with men's and women's cross country, track and field, basketball and volleyball. Club sports (non-varsity) include baseball, cheerleading, cricket, fencing, football, golf, rowing, wrestling and men's rugby.
Constructed in 1976, is a 3,278 seat multi-purpose arena primarily used by the . At St. Thomas University, their men's and women's hockey and cross country teams compete in the AUS conference of the CIS, while their other sports teams (which include men's and women's soccer, rugby, golf, basketball, and volleyball) play in the (ACAA) conference of the (CCAA).
The Tommies men's volleyball team has won four ACAA titles, including in 2012, while the men's and women's basketball teams were both 2012 CCAA bronze medalists. The was once represented in Fredericton, with the playing between 1981 and 1988, and the between 1990 and 1999. Fredericton has 5 permanent rink facilities which have a combined seven ice surfaces.
On the Northside, the York Arena, opened in 1947, is the oldest arena still in use in the city. Also on the Northside is Willie O'Ree Place, the building is named after Fredericton-born , the first black player in the .
The building, which serves as the home for the Leo Hayes High School Lions, opened in 2008. It houses two NHL-sized ice surfaces, as well as meeting facilities, an indoor track and a small YMCA workout centre, while outside in Scotiabank Park North there is a soccer field and beach volleyball courts.
On the Southside, the Lady Beaverbrook Rink (opened in 1954), the home the Fredericton High School Black Kats, and the (opened in 1976 and owned by the University of New Brunswick) were joined in 2012 by the new , named after Fredericton-born NHL alumni and , which is another two rink complex; one is NHL sized and the other Olympic.
The Grant-Harvey Centre also houses a walking track and meeting facilities. Behind the arena is the new , a six court indoor tennis facility and to the South is Scotiabank Park South has an artificial turf soccer pitch as well as a two-acre, fenced dog park.
As of 2012 , the Grant-Harvey Centre replaced the Lady Beaverbrook Rink as the home of the St. Thomas Tommies. Located outside the city limits, is an alpine ski hill that features New Brunswick's highest vertical. Fredericton has a strong history with the Fredericton Loyalists RFC. Each summer the Loyalists host the team which competes in the .
There are healthy programs in both baseball and softball at all age levels around the city. The Fredericton U18 Twins hosted the Canadian U18 Softball Fast Pitch Championships in 2011 and 2012, while the Senior Twins hosted the National Senior Fast Pitch Championships in 2012. In baseball, the Fredericton Senior Royals celebrated their 100th anniversary in 2011 and their 11th (17th including when the team was the Marysville Royals) Championship in 2012.
That same Royals program produced , a Major League baseball player who played for Team Canada in the and won the World Series with the in 2008. Fredericton has several large parks, including Odell Park, Reading Park, Queen's Square, Officer's Square, Carleton Park and Wilmot Park.
Killarney Lake and nearby Mactaquac Provincial Park have small beaches which are popular in the summer. These, along with the river, provide excellent venues for water sports. Skiing and snowboarding at nearby are also common winter activities among city residents, as is skating on the outdoor rinks at Officer's and Queen's Squares. There are also several trails within the city which are used in the winter for cross-country skiing.
Fredericton also boasts public and private facilities for archery, soccer, track and field, golf, football, fencing, rowing, sailing, swimming, curling, martial arts, bowling, paintball, and lawn bowling. Historical populations Census year Population 1861 6,000 1871 6,006 1881 6,218 1891 6,502 1901 7,117 1911 7,208 1921 8,114 1931 8,830 1941 10,062* 1951 16,018 1956 18,303 1961 19,683 1966 22,460 1971 24,254 1976 45,248** 1981 43,723 1986 44,352 1991 47,510 2001 48,560 2006 50,535 2011 56,224 2016 58,220 * Boundary change ** City amalgamated with surroundings in 1973 The population of Fredericton is 56,224 (2011 Census).
Along with and , Fredericton is one of three Maritime cities to register a population increase in recent years. Ethnicity Fredericton's population is predominantly . However, a minority has had a long presence in the city, primarily in the Barker's Point borough. , the first black player in the NHL, is from Fredericton.
The largest non-white segment of Fredericton's population is made up of First Nations people, who live primarily on the Saint Mary's Reserve located in the city's north side. In the 1960s and 1970s, an influx of immigrants from and the began, although their numbers remain small.
Since 2000, the city's universities, Saint Thomas University and the University of New Brunswick, have seen a growing number of students from overseas attending. Visible minorities comprise 9.9% of the city's population. As of 2017, over 500 refugees from the have immigrated to the Fredericton area, more per capita than anywhere else in Canada, and equal to approximately 1% of the city's population.
Language While a predominantly Anglophone city, the civil service has seen an increase in the city's Francophone population. This population is served by the Centre Communautaire Sainte-Anne (which includes K-12 schooling, a radio station, a public library, and cultural centre). In addition, Fredericton is served by a Francophone church located on Regent Street. The linguistic breakdown of Fredericton is as follows: • 75.6% only • 23.6% bilingual (French and English) • 0.5% only • 0.3% other Celebration of Acadian culture in Fredericton.
The city has a significant number of residents that is bilingual (in English and French). Religion The residents of Fredericton are predominantly Christian, with Protestants forming the largest denomination.
The city is notable for its many churches, a high number per capita in comparison to most other Canadian cities. [ ] The small Northeast Christian College is located on the city's north side. While the population is not as large, the city does have the province's only Roman Catholic university, .
Fredericton has a , a , and a temple as well. The importance of these institutions has been growing in recent years warranting visits by prominent politicians in the area seeking election.
On 9 October 2011, a swastika was scrawled on the front door of the community's synagogue, and was investigated as a potential hate crime. A fellowship has been serving Fredericton since 1960 as a place for people to find a liberal religious home. Fredericton also hosts a meditation centre. Main religious denominations in Fredericton 2001 2011 1 Number % Number % Total population 47,005 100 55,145 100 Christian 38,875 82.7 38,940 70.6 Total Catholic 2 13,565 28.8 13,740 24.9 Total Protestant 25,090 53.3 24,985 45.3 - 6,290 11.4 5,995 10.9 Protestant, other 3 930 2.0 5,265 9.5 5,160 9.4 Pentecostal 1,390 2.5 785 1.4 100 0.2 4 220 0.5 205 0.4 No religious affiliation 6,975 14.8 14,460 26.2 Other 1155 2.5 2,090 3.8 455 1.0 685 1.2 Other religions 5 185 0.4 335 0.6 200 0.4 330 0.6 135 0.3 255 0.4 180 0.4 125 0.2 1 The 2011 data is from the National Household Survey and so numbers are estimates.
2Includes and Ukrainian Catholic 3 Includes persons who report only "Protestant" and those who report "Christian", and those who report "Apostolic", "Born-again Christian" and "Evangelical" and those who report from all Protestant denominations with less than 0.05% of the population including those who report "Christian Reformed Church and those who report "Methodist" and those who report "Mennonite" and those who report "Christian Missionary Alliance" and those who report "Brethren in Christ" and those who report "Evangelical Missionary Church" 4 Includes persons who report "Orthodox".
Also includes Greek Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Bulgarian Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox and Macedonian Orthodox 5 Includes persons who report all Religions with less than 0.05% of the population including Pagan, Wiccan and Sikh as well as persons who report only "non-denominational". During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the lumber industry, with its corresponding mills, was a primary sector of Fredericton's economy.
Over the course of the 20th century, this industry declined and gave way to the provincial government and the universities becoming the primary employers in the city. The policies of centralizing provincial government functions during the 1960s under New Brunswick Premier - along with the expanded role of the public sector characteristic of the 1960s/70s - led to a sizeable expansion of the city's population.
It was during these decades that the Hill area on the city's Southside was largely developed and bedroom communities such as emerged.
Marysville Place houses a number of offices for the provincial government. The is the largest employer in Fredericton. The 1960s also saw an expansion of the due to increased post-war university enrolment, as well as the construction of the Fredericton campus of . Also contributing to this expansion was the move of the Law School from Saint John to the Fredericton area.
This expansion of the post-secondary sector also contributed to Fredericton's population growth during the 1960s and 1970s. Since then, the city's population has continued to grow though at a slower rate due to slower growth of the government sector, along with hiring freezes and in some cases layoffs, during the and governments. In recent years, increased student enrolment at the city's universities has led to greater demand for rental property.
This has led to the construction of new university residences and apartment buildings in the city, and increased rates of rent, making them the highest rental rates in the province. The predominance of the universities and government provide Fredericton with a measure of economic stability. The city has not been subject to the uncertainty and hardships faced by Atlantic Canadian cities dealing with mill shutdowns and the decline of the mining and fishing industries.
For this reason, Fredericton is one of the few Atlantic Canadian cities that has actually reported a population increase in recent years. The city has been investing actively in IT infrastructure. The City of Fredericton won the "Judges Innovation Award" at the 2004 Canadian Information Productivity Awards due to their "Fred-eZone" free municipality wide network initiative.
This and other innovations by the city's utelco, e-Novations, led to do a case study on their successes. Fred-eZone spans much of the city’s downtown and parts of surrounding residential areas, as well as peripheral commercial areas such as Fredericton's Regent Mall.
In 2008 and 2009 the selected Fredericton as a Top 7 Intelligent Community, based partly on the city's work in the IT sector. The region has also established an investment attraction program called Invest Greater Fredericton. The purpose is to provide investors and site selectors with one central source for economic information such as real estate, demographics, key industries and more.
Primary and secondary education Fredericton's public schools are located in either the (formerly known as District 18, and prior to that, District 26) or the District Scolaire Francophone Sud (District 1). Fredericton is home to three public , two operating in the English language and one in the French language. , which was once the largest school in the , operates in English and primarily serves students living on Fredericton's south side.
It is also one of the oldest public high schools in Canada, tracing its beginnings to 1785 – having celebrated its bicentennial in 1985. Fredericton High School is home to several sports teams – including basketball, hockey, soccer, and football – which dominated New Brunswick provincial high school sports championships during much of the 1980s and 1990s. The school motto is "Palma Non Sine Pulvere", Latin for "No Reward Without Effort" (literally "no palm without dust").
, which opened in 1999, also operates in English and primarily serves students living on Fredericton's north side. The high school is a Public Private Partnership, known as a P3. Leo Hayes' current principal is Brad Sturgeon. The motto of the school is "Somnia Sunt Circuli Veritatis", Latin for "Dreams are the Seedlings of Reality".
Leo Hayes High School places priority on both Arts and Athletics, in addition to Academia. In addition, there are four , fourteen and three in the city. A recent issue with middle schools in the city has been the location of George Street Middle School and Albert Street Middle School close to the city centre.
This fails to account for the city's changing demographic which has seen the growth of suburban neighbourhoods. In 2009 Albert Street Middle School was replaced by , located in the Kimble Road Park area of Skyline Acres. Albert Street Middle School has since been demolished, with a new YMCA having been erected in its place. Fredericton is also served by (ESA), which provides French language education for grades 6-12, and (opened in 2007) and École Les Éclaireurs (opened in 2015), which provide K-5 education on the north and south side, respectively.
École Sainte-Anne is in the same building as that used by the French community centre - the Centre communautaire Sainte-Anne, which also houses the French public library, the Dr. Marguérite Michaud Library, and an amphitheatre. The current principal of ESA is Gabrielle McLaughlin. Fredericton is also home to a private Christian school, Fredericton Christian Academy, which is located on the Northside.
Its current principal is Jonathan McAloon. Post-secondary institutions Universities Established in 1785, the is the oldest public university in North America. Fredericton's status as an educational centre is evident in the city's two degree-granting universities: the and . The (UNB) was founded in 1785, making it the oldest public university in , compared to the oldest private university, Harvard University, in 1636. Built in 1826, UNB's Old Arts Building is the oldest university building still in use in Canada.
UNB also houses Renaissance College, which is a leading leadership training institution in New Brunswick. UNB houses a Faculty of Law which is one of two Anglophone common-law schools in Atlantic Canada. St. Thomas University (STU) is the province's only and has been located in Fredericton since 1964, when it moved from its campus. It is a liberal arts university with programs in , , , , native studies, and . STU offers an excellent program in Human Rights and is the home of the Atlantic Human Rights Research and Development Centre.
Colleges Fredericton is also home to several colleges and similar institutions. The houses the province's leading programs in photography and visual arts. The Fredericton location of the is on the campus of the University of New Brunswick. The maintains its English-language campus in the city. MCFT is a small post-secondary school training students from across the Maritime provinces. Other institutions include 3D and 2D animation schools such as da Vinci College and the Gaming and Animation Institute of Fredericton.
Located on the north side is a small Pentecostal College, the Northeast Christian College, which trains and certifies . Other institutions Alongside Fredericton's more established universities, the city also is home to several online for-profit universities. (UFred) and Yorkville University are operational. The University of Fredericton was founded in 2006, making it the youngest private university in Canada.
It is a degree-granting online university providing certificate and graduate degree programs in business leadership.
UFred offers MBA and EMBA Programs under Section 3 of the Degree Granting Act of the Province of New Brunswick in Canada. Yorkville offers graduate programs in counselling psychology and adult education. Meritus closed in 2012. These universities typically have offices downtown. Research Fredericton hosts several major research centres - dealing with policy development, agriculture, forestry, and engineering.
These research institutions are connected to the city's two universities as well as the provincial and federal governments. The Forestry Centre (including Provincial and Federal Departments) is the leading forestry research centre in Atlantic Canada.
This Centre carries out major research endeavours in forestry management and scientific research. The Centre closely collaborates with the Forestry Department at the which is one of the top Forestry Departments in Canada.
As well, research and development in agriculture and crop development is carried out at the Agricultural Research Station in Lincoln. The University of New Brunswick is the site of several major research centres in social science, forestry, geomatics and biomedical engineering, and policy development.
These include the Centre for Conflict Studies, which carries out research on military and strategic issues and the Muriel McQueen Fergusson Centre for Family Violence Research, which carries out multi-disciplinary research on family violence issues. Furthermore, the Institute of Biomedical Engineering has completed groundbreaking work on prosthetic limbs to aid war amputees in developing countries. As well, the city's growing sector has been the basis for new research on IT and computer programming development, including the October 2002 opening of the Institute for Information Technology – facility, located on the campus.
Fredericton is also the home of New Brunswick's Provincial Research Organization (PRO), RPC. RPC specializes in applied research and technical services in support of New Brunswick industry. Specializations include capabilities in aquaculture, mining, manufacturing, energy and the environment.
Air Air service is provided out of the , located approximately 15 kilometres east of downtown in . It is served by , which operates direct flights to , , and . It also has service from Porter Airlines 5 days a week to Ottawa. Seasonal direct flights are also offered to Cuba and the Caribbean during the late winter and early spring months.
As of May 2015, provides daily Q400 Turboprop service to . Public transit Operating a fleet of buses, is the public transit operator for the city. provides bus transit service to most areas of the city. All city buses feature bike racks so that cyclists can take advantage of bus services as well.
Fredericton is also served by several taxi companies. The major companies in alphabetical order are: ABC Car Services, Checker Cab, George's Skycab, Loyal Taxi, Standard Taxi and Trius Taxi. [ ] Fredericton started installing bicycle lanes in July 2008, with a plan to establish 45 kilometres of on-street painted bicycle lanes and 39 kilometres of signed bicycle routes by 2011. There is no rail service into Fredericton.
Passenger service started in 1869 and ended in the 1960s. Via Rail's "Atlantic" passenger train ran for many years between Saint John and Montreal, stopping at Fredericton Junction, about 28 kilometers south of Fredericton, and passing through Maine. The service was cancelled in the Via Rail cuts of 1981, but it was resumed in 1985. In 1994, Canadian Pacific announced that it would abandon its railway line through Maine and New Brunswick, thus leading to VIA Rail's decision to cancel the Atlantic train service.
The last passenger train left Fredericton Junction in November 1994. Freight service to Fredericton ended in 1996 and all railway tracks have been abandoned and removed. The city joined and as Canada's only provincial capitals without rail service. Since 1 December 2012, Fredericton has been served by Maritime Bus connections to points throughout Eastern Canada. Roads The is one of two bridges crosses over the Saint John River.
Fredericton is located on the , which passes along the southern municipal boundary. Routes and (the latter being a former alignment of the Trans-Canada) also pass through the city. Two highway bridges, the and the , cross the Saint John River. Those bridges feed into controlled-access roads (Routes 8 and serving the city's north side.) The city's highway system is mostly complete, and traffic jams rarely occur.
Streets in downtown follow a grid pattern. In residential areas of downtown, some neighbourhoods are traffic-calmed and include traffic circles at intersections to slow the speed of cars and discourage thoroughfare traffic. Northumberland Street and Odell Avenue have adopted speedbumps to slow fast moving traffic.
The pattern of streets in the rest of the city varies including straight thoroughfares (such as Smythe Street, Prospect Street and Regent Street), to curved streets and cul-de-sacs in primarily residential areas. Trail system Fredericton has a network of 25 trails totalling more than 85 kilometres (53 mi) on both sides of the Saint John and Nashwaak Rivers. Many of the city trails are that follow old railway lines. These include the Old Train Bridge that spans 0.6 km across the Saint John River, providing a panoramic view of downtown Fredericton.
The rail trail system in Fredericton is part of the Sentier NB Trail system and some of these trails are also part of the larger network. Some sections of the trail system are being paved to make it more accessible to non-motorized vehicles such as bicycles and wheelchairs. The Nashwaak River Trail in Fredericton North. Railway service through Fredericton was discontinued by in fall 1993 and in spring 1996.
Following abandonment, both companies sold their right-of-ways to the provincial government which developed the trail network in partnership with the city and volunteer trail organizations.
The trails are used by residents for walking, biking, and jogging and boast several scenic vistas along the Saint John and Nashwaak rivers as well as a mix of urban and wooded/natural scenery. On the south side of the city, CP Rail's Fredericton Subdivision enters the city from to the south, following the Wilsey Road and Beaverbrook Street to the former railway yard where a supermarket has been built along Regent Street.
The former CP passenger station () is located at the end of the Fredericton Subdivision and, after sitting abandoned for decades, was renovated into a winery and liquor store in 2011. On the north side of the city, CP Rail's Gibson Subdivision enters the city from in the west, following the Saint John River through Nashwaaksis to South Devon.
CP Rail's Minto Subdivision enters the city from Barker's Point in the east and follows the Saint John River to South Devon and crossing the Nashwaak River. CP Rail's Marysville Spur runs from Barker's Point to along the east bank of the Nashwaak River. Reading Trail runs through the last remaining in Fredericton's Skyline Acres neighbourhood.
On the south side, CN Rail's Oromocto Subdivision enters the city from in the east and parallels the former CP line to the downtown rail yard and York Street Station. CN's former Centreville Subdivision continues beyond the station to Silverwood in the west; this rail line was abandoned west of the Hanwell Road after the opened in 1968 and flooded the right-of-way through to .
CN Rail's Nashwaak Subdivision joined the Oromocto Subdivision at Una Junction, immediately north of Beaverbrook Street opposite the University of New Brunswick campus. The line proceeds north, crossing the Saint John River on the , to the former railway yard in South Devon where CP Rail's Gibson and Minto subdivisions join. The Nashwaak Subdivision continues up the Nashwaak River valley to .
Reading Park Trail ( ( ) ) is a 1.1 km forested trail going through Reading Park in Skyline Acres on the City's south side. Protected by trees, and constructed in a loop, Reading Park Trail is very popular with city residents for walking their dogs. It's also a destination for bird watchers, as the park's is one of the city's last remaining habitats for the .
• . City of Fredericton . Retrieved 2012-11-05. • . City of Fredericton . Retrieved 2012-11-05. • . 106.9 Capital FM. 9 June 2012 . Retrieved 2012-11-05. • ^ . cbc.ca.
10 May 2016. • . statcan.ca. 13 March 2007. • , 23 June 2016 • Jason Hall, "Maliseet Cultivation and Climatic Resilience on the Wəlastəkw/St. John River during the Little Ice Age," Acadiensis vol. XLIV, no. 2 (Summer/Autumn 2015): 3-25 W.O. Raymond, The River St. John, Tribune Press, 1907 • (1865).
. Halifax, NS: James Barnes. pp. 228–231. • Marsters, Roger (2004). Bold Privateers: Terror, Plunder and Profit on Canada's Atlantic Coast. Toronto: Formac Publishing. p. 34. . • William O. Raymond, The River St. John, 1910 • , 7 Nov 2015 • ^ . Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. . Retrieved 12 May 2014. • . ec.gc.ca. • ^ . Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. . Retrieved 12 May 2014. • . Canadian Climate Data. . Retrieved 9 April 2016.
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[ ] • • • . CFCA . Retrieved 5 September 2012. • . Retrieved 25 March 2014. • ^ . 2.statcan.ca . Retrieved 2014-05-17. • . 2.statcan.ca . Retrieved 2014-05-17. • (2014). . Archived from on 9 February 2014 . Retrieved 25 March 2014. • . Retrieved 21 August 2014. • • • . City of Fredericton .
Retrieved 6 April 2013. • Johnson, Robert (27 January 2013). . The New Brunswick Beacon . Retrieved 6 April 2013. • . The Guardian (Charlottetown). 21 November 2012 . Retrieved 6 April 2013. • Dallison, Robert L. "A Tour of Boss Gibson's Marysville: A Nineteenth Century Mill Town." Fredericton Heritage Trust, 1991. • Hachey, Philip Osmond "The geology and ground water of the Fredericton district." UNB Thesis, 1955.
• McIntyre, Glen, Bruce Oliver and Bob Watson, "A Valuable and Important Place - Fredericton's Loyalist Origins 1783." A Fredericton Historical Research Project, 1983.
• • Harvest Jazz and Blues Festival Notes
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