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160XXX Telephone code +91-172-XXX-XXXX Literacy 86.05% Website The city of Chandigarh comprises all of the union territory's area. under Section 4 of the . Symbols of Chandigarh Emblem Animal Bird Flower Fruit Tree [ ] Chandigarh is bordered by the state of to the north, the west and the south, and to the state of to the east. It is considered to be a part of the or Greater Chandigarh, which includes Chandigarh, and the city of (in Haryana) and cities of , , , (in Punjab).
It is located 260 km (162 miles) north of , 229 km (143 miles) southeast of . It was one of the early in post-independent India and is internationally known for its architecture and urban design. The master plan of the city was prepared by Swiss-French architect , which transformed from earlier plans created by the Polish architect and the American planner . Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, were designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by , and . In 2015, an article published by named Chandigarh as one of the perfect cities of the world in terms of architecture, cultural growth and modernisation.
Chandigarh’s was in July 2016 declared by as World Heritage at the 40th session of World Heritage Conference held in . UNESCO inscription was under "The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier an outstanding contribution to the Modern Movement".
The Capitol Complex buildings include the , Punjab and Haryana and Punjab and Haryana Assembly along with monuments Open hand, Martyrs Memorial, Geometric Hill and Tower of Shadow and the Rock Garden The city has one of the highest per capita income in the country.
The city was reported to be one of the cleanest in India based on a national government study. The union territory also heads the list of Indian states and territories according to . In 2015, a survey by , ranked it as the happiest city in India over the happiness index.
The metropolitan area of Chandigarh–– collectively forms a , with a combined population of over 1,611,770. The name Chandigarh is a of Chandi and Garh.
Chandi refers to Hindu goddess and Garh means fortress. The name is derived from , an ancient temple devoted to the Goddess , near the city in District. The motif or sobriquet of "The City of Beauty " was derived from the that was a popular philosophy in North American urban planning during the 1890s and 1900s.
Architect , the initial planner of Chandigarh, lamented the American rejection of City Beautiful concepts and declared "We want to create a beautiful city..." The phrase was used on as a logo in official publications in the 1970s, and is now how the city describes itself.
Early history The city has a prehistoric past. Due to the presence of a lake, the area has fossil remains with imprints of a large variety of aquatic plants and animals, and life, which were supported by that environment. As it was a part of the Punjab region, it had many rivers nearby where the ancient and primitive settling of humans began.
So, about 8000 years ago, the area was also known to be a home to the . Modern history A map of the British Punjab province in 1909. During the along the , the capital of the Punjab Province, , fell into , .
The necessity to have a new capital for in India then, led to the development of Chandigarh. Chandigarh was the dream city of India's first Prime Minister, . After the in 1947, the was split between (mostly Sikhs) in India and (mostly Muslim) in . The Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace , which became part of Pakistan during the partition. Therefore, an American planner and architect was tasked to design a new city called "Chandigarh" in 1949.
The government carved out Chandigarh of nearly 50 speaking villages of the then state of , India. was the temporary capital of until Chandigarh was completed in 1960. Albert Mayer, during his work on the development and planning of the new capital city of Chandigarh, developed a superblock-based city threaded with green spaces which emphasized cellular neighborhoods and traffic segregation. His site plan used natural characteristics, using its gentle grade to promote drainage and rivers to orient the plan.
Mayer discontinued his work on Chandigarh after developing a master plan for the city when his architect-partner died in a plane crash in 1950. Government officials recruited to succeed Mayer and Nowicki, who enlisted many elements of Mayer's original plan without attributing them to him. Le Corbusier designed many administration buildings, including the High Court, the Palace of Assembly and the Secretariat Building.
Le Corbusier also designed the general layout of the city, dividing it into sectors. Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many Open Hand sculptures, standing 26 metres high.
is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents what Le Corbusier called the "Second Machine Age".
Two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly and the Secretariat, remain incomplete. These include Geometric Hill and Martyrs Memorial; drawings were made, and they were begun in 1956, but they were never completed. On 1 November 1966, the newly formed state of was carved out of the eastern portion of , in order to create a new state for the majority -speaking people in that portion, while the western portion of East Punjab retained a mostly -speaking majority and was renamed as .
Chandigarh was located on the border of both states and the states moved to incorporate the city into their respective territories. However, the city of Chandigarh was declared a to serve as capital of both states. As of 2016, many historical villages in Chandigarh are still inhabited within the modern blocks of sectors including Burail and Attawa, while there are a number of non-sectoral villages that lie on the outskirts of the city. These villages were a part of the pre-Chandigarh era.
Map of Chandigarh Location Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the range of the in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 114 km 2. It borders the states of Haryana and Punjab. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are . It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft). The city, lying in the northern plains, includes a vast area of flat, fertile land. Its northeast covers sections of and while the remainder of its terrain is part of the .
The surrounding cities are , , and in Punjab, and and in Haryana. Chandigarh is situated114(28 miles) northeast of , 229 km (143 miles) southeast of and 250 km (156 miles) north of . Climate Chandigarh has a (: Cwa) characterised by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (−1 °C to 46 °C OR 30.2 °F to 114 °F).
The average annual rainfall is . The city also receives occasional winter rains from the originating over the . The western disturbances usually bring rain predominantly from mid-December till end of April which can be heavier sometimes with strong winds and hails if the weather turns colder (during March–April months) which usually proves disastrous to the crops.
Cold winds usually tend to come from the north near , capital of and from the state of , both of which receive their share of snowfall during wintertime. The city experiences the following seasons and the respective average temperatures: • Spring: The climate remains the most enjoyable part of the year during the spring season (from February-end to early-April).
Temperatures vary between (max) 13 °C to 20 °C and (min) 5 °C to 12 °C. • Autumn: In autumn (from September-end to mid November.), the temperature may rise to a maximum of 30 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 10° to 22° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 6 °C.
• Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-April to June-end) may rise to 44 °C. The temperatures might sometime rise to 44 °C in mid-June.
Temperatures generally vary between 40 and 42 °C. • Monsoon: During monsoon (from early-July to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September).
Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or North-east. The maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigarh during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
• Winter: Winters (November-end to February-end) are mild but they can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 5 °C to 14 °C and (min) -1 °C to 5 °C.
Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 2–3 days with sometimes hailstorms. The city witnessed bone-numbing chill as the maximum temperature on Monday, 7 January 2013 plunged to a 30-year low to settle at 6.1 degrees Celsius. Climate data for Chandigarh Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 27.7 (81.9) 32.8 (91) 37.8 (100) 42.7 (108.9) 44.6 (112.3) 45.3 (113.5) 42.0 (107.6) 39.0 (102.2) 37.5 (99.5) 37.0 (98.6) 34.0 (93.2) 28.5 (83.3) 45.6 (114.1) Average high °C (°F) 20.4 (68.7) 23.1 (73.6) 28.4 (83.1) 34.5 (94.1) 38.3 (100.9) 38.6 (101.5) 34.0 (93.2) 32.7 (90.9) 33.1 (91.6) 31.8 (89.2) 27.3 (81.1) 22.1 (71.8) 30.4 (86.7) Average low °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 8.3 (46.9) 13.4 (56.1) 18.9 (66) 23.1 (73.6) 25.4 (77.7) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 21.8 (71.2) 17.0 (62.6) 10.5 (50.9) 6.7 (44.1) 16.5 (61.7) Record low °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 0.0 (32) 4.2 (39.6) 7.8 (46) 13.4 (56.1) 14.8 (58.6) 14.2 (57.6) 17.2 (63) 14.3 (57.7) 9.4 (48.9) 3.7 (38.7) 0.0 (32) 0.0 (32) Average rainfall mm (inches) 33.1 (1.3) 38.9 (1.53) 30.4 (1.2) 8.5 (0.33) 28.4 (1.12) 145.2 (5.72) 280.4 (11.04) 307.5 (12.11) 133.0 (5.24) 21.9 (0.86) 9.4 (0.37) 21.9 (0.86) 1,059.3 (41.7) Average rainy days 2.6 2.8 2.6 1.1 2.1 6.3 12.3 11.4 5.0 1.4 0.8 1.4 49.8 Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010) Ecosystem Parakeets at the Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense and plantations.
, , and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem. The city has forests surrounding that sustain many animal and plant species. , , , parrots, and inhabit the protected forests. hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season. The situated in sector 21 of the city provides home to a large number of parrots. was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1998. Landscape Sailing at Sukhna Lake , a 3 km artificial rain-fed lake in Sector 1, was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills.
Chandigarh has a belt of parks running from sector to sector. It is known for its green belts and other special tourist parks. Sukhna Lake itself hosts the . The , also known as Rock Garden after its founder, is located near the Sukhna Lake and has numerous sculptures made by using a variety of different discarded waste materials like frames, mudguards, forks, handle bars, metal wires, play marbles, porcelain, auto parts, broken bangles etc.
The 30-40 acre contains nearly 825 varieties of roses in it and more than 32,500 varieties of other medicinal plants and trees. Other gardens include the Garden of Fragrance in Sector 36, in Sector 42, Butterfly Park in Sector 26, Valley of Animals in Sector 49, the in Sector 31 and the Terraced Garden in Sector 33.
Shanti Kunj Garden located between rose garden and cricket stadium in Sector 16 is another garden full of flora and fauna.This garden contains plenty of medicinal plants which are used to cure many diseases. the Botanical Garden and the Bougainvillea Garden,.
. There is also a Government museum and art gallery in sector 10-C having collections of sculptures and miniature paintings. Population growth in Chandigarh over the years. As of 2011 India census, Chandigarh had a population of 1,055,450, making for a density of about 9,252 (7,900 in 2001) persons per square kilometre.
Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 818 females for every 1,000 males –which is the in the country, up from 773 in 2001. The child sex ratio is 880 females per thousand males, up from 819 in 2001. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 86.77%, higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%.
10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age. There has been a substantial decline in the population growth rate in Chandigarh, with just 17.10% growth between 2001-2011.
Since, 1951-1961 the rate has decreased from 394.13% to 17.10%. This is probably because of rapid urbanisation and development in neighbouring cities. The urban population constitutes of as high as 97.25% of the total and the rural population makes up 2.75% as there are only few villages within Chandigarh on its Western and South-Eastern border and majority of people live in the heart of Chandigarh.
Languages 0.4% is the prominent religion of Chandigarh followed by 80.78% of the population. is the second most popular religion in the city followed by 13.11% of the people. In Chandigarh city is followed by 4.87%. Minorities are 0.83%, 0.19%, 0.11%, those that didn't state a religion are 0.10%, and others are 0.02%.
Many institutions serve the minorities in the city. One such being the , serving the Catholics, which even has a in the city, Christ the King Co-Cathedral, although it never was a separate bishopric. Most of the convent schools of Chandigarh are governed by this institution. Chandigarh hosts many religious places, including Chandimandir, the temple after which it was named.
The temple in Sector 36 is one among the worship places for Hindus. Gurudwara, a famous place for Sikh worship lies in its vicinity. Apart from this, there are a couple of historical mosques in Manimajra and Burail.
Chandigarh has been rated as one of the "Wealthiest Towns" of India. The ranked Chandigarh as the Third largest deposit centre and seventh largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012.
With a per capita income of 99,262, Chandigarh is one of the richest cities in India. Chandigarh's for 2014-15 is estimated at 0.29 lakh crore (US$4.3 billion) in current prices.
According to a 2014 survey, Chandigarh is ranked 4th in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations" ahead of cities like . Employment The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here i.e. Chandigarh Administration, Punjab government and Haryana government.
A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service mainly Armed forces. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a "Pensioner's Paradise". Ordnance Cable Factory of the has been set up by the . There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the Public sector.
In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units registered under small-scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. The main occupation here is trade and business. However, the , , the availability of an IT Park and more than a hundred of government schools provide job opportunity to people.
Four major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: in Sector 8, Chandigarh, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry () and the (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh. Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to , Haryana, Punjab and , and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area.
Major Indian firms and multinational corporations like , , , , , , , , have set up base in the city and its suburbs. The work of the is likely to start by the year 2019. It was initially opposed by the from Chandigarh, . with estimated cost of around 10,900 including 50% funds from the governments of Punjab and Haryana and 25% from Chandigarh and Government of India. Funds from the will include approximately 56% of the cost.
Kher promised a film city for Chandigarh. After winning the seat, she said that she had difficulty in acquiring land in Chandigarh. However, her proposal was accepted by the Chandigarh Administration and the film city is proposed to be set up in Sarangpur, Chandigarh. These are seen as media of creating jobs. by Chandigarh, as a , is not entitled to a state-level election: thus are not held and it is directly controlled by the .
However, one seat is contested here for the held every five years. The following have been elected till date from the Chandigarh constituency: Election Member Party Chand Goyal Amar Nath Vidyalankar Harmohan Dhawan The city is controlled by a civic administration.
In the Municipal Corporation, candidate defeated ' Mukesh Bassi by 21-15 votes for the post of Mayor, while 's Davesh Moudgil and 's Hardeep Singh defeated ' Darshan Garg and Gurbax Rawat for the posts of Sr.
Deputy Mayor and Deputy Mayor respectively, in the Municipal Corporation's mayoral polls in January 2016. In January 2017 BJP's Asha Kumari Jaswal was elected as the mayor, BJP's Rajesh Kumar Gupta and Anil Dubey were elected as senior deputy mayor and deputy mayor respectively.
Composition of Chandigarh Municipal Corporation as of February 2017 Political Party Number of Councillers 20 1 4 Independent 1 Nominated 9 Member of Parliament 1 Total 36 See also: There are numerous educational institutions in Chandigarh. These range from privately and publicly operated schools to colleges and the . Other Institutions are (PGIMER), Govt Medical college & Hospital, Deemed University, Govt College for Men, Govt College for Women, , MCM DAV College for Women, Goswami Ganesh Dutta Sanatan Dharma College Sector-32, Govt Homeopathic College, Ayurvedic College, Govt Polytechnical College, Govt Home Science College, Dr Ambedkar Institute of Hotel management, Khalsa College Sec- 26, National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research(NITTTR) Sec-26, Government College of Commerce and Business Administration (GCCBA) Sec-50 etc.
According to Chandigarh administration's department of education, there are a total of 115 government schools in Chandigarh, including and convent schools like , , , , , and . CTU AC bus outside railway station Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India.
Wide, well maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local transport. The (CTU) operates public transport buses from its Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sectors 17 and 43 of the city.
CTU also operates frequent bus services to the neighbouring states of , , and to . Chandigarh is well connected by road to the following nearby cities, by the following highway routes: • to in the southwest.
• to in the south ( catches up from Ambala to -). • to in the northeast, and to in the west. Air Chandigarh Station lies in the of the network and provides connectivity to most of the regions of India. It provides connectivity to eastern states with link to cities like , ; with trains to , , , , and ; with trains to , , and ; central states with trains to and ; other with trains to , , , , and .
Festivals Every year, in September or October during the festival of Navratri, many associations and organisations hold a Ramlila event which has been conducted for over 50 years. The "" in in February every year, shows thousands of subspecies of roses.
The Mango Festival, held during the , and other festivals are held at Sukhna Lake., and are the other major festivals in the City. Sports The , Sector 42 The , has been a venue of several international cricket matches. But it has lost prominence after the was constructed in Mohali. It still provides a platform for cricketers in this region to practice and play inter-state matches.
The has 7,202 yard, 18 hole course known for its challenging narrow fairways, a long 613 yard long, dogleg 7th hole and floodlighting on the first nine holes. There are many other sports grounds and complex like the Lake Sports Complex; Sports Complexes in Sectors 7, 42, 46; Table Tennis Hall, Sector 23; Hockey Centre, Sector 18; Football Stadium, Sector 17; Skating Rink, Sector 10; Wrestling, Basketball and Handball Indoor Hall, Sector 42; CLTA Lawn Tennis Grounds, Sector 10; Athletics Stadium, Sector 7 and 26 Police Lines; Volleyball Courts, Sector 7 and so on.
Many personalities from this region have excelled in sports. • , Indian Civil Service officer who played a major role in establishing the city of Chandigarh • , Ashoka Chakra Awardee, flight attendant and model • Commonwealth gold medalist. • , former Indian international cricketer • , Padma Bhushan Awardee, Film and TV Actor and renowned satirist • , Indian actress and theatre artist (also BJP M.P. from the city) • , Punjabi Film Actress • , Actor • , Indian international cricketer • , actress • , professional Golfer • , Founder of , Billionaire.
• , Founder of , Billionaire. • , TV actor • , Punjabi Film Actress • , Indian Film actor • , VJ and actress • , Pilot • , Sufi singer • , Indian film actress • , Punjabi Film Actress • , Indian film actress and Social Activist • , Olympic gold medalist • , Indian actress • , Punjabi film director • , Bioinformatics Scientist • , winner of Ashden Awards-UK • , Indian artist and creator of the Rock Garden of Chandigarh • , Indian-American Entrepreneur who founded • , Music Composer, Singer, Lyricist • , Indian International Professional footballer • Novelist, Columnist • Model, Actress • , United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit • , Bollywood journalist and filmmaker • , Architect, Author, Photo-artist • , writer • ^ Chandigarh (India): Union Territory & Agglomeration - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts • (PDF).
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