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This article is about the New York City borough. For other uses, see . : Manhattan ( ), often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of , its economic and administrative center, identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the of the of .

The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the , , and rivers; ; and , a small neighborhood now on the , physically connected to and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with its long axis: , , and .

100xx, 101xx, 102xx , Website Manhattan is often described as the cultural, financial, , and capital of the world, and the borough hosts the .

Anchored by in the of , New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and Manhattan is home to the world's two by total : the and .

Many are based in Manhattan, and the borough has been the for numerous books, , and television shows. Manhattan is historically documented to have been purchased by from in 1626 for 60 , which equals roughly US$1050 in current terms. Manhattan has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013; median residential property sale prices in Manhattan approximated US$1,600 per square foot ($17,000/m 2) as of 2018, with in commanding the highest rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m 2) in 2017.

Manhattan traces its origins to a founded by from the in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named in 1626. The territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King granted the lands to his brother, the . New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the from 1785 until 1790. The greeted millions of as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.

Manhattan became a borough during the in 1898. New York County is the (larger only than ), and is also the . It is also one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles (59.13 km 2), or 72,918 residents per square mile (28,154/km 2), . On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile (65,600/km 2).

Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after and , and is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, and Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: , , and .

The borough hosts many prominent , such as the ; such as the ; and , such as Central Park. incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the , and the in , part of the , is considered the of the modern . The City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses , the seat of the . Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including , , , , and , which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on 's yacht ( Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the ). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the (wood to make) bows", from the Munsee dialect of the 'manaháhtaan' (where 'manah-' means "gather", '-aht-' means "bow" and '-aan' is an abstract element used to form verb stems).

According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end that was considered ideal for the making of bows. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and simply "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the at . The showing the Dutch colonial city of in 1660 – then confined to the southern tip of Manhattan Island The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the .

In 1524, explorer – sailing in service of of – became the first documented to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered the now known as and named the land around "", in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the , which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after , the elder sister of the king.

It was not until the voyage of , an Englishman who worked for the , that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the , until he arrived at the site of present-day .

A permanent European presence in began in 1624, with the founding of a settlement on . In 1625, construction was started on the of on Manhattan Island, later called ( Nieuw Amsterdam), in what is now Lower Manhattan. The 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City. According to a letter by Pieter Janszoon Schagen, and acquired Manhattan on May 24, 1626, from unnamed Native American people, who are believed to have been of the , in exchange for traded goods worth 60 , often said to be worth US$24.

The figure of 60 guilders comes from a letter by a representative of the and member of the board of the , Pieter Janszoon Schagen, to the Estates General in November 1626. In 1846, New York historian converted the figure of Fl 60 (or 60 guilders) to 23. "[A] variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars," as and remarked in their history of New York.

Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, according to the Institute for Social History of Amsterdam.

Based on the , author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. Historians James and Michelle Nevius revisited the issue in 2014, suggesting that using the prices of beer and brandy as monetary equivalencies, the price Minuit paid would have the purchasing power of somewhere between $2,600 and $15,600 in current dollars. According to the writer , Minuit conducted the transaction with Seyseys, chief of the Canarsees, who were willing to accept valuable merchandise in exchange for the island that was mostly controlled by the .

In 1647, was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English , the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including ) under new colonial English rulers.

The Dutch Republic regained the city in August 1673, renaming it "New Orange". New Netherland was ultimately ceded to the English in November 1674 through the . This statue of stands in front of (on ) where he was inaugurated as the first in 1789, sculptor, American Revolution and the early United States Manhattan was at the heart of the , a series of major battles in the early .

The was forced to abandon Manhattan after the on November 16, 1776. The city, greatly damaged by the during the campaign, became the British military and political center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war.

The military center for the colonists was established in New Jersey. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when returned to Manhattan, as . From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five under the , with the meeting at (then at ). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted , from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at . Federal Hall was also the site where the met for the first time, the were drafted and ratified, and where the was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the .

19th century New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of 's policies and practices as the first and, later, with the opening of the in 1825, which connected the Atlantic to the vast agricultural markets of the and Canada. By 1810, New York City, then confined to Manhattan, had surpassed as the largest city in the United States. Manhattan in 1873. The was under construction from 1870 until 1883 , a , began to grow in influence with the support of many of the , culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, , in 1854.

Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades. , which opened to the public in 1858, became the first in an American city. New York City played a complex role in the . The city's strong commercial ties to the existed for many reasons, including the industrial power of the Hudson River harbor, which allowed trade with stops such as the , one of the great manufacturing operations in the early United States; and the city's ports, rendering New York City the American powerhouse in terms of industrial trade between the northern and southern United States.

New York's growing immigrant population, which had originated largely from and , began in the late 1850s to include waves of and and flowing in en masse. Anger arose about , with resentment at those who could afford to pay $300 to avoid service leading to resentment against Lincoln's war policies and fomenting paranoia about free Blacks taking the poor immigrants' jobs, culminating in the three-day-long of July 1863.

These intense war-time riots are counted among the worst incidents of in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred. The rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply after the Civil War, and Manhattan became the first stop for millions seeking a new life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the on October 28, 1886, a gift from the people of France.

The new European immigration brought further social upheaval. In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city became a hotbed of (including and among others), , , and . In 1883, the opening of the established a road connection to , across the . In 1874 the western portion of the present was transferred to New York County from , and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed. In 1898, when New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the ", Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, were established as two separate .

On January 1, 1914, the created Bronx County, and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries. Manhattan's , , circa 1900 The construction of the , which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. In the 1920s Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the from the southern United States, and the , part of a larger boom time in the era that included new competing for the skyline.

New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century. Manhattan's majority ethnic group declined from 98.7% in 1900 to 58.3% by 1990. On March 25, 1911, the in killed 146 .

The disaster eventually led to overhauls of the city's fire department, , and workplace regulations. The period between the saw the election of reformist mayor and the fall of after 80 years of political dominance. As the city's demographics stabilized, brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia.

Despite the , some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline, most notably the , the , and the .

in Times Square, 1945 Returning veterans created a postwar economic boom, which led to the development of huge housing developments targeted at returning veterans, the largest being , which opened in 1947. In 1951–1952, the relocated to a new the East Side of Manhattan. The were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the against a that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the in the neighborhood of Lower Manhattan.

They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the movement and the modern fight for . In the 1970s job losses due to caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.

While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. The 1980s saw a rebirth of , and Manhattan reclaimed its role at the center of the worldwide . The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter. The organizations (GMHC) and (ACT UP) were founded to advocate on behalf of those stricken with the disease.

By the 1990s crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, , and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America.

Murder rates that had reached 2,245 in 1990 plummeted to 537 by 2008, and the and its associated drug-related violence came under greater control. The outflow of population turned around, as the city once again became the destination of immigrants from around the world, joining with low and Wall Street bonuses to fuel the growth of the real estate market. Important new sectors, such as , emerged in Manhattan's economy. Flooding on caused by on October 29, 2012 On , two of four hijacked planes were flown into the , and the towers subsequently collapsed.

collapsed due to fires and structural damage caused by heavy debris falling from the collapse of the Twin Towers. The other buildings within the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and soon after demolished.

The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage to other surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 people, in addition to those on the planes. Since 2001, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored, although surrounding the rebuilding.

Many rescue workers and residents of the area several life-threatening illnesses that have led to some of their subsequent deaths. was opened to the public on September 11, 2011, and the museum opened in 2014.

In 2014, the new , at 1,776 feet (541 m) and formerly known as the Freedom Tower, became the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, while other skyscrapers were under construction at the site. The protests in in the of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the against and worldwide.

On October 29 and 30, 2012, caused in the borough, ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high from New York Harbor, severe flooding, and high winds, causing for hundreds of thousands of city residents and leading to shortages and disruption of systems. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing and other around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.

Around 15 percent of the borough is considered to be in . On , a terrorist took a rental pickup truck and deliberately drove down a bike path alongside the in Lower Manhattan, killing eight people and injuring a dozen others before crashing into a school bus. Location of Manhattan (red) within New York City (remainder white) Components The borough consists of Manhattan Island, , and several small islands, including , and in the East River, and and to the south in .

According to the , New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km 2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km 2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km 2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic . Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km 2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near ). Manhattan Island Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Downtown (), Midtown (), and Uptown (), with dividing Manhattan's east and west sides.

Manhattan Island is bounded by the to the west and the to the east. To the north, the divides Manhattan Island from and the mainland United States. Early in the 19th century, was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at to .

When in 1968, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating , The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks; was subsequently opened in stages beginning in 1998.

Marble Hill One neighborhood of New York County is contiguous with the U.S. mainland – Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the , dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan.

Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland. Marble Hill is one example of how Manhattan's land has been considerably altered by human intervention.

The borough has seen substantial along its waterfronts since Dutch colonial times, and much of the natural variation in its has been evened out. Smaller islands Manhattan schist outcropping in Central Park The underlying much of Manhattan is a known as Manhattan schist of the physiographic region.

It is a strong, created when formed. It is well suited for the foundations of tall buildings. In , of Manhattan Schist occur and is one rather large example.

Geologically, a predominant feature of the substrata of Manhattan is that the underlying bedrock base of the island rises considerably closer to the surface near Midtown Manhattan, dips down lower between and , then rises toward the surface again in Lower Manhattan.

It has been widely believed that the depth to bedrock was the primary underlying reason for the clustering of skyscrapers in the Midtown and Financial District areas, and their absence over the intervening territory between these two areas.

However, research has shown that economic factors played a bigger part in the locations of these skyscrapers. Updated seismic analysis According to the , an updated analysis of in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in Manhattan than previously assessed.

Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near New York City, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.

Locations is an of Manhattan, of New York City, and of New York State, that is surrounded by New Jersey waters Adjacent counties • —west and northwest • —west and southwest • Bronx County ()—north and northeast • Queens County ()—east • Kings County ()—south and southeast • Richmond County ()—southwest National protected areas • • • • • • • • (part) • Neighborhoods Main articles: and Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention.

Some are geographical (the ), or ethnically descriptive (). Others are , such as (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or ("SOuth of HOuston"), or the far more recent vintages ("NOrth of Little ITAly"). and ("NOrth of MADison Square Park"). is a name from the Dutch colonial era after , a city in the Netherlands. comprises , , , and , to which its name refers. Some have simple names, such as , alongside their more official but lesser used title (in this case, Clinton).

The in the foreground looking southward from the top of , with in the background, at sunset. The acts as a caretaker for much of the neighborhood between the of and .

Some neighborhoods, such as , which is mixed use, are known for as well as residential use. Others, such as , the , and the , have long been associated with the subculture. is one of several Manhattan neighborhoods with large and has become a center of both the international and New York's nightlife.

is a primary destination for immigrants from the . has the highest concentration of people of descent outside of . is roughly bounded by 6th and Madison Avenues, between 31st and 33rd Streets, where (한글) signage is ubiquitous. features a growing number of Indian restaurants and spice shops along a stretch of between 25th and 30th Streets which has become known as .

In Manhattan, uptown means north (more precisely north-northeast, which is the direction the island and its system are oriented) and downtown means south (south-southwest). This usage differs from that of most American cities, where downtown refers to the central business district. Manhattan has two central business districts, the at the southern tip of the island, and .

The term uptown also refers to the northern part of Manhattan above and downtown to the southern portion below , with Midtown covering the area in between, though definitions can be rather fluid depending on the situation. roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations (e.g., East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); street addresses start at Fifth Avenue and increase heading away from Fifth Avenue, at a rate of 100 per block on most streets.

South of , Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line. Although the grid does start with 1st Street, just north of (the southernmost street divided in west and east portions; pronounced HOW-stin), the grid does not fully take hold until north of , where nearly all east-west streets are numerically identified, which increase from south to north to 220th Street, the highest numbered street on the island.

Streets in Midtown are usually one-way, with the few exceptions generally being the busiest cross-town thoroughfares (14th, 23rd, 34th, and 42nd Streets, for example), which are bidirectional across the width of Manhattan Island.

The rule of thumb is that odd-numbered streets run west, while even-numbered streets run east. The Climate Under the , using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a ( Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization.

The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and ( Dfa). The city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually.

The city lies in the . Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the ; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as , , and . The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month.

Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July.

Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936. Summer evening temperatures are elevated by the effect, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as 7 °F (4 °C) when winds are slow.

Manhattan receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably from year to year. Climate data for New York (, ), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1869–present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 72 (22) 78 (26) 86 (30) 96 (36) 99 (37) 101 (38) 106 (41) 104 (40) 102 (39) 94 (34) 84 (29) 75 (24) 106 (41) Mean maximum °F (°C) 59.6 (15.3) 60.7 (15.9) 71.5 (21.9) 83.0 (28.3) 88.0 (31.1) 92.3 (33.5) 95.4 (35.2) 93.7 (34.3) 88.5 (31.4) 78.8 (26) 71.3 (21.8) 62.2 (16.8) 97.0 (36.1) Average high °F (°C) 38.3 (3.5) 41.6 (5.3) 49.7 (9.8) 61.2 (16.2) 70.8 (21.6) 79.3 (26.3) 84.1 (28.9) 82.6 (28.1) 75.2 (24) 63.8 (17.7) 53.8 (12.1) 43.0 (6.1) 62.0 (16.7) Average low °F (°C) 26.9 (−2.8) 28.9 (−1.7) 35.2 (1.8) 44.8 (7.1) 54.0 (12.2) 63.6 (17.6) 68.8 (20.4) 67.8 (19.9) 60.8 (16) 50.0 (10) 41.6 (5.3) 32.0 (0) 48.0 (8.9) Mean minimum °F (°C) 9.2 (−12.7) 12.8 (−10.7) 18.5 (−7.5) 32.3 (0.2) 43.5 (6.4) 52.9 (11.6) 60.3 (15.7) 58.8 (14.9) 48.6 (9.2) 38.0 (3.3) 27.7 (−2.4) 15.6 (−9.1) 7.0 (−13.9) Record low °F (°C) −6 (−21) −15 (−26) 3 (−16) 12 (−11) 32 (0) 44 (7) 52 (11) 50 (10) 39 (4) 28 (−2) 5 (−15) −13 (−25) −15 (−26) Average inches (mm) 3.65 (93) 3.09 (78) 4.36 (111) 4.50 (114) 4.19 (106) 4.41 (112) 4.60 (117) 4.44 (113) 4.28 (109) 4.40 (112) 4.02 (102) 4.00 (102) 49.94 (1,268) Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.0 (18) 9.2 (23) 3.9 (10) 0.6 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3 (1) 4.8 (12) 25.8 (66) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.4 9.2 10.9 11.5 11.1 11.2 10.4 9.5 8.7 8.9 9.6 10.6 122.0 Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.0 2.8 1.8 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.3 11.4 Average (%) 61.5 60.2 58.5 55.3 62.7 65.2 64.2 66.0 67.8 65.6 64.6 64.1 63.0 Mean monthly 162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7 Percent 54 55 57 57 57 57 59 63 59 61 51 48 57 Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990) See for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.

Boroughscapes See also: Year Pop. ±% 1656 1,000 — 1698 6,788 +578.8% 1711 10,538 +55.2% 1730 11,963 +13.5% 1731 8,628 −27.9% 1756 15,710 +82.1% 1773 21,876 +39.2% 1774 23,600 +7.9% 1782 29,363 +24.4% 33,131 +12.8% 60,489 +82.6% 96,373 +59.3% 123,706 +28.4% 202,589 +63.8% 312,710 +54.4% 515,547 +64.9% 813,669 +57.8% 942,292 +15.8% 1,164,674 +23.6% 1,441,216 +23.7% 1,850,093 +28.4% 2,331,542 +26.0% 2,284,103 −2.0% 1,867,312 −18.2% 1,889,924 +1.2% 1,960,101 +3.7% 1,698,281 −13.4% 1,539,233 −9.4% 1,428,285 −7.2% 1,487,536 +4.1% 1,537,195 +3.3% 1,585,873 +3.2% 2017 1,664,727 +5.0% Sources: Source: U.S.

Decennial Census Racial composition 2012 1990 1950 1900 65.2% 58.3% 79.4% 97.8% —Non-Hispanic 47.6% 48.9% n/a n/a 18.4% 22.0% 19.6% 2.0% (of any race) 25.8% 26.0% n/a n/a 12.0% 7.4% 0.8% 0.3% At the , there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 5.0% to 1,664,727 as of 2017 , representing 19.3% of New York City's population of 8,622,698 and 8.4% of New York State's population of 19,849,399.

As of the 2017 Census estimates, the population density of New York County was around 72,918 people per square mile (28,154/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²).

According to 2012 , 65.2% of the population was , 18.4% or , 1.2% and , 12.0% , and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (64%). In 2006, the projected that Manhattan's population would increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period.

However, since then, Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a , well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014 , nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

The southern tip of Manhattan became the fastest growing part of New York City between 1990 and 2014. According to the 2009 , the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher.

Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. and make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

Manhattan is one of the in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012 , Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the , being the sole county whose exceeded $100,000 in 2010. However, from 2011–2015 Census data of New York County, the per capita income was recorded in 2015 dollars as $64,993, with the median household income at $72,871, and poverty at 17.6%.

In 2012, The New York Times reported that inequality was higher than in most developing countries, stating, "The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

Religion Manhattan is religiously diverse. In 2000, the largest religious affiliation was the , whose adherents constituted 564,505 persons (more than 36% of the population) and maintained 110 congregations. comprised the second largest religious group, with 314,500 persons (20.5%) in 102 congregations. They were followed by , with 139,732 adherents (9.1%) and , with 37,078 (2.4%). Other religious affiliations including , as well as and , composed the majority of the remainder.

Languages As of 2010 , 59.98% (902,267) of Manhattan residents, aged five and older, spoke only English at home, while 23.07% (347,033) spoke Spanish, 5.33% (80,240) Chinese, 2.03% (30,567) French, 0.78% (11,776) Japanese, 0.77% (11,517) Russian, 0.72% (10,788) Korean, 0.70% (10,496) German, 0.66% (9,868) Italian, 0.64% (9,555) Hebrew, and 0.48% (7,158) spoke African languages at home.

In total, 40.02% (602,058) of Manhattan's population, aged five and older, spoke a language other than English at home. Numerous buildings have a jagged façade, exemplified at and in . and the surrounding , , , the , , the , the , , , , the , , , , , , the on , and the in , , , the , , , , , gateways to numerous iconic river-crossing , and an emerging number of , are all located on densely populated Manhattan Island; the rests on a on , an of Manhattan.

The borough has many office buildings, such as the , the rebuilt , and the —the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum Certification.

Architectural history The , which has shaped Manhattan's distinctive , has been closely associated with New York City's identity since the end of the 19th century. From 1890 to 1973, the title of resided continually in Manhattan (with a gap between 1901 and 1908, when the title was held by ), with nine different buildings holding the title. The on , was the first to take the title in 1890, standing 309 feet (94 m) until 1955, when it was demolished to construct a new ramp to the .

The nearby , with its 29 stories standing 391 feet (119 m) high took the title in 1899. The 41-story , constructed in 1908 as the headquarters of the sewing machine manufacturer, stood 612 feet (187 m) high until 1967, when it became the tallest building ever demolished. The , standing 700 feet (210 m) at the foot of , wrested the title in 1909, with a tower reminiscent of in Venice.

The , and its distinctive , took the title in 1913, topping off at 792 feet (241 m). Structures such as the of 1915, which rises vertically forty stories from the sidewalk, prompted the passage of the , requiring new buildings to withdraw progressively at a defined angle from the street as they rose, in order to preserve a view of the sky at street level.

The saw a race to the sky, with three separate buildings pursuing the world's tallest title in the span of a year. As the soared in the days before the , two developers publicly competed for the crown. At 927 feet (283 m), , completed in May 1930 in only eleven months as the headquarters of the , seemed to have secured the title.

At and , auto executive and his architect developed plans to build the structure's trademark 185-foot (56 m) spire in secret, pushing the Chrysler Building to 1,046 feet (319 m) and making it the tallest in the world when it was completed in 1929. Both buildings were soon surpassed with the May 1931 completion of the 102-story Empire State Building with its tower reaching 1,250 feet (380 m) at the top of the building.

The 203-foot (62 m) high pinnacle was later added bringing the total height of the building to 1,453 ft (443 m). The former were located in Lower Manhattan. At 1,368 and 1,362 feet (417 and 415 m), the 110-story buildings were the world's tallest from 1972 until they were surpassed by the construction of the in 1974 (formerly known as the Sears Tower, located in ).

One World Trade Center, a replacement for the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, is currently the tallest building in the .

In 1961, the unveiled plans to tear down the old and replace it with a new and complex. Organized protests were aimed at preserving the -designed structure completed in 1910, widely considered a masterpiece of the style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City.

Despite these efforts, demolition of the structure began in October 1963. The loss of Penn Station—called "an act of irresponsible public vandalism" by historian —led directly to the enactment in 1965 of a local law establishing the , which is responsible for preserving the "city's historic, aesthetic, and cultural heritage".

The movement triggered by Penn Station's demise has been credited with the retention of some one million structures nationwide, including nearly 1,000 in New York City. In 2017, a multibillion-dollar rebuilding plan was unveiled to restore the historic grandeur of Penn Station, in the process of upgrading the landmark's status as a critical .

Parkland composes 17.8% of the borough, covering a total of 2,686 acres (10.87 km 2). is bordered on the north by West , on the west by , on the south by West , and on the east by Fifth Avenue. Along the park's borders, these streets are usually referred to as , , and , respectively (Fifth Avenue retains its name along the eastern border).

The park was designed by and . The 843-acre (3.41 km 2) park offers extensive , two rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and grassy areas used for various sporting pursuits, as well as playgrounds for children. The park is a popular oasis for migrating birds, and thus is popular with bird watchers. The 6-mile (9.7 km) road circling the park is popular with joggers, bicyclists and inline skaters, especially on weekends and in the evenings after 7:00 pm, when automobile traffic is banned.

While much of the park looks natural, it is almost entirely landscaped and contains several artificial lakes. The construction of Central Park in the 1850s was one of the era's most massive public works projects. Some 20,000 workers crafted the topography to create the English-style pastoral landscape Olmsted and Vaux sought to create.

Workers moved nearly 3,000,000 cubic yards (2,300,000 m 3) of soil and planted more than 270,000 trees and shrubs. Almost 70% of Manhattan's space devoted to parks is located outside of Central Park, including 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 , and many other amenities. The at Duane Street preserves a site containing the remains of over 400 Africans buried during the 17th and 18th centuries.

The remains were found in 1991 during the construction of the Federal Office Building. Main article: Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2.3 million workers in 2007 drawn from the entire accounting for almost two-thirds of all jobs in New York City. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in Manhattan (New York County) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States.

Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on professions, with manufacturing nearly extinct. Manhattan also has the .

In 2010, Manhattan's daytime population was swelling to 3.94 million, with adding a net 1.48 million people to the population, along with visitors, tourists, and commuting students. The commuter influx of 1.61 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any county or city in the country, and was more than triple the 480,000 commuters who headed into second-ranked Washington, D.C.

Financial sector Main article: Manhattan's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the , metonymously known as Wall Street. The borough's industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine for Manhattan, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of private sector jobs in New York City, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of the city's tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700.

Wall Street fees in 2012 totaled approximately US$40 billion, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage functions earned as much as US$324,000 annually. The of , seen from Lower Manhattan is home to the (NYSE), on Wall Street, and the , at , representing the world's largest and second largest , respectively, when measured both by overall share trading value and by total of their listed companies in 2013.

The (formerly the American Stock Exchange, AMEX), , and the (NYMEX) are also located downtown. In July 2013, , the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the from the . Corporate sector New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the United States, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan.

Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m 2) of office space in 2015, making it the largest office market in the United States, while , with nearly 400 million square feet (37.2 million m 2) in 2015, is the largest in the world. As of 2013 , the global of and , both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City's role as the top global center for the , which is metonymously referred to as .

Technology sectors Further information: Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's industries, including the , , , , , , , ( fintech), and other fields within that are supported by the area's and investments. As of 2014 , New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.

In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment, most based in Manhattan, as well as in , , and elsewhere in the region.

High technology and employment are growing in Manhattan and across New York City, bolstered by the city's emergence as a global node of and , , and , as well as New York's position as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center in North America, including its vicinity to several , the city's , and its extensive outdoor . , headquartered at 140 in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion upgrade throughout New York City.

As of October 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector, with a significant proportion in Manhattan. The sector is also growing in Manhattan based upon the city's strength in academic scientific and public and commercial financial support.

By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech firm, had raised more than US$30 million from , including , , and , for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m 2) on and promotes collaboration among scientists and at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The 's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including , Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in and biotechnology.

In 2011, Mayor had announced his choice of and to build a US$2 billion graduate school of on , Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital. Main article: Tourism is vital to Manhattan's economy, and the landmarks of Manhattan are the focus of New York City's tourists, enumerating an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. According to , shows on sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an increase of 11.4% from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season; attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.

As of June 2016, Manhattan had nearly 91,500 rooms, a 26% increase from 2010. Real estate Real estate is a major force in Manhattan's economy, and indeed the city's, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$914.8 billion for the 2015 . Manhattan has perennially been home to some of the nation's, as well as the world's, most valuable real estate, including the , which had the highest-listed market value in the city in 2006 at US$1.1 billion, to be subsequently surpassed in October 2014 by the , which became the most expensive hotel ever sold after being purchased by the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, for US$1.95 billion.

When 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007, for US$510 million, about US$1,589 per square foot (US$17,104/m²), it broke the barely month-old record for an American office building of US$1,476 per square foot (US$15,887/m²) based on the sale of 660 . In 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten in the United States by median housing price. Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States.

Midtown Manhattan is the largest in the nation based on office space, while Lower Manhattan is the third-largest (after 's ). Media Main article: News Manhattan is served by the major New York City daily , including , , and , which are all headquartered in the borough. The nation's largest newspaper by circulation, , is also based there. Other daily newspapers include and . , based in Harlem, is one of the leading African American weekly newspapers in the United States.

, historically the largest in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture. Television, radio, film See also: and The television industry developed in Manhattan and is a significant employer in the borough's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, , , , and , as well as , are all headquartered in Manhattan, as are many cable channels, including , , , and .

In 1971, became New York's first black-owned radio station and began broadcasts geared toward the African-American community in 1949. , also known as Hot 97, claims to be the premier hip-hop station in the United States.

, comprising an AM and FM signal, has the largest audience in the nation and is the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan. , with news and information programming, is one of the few radio stations operating in the United States.

The oldest cable TV channel in the United States is the , founded in 1971, offers eclectic local programming that ranges from a hour to discussion of labor issues to foreign language and religious programming. , 's local news channel, is known for its beat coverage of City Hall and state politics. See also: , , and Education in Manhattan is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are operated by the , the largest public school system in the United States.

include , and . Some notable New York City public high schools are located in Manhattan, including , , , , , , , , and .

, a hybrid school created by , serves students from around the city. Many private preparatory schools are also situated in Manhattan, including the 's , , , , , , , , , , and . The is home to the and . The borough is also home to and . Interior of the at Based on data from the 2011–2015 , 59.9% of Manhattan residents over age 25 have a . As of 2005, about 60% of residents were college graduates and some 25% had earned advanced degrees, giving Manhattan one of the nation's densest concentrations of highly educated people.

Manhattan has various colleges and universities, including (and its affiliate ), , , , (NYU), , , , , , and a campus of . Other schools include , , , , , , , , and . Several other private institutions maintain a Manhattan presence, among them , , , , and .

is developing on . at 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue; built (1897–1911) and replaced the ; , architects The (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students. A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City.

CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: , , , , and the (graduate studies and granting institution). The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the .

The is represented by the , , and . Manhattan is a world center for training and education in medicine and the life sciences. The city as a whole receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the among all U.S. cities, the bulk of which goes to Manhattan's research institutions, including , , , , , and . Manhattan is served by the , which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country.

The five units of the Central Library—Mid-Manhattan Library, Donnell Library Center, The , Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, and the Science, Industry and Business Library—are all located in Manhattan. More than 35 other branch libraries are located in the borough. , , on the at Manhattan is the borough most closely associated with New York City by non-residents; regionally, residents within the , including natives of New York City's boroughs outside Manhattan, will often describe a trip to Manhattan as "going to the City".

Manhattan has been the scene of many important American cultural movements. In 1912, about 20,000 workers, a quarter of them women, marched upon to commemorate the , which killed 146 workers on March 25, 1911. Many of the women wore fitted tucked-front blouses like those manufactured by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a clothing style that became the working woman's uniform and a symbol of , reflecting the alliance of labor and suffrage movements.

The in the 1920s established the African-American literary canon in the United States and introduced writers and . Manhattan's vibrant visual art scene in the 1950s and 1960s was a center of the American movement, which gave birth to such giants as and . The downtown pop art movement of the late 1970s included artist and clubs like and , where he socialized.

Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. Plays and are staged in one of the 39 larger professional theatres with at least 500 seats, almost all in and around Times Square. theatres feature productions in venues with 100–500 seats.

, anchoring on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to 12 influential arts organizations, including the , , , and , as well as the , the , , and . displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan. Manhattan is also home to some of the most extensive in the world, both and , including the , the (MoMA), the , the , and the -designed . The Upper East Side has many art galleries, and the downtown neighborhood of is known for its more than 200 art galleries that are home to modern art from both upcoming and established artists.

Many of the world's most lucrative are held in Manhattan. Manhattan is the center of . The borough is widely acclaimed as the cradle of the modern movement, with its inception at the June 1969 in , Lower Manhattan – widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the movement and the modern fight for . Multiple have developed, spanning the length of the borough from the , , and Greenwich Village, through Chelsea and , uptown to . The annual (or ) traverses southward down and ends at Greenwich Village; the Manhattan parade rivals the as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.

Clockwise, from upper left: the annual , the world's largest parade; the annual in ; the annual ; and the for the The borough has a place in several American . The phrase is meant to convey an extremely short time such as an instant, sometimes in hyperbolic form, as in "perhaps faster than you would believe is possible," referring to the rapid pace of life in Manhattan.

The expression "" was first popularly coined to describe the densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the in 's play , which was an adaptation of 's set by Zangwill in New York City in 1908. The iconic is said to have been the source of the phrase "" or scram, from what cops would shout at men who tried to get glimpses of women's dresses being blown up by the winds created by the triangular building.

The "" dates back to the 1920s, when a reporter heard the term used by New Orleans stablehands to refer to New York City's and named his racing column "Around The Big Apple." musicians adopted the term to refer to the city as the world's jazz capital, and a 1970s ad campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau helped popularize the term. Manhattan is well known for its street , which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories.

The majority of higher profile parades in New York City are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual is the world's largest parade, beginning alongside and processing southward to the flagship store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual in March, the New York City Pride Parade in June, the in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations.

celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the on from to in Lower Manhattan. , held at various locations in Manhattan, is a high-profile semiannual event featuring displaying the latest wardrobes created by prominent worldwide in advance of these fashions proceeding to the .

The Skating Pond in , 1862 Manhattan is home to the 's and the 's , both of which play their home games at , the only major professional in the borough. The Garden was also home to the 's through the , but that team's primary home is now the in .

The proposed a for their home field, but the proposal was eventually defeated in June 2005, and they now play at in . Manhattan is the only borough in New York City that does not have a franchise. has the () and has the () of . The , affiliated with the Mets, play in , while the , affiliated with the Yankees, play in . However, three of the four major league baseball teams to play in New York City played in Manhattan. The original played in the various incarnations of the at and from their inception in 1883—except for 1889, when they split their time between and Staten Island, and when they played in Hilltop Park in 1911—until they headed to California with the after the 1957 season.

The New York Yankees began their as the Highlanders, named for , where they played from their creation in 1903 until 1912. The team moved to the Polo Grounds with the 1913 season, where they were officially christened the New York Yankees, remaining there until they moved across the in 1923 to . The played in the Polo Grounds in 1962 and 1963, their first two seasons, before was completed in 1964. After the Mets departed, the Polo Grounds was demolished in April 1964, replaced by public housing.

The first national college-level basketball championship, the , was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The started play in 1946 as one of the 's original teams, playing their first home games at the , before making Madison Square Garden their permanent home. The of the shared the Garden with the Knicks from their creation in 1997 as one of the league's original eight teams through the 2017 season, after which the team moved nearly all of its home schedule to White Plains.

in is a playground court, famed for its style of play, where many NBA athletes have played in the summer league. Although both of New York City's football teams play today across the in in , both teams started out playing in the Polo Grounds.

The played side-by-side with their baseball namesakes from the time they entered the in 1925, until crossing over to Yankee Stadium in 1956. The New York Jets, originally known as the Titans of New York, started out in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, staying there for four seasons before joining the Mets in Queens at in 1964.

The of the have played in the various locations of Madison Square Garden since the team's founding in the 1926–1927 season. The Rangers were predated by the , who started play in the Garden the previous season, lasting until the team folded after the 1941–1942 NHL season, a season it played in the Garden as the Brooklyn Americans.

The of the played their home games at for two seasons, starting in 1974. The playing pitch and facilities at Downing Stadium were in unsatisfactory condition, however, and as the team's popularity grew they too left for Yankee Stadium, and then Giants Stadium. The stadium was demolished in 2002 to make way for the $45 million, 4,754-seat , which includes an Olympic-standard 400-meter running track and, as part of 's and the Cosmos' legacy, includes a -approved floodlit soccer stadium that hosts matches between the 48 youth teams of a Manhattan soccer club.

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Manhattan has been governed by the , which has provided for a strong since its revision in 1989. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, , and welfare services in Manhattan. The office of was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority.

Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the , which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989, the declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.

Since 1990, the largely powerless Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Manhattan's current is , elected as a in November 2013 with 82.9% of the vote.

Brewer replaced , who went on to become . , a Democrat, has been the since 2010. Manhattan has ten City Council members, the third largest contingent among the five boroughs. It also has twelve administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board.

Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. As the host of the , the borough is home to the world's largest international , comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates. It is also the home of , the seat of New York City government housing the and the .

The mayor's staff and thirteen municipal agencies are located in the nearby , completed in 1914, one of the largest governmental buildings in the world. Presidential elections results by party affiliation Year 9.7% 64,930 86.6% 579,013 3.7% 24,997 14.9% 89,559 83.7% 502,674 1.3% 8,058 13.5% 89,949 85.7% 572,370 0.8% 5,566 16.7% 107,405 82.1% 526,765 1.2% 7,781 14.4% 82,113 79.6% 454,523 6.0% 34,370 13.8% 67,839 80.0% 394,131 6.3% 30,929 15.9% 84,501 78.2% 416,142 5.9% 31,475 22.9% 115,927 76.1% 385,675 1.0% 4,949 27.4% 144,281 72.1% 379,521 0.5% 2,869 26.2% 115,911 62.4% 275,742 11.4% 50,245 25.5% 117,702 73.2% 337,438 1.2% 5,698 33.4% 178,515 66.3% 354,326 0.4% 2,022 25.6% 135,458 70.0% 370,806 4.4% 23,128 19.2% 120,125 80.5% 503,848 0.3% 1,746 34.2% 217,271 65.3% 414,902 0.5% 3,394 44.3% 300,004 55.7% 377,856 0.0% 0 39.3% 300,284 58.5% 446,727 2.2% 16,974 32.8% 241,752 51.5% 380,310 15.7% 116,208 33.5% 258,650 65.9% 509,263 0.6% 4,864 37.6% 292,480 61.5% 478,153 1.0% 7,466 24.5% 174,299 72.7% 517,134 2.8% 19,820 27.8% 157,014 66.9% 378,077 5.3% 30,114 35.7% 186,396 60.8% 317,227 3.4% 17,935 41.2% 190,871 39.6% 183,249 19.3% 89,206 59.2% 275,013 29.1% 135,249 11.7% 54,158 42.7% 113,254 52.6% 139,547 4.8% 12,759 18.2% 63,107 47.8% 166,157 34.1% 118,391 44.7% 154,958 46.2% 160,261 9.1% 31,393 42.1% 155,003 51.5% 189,712 6.4% 23,357 44.2% 153,001 52.5% 181,786 3.4% 11,700 50.7% 156,359 44.0% 135,624 5.3% 16,249 34.7% 98,967 61.5% 175,267 3.8% 10,750 39.2% 106,922 59.7% 162,735 1.1% 3,076 39.5% 90,095 58.5% 133,222 2.0% 4,530 Politics See also: The holds most public offices.

Registered are a minority in the borough, constituting 9.88% of the electorate as of April 2016 . Registered Republicans are more than 20% of the electorate only in the neighborhoods of the and the as of 2016 . Democrats accounted for 68.41% of those registered to vote, while 17.94% of voters were unaffiliated.

Manhattan is divided between four , all of which are represented by Democrats. The is based in Brooklyn and Queens, but includes a few heavily Puerto Rican sections of the , including Avenues C and D of ; it is represented by .

The , based on the West Side, covers most of the , , , , , , the , and , as well as some sections of Southwest Brooklyn; it is represented by . The , the so-called "Silk Stocking" district that was the political base for and , covers most of the Upper East Side, , , , and most of the and the , as well as portions of western Queens; it is represented by .

Finally, the comprises Upper Manhattan and a small portion of the western Bronx, including the neighborhoods of , , , , , and portions of and the Upper West Side; it is represented by . No has won the in Manhattan since , when won a plurality of the New York County vote over Democrat , 41.20%–39.55%. was the most recent Republican presidential candidate to win a majority of the Manhattan vote, with 59.22% of the 1920 vote.

In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat received 82.1% of the vote in Manhattan and Republican received 16.7%. The borough is the most important source of funding for presidential campaigns in the United States; in 2004, it was home to six of the top seven in the nation for political contributions. The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the for all presidential candidates, including both Kerry and Bush during the 2004 election.

A slum tour through the in an 1885 sketch Starting in the mid-19th century, the United States became a magnet for immigrants seeking to escape poverty in their home countries. After arriving in New York, many new arrivals ended up living in squalor in the of the neighborhood, an area between and the , northeast of . By the 1820s, the area was home to many gambling dens and , and was known as a dangerous place to go.

In 1842, visited the area and was appalled at the horrendous living conditions he had seen. The area was so notorious that it even caught the attention of , who visited the area before his in 1860. The predominantly Irish was one of the country's first major entities. As Italian immigration grew in the early 20th century many joined ethnic gangs, including , who got his start in crime with the Five Points Gang. (also known as Cosa Nostra) first developed in the mid-19th century in and spread to the during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration.

established Cosa Nostra in Manhattan, forming alliances with other criminal enterprises, including the , led by , the leading Jewish gangster of that period. From 1920–1933, helped create a thriving in liquor, upon which the Mafia was quick to capitalize.

As in the whole of New York City, Manhattan experienced a sharp increase in crime during the 1960s and 1970s. Since 1990, crime in Manhattan has plummeted in all categories tracked by the CompStat profile. A borough that saw 503 murders in 1990 has seen a drop of nearly 88% to 62 in 2008 and has continued to decline since then. Robbery and burglary are down by more than 80% during the period, and auto theft has been reduced by more than 93%.

In the seven major crime categories tracked by the system, overall crime has declined by more than 75% since 1990, and year-to-date statistics through May 2009 show continuing declines. Based on 2005 data, New York City has the lowest crime rate among the ten largest cities in the United States. Loft buildings (now apartments) in During Manhattan's early history, wood construction and poor access to water supplies left the city vulnerable to fires. In 1776, shortly after the evacuated Manhattan and left it to the British, a massive fire broke out destroying one-third of the city and some 500 houses.

The rise of immigration near the turn of the 20th century left major portions of Manhattan, especially the , densely packed with recent arrivals, crammed into unhealthy and unsanitary housing. were usually five stories high, constructed on the then-typical 25 by 100 feet (7.6 by 30.5 m) lots, with "cockroach landlords" exploiting the new immigrants. By 1929, stricter fire codes and the increased use of elevators in residential buildings, were the impetus behind a new that effectively ended the tenement as a form of new construction, though many tenement buildings survive today on the East Side of the borough.

Manhattan offers a wide array of public and private housing options. There were 852,575 housing units in 2013 at an average density of 37,345 per square mile (14,419/km²).

As of 2003 , only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx. Although the city of New York has the highest average cost for rent in the United States, it simultaneously hosts a higher average of income per capita. Because of this, rent is a lower percentage of annual income than in several other American cities.

Manhattan's real estate market for luxury housing continues to be among the most expensive in the world, and Manhattan residential property continues to have the highest sale price per square foot in the United States.

The , seen from , crosses , providing free public transportation between and Manhattan. Manhattan is unique in the U.S. for intense use of and lack of private car ownership. While 88% of Americans nationwide drive to their jobs, with only 5% using public transport, mass transit is the dominant form of travel for residents of Manhattan, with 72% of borough residents using public transport to get to work, while only 18% drove.

According to the 2000 United States Census, 77.5% of Manhattan households do not own a car. In 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg a system to regulate entering Manhattan south of . The state legislature rejected the proposal in June 2008. The , the largest system in the world by number of stations, is the primary means of travel within the city, linking every borough except Staten Island.

There are , out of the 472 stations. A second subway, the system, connects to northern . Passengers pay fares with pay-per-ride , which are valid on all city buses and subways, as well as on PATH trains.

There are 7-day and 30-day MetroCards that allow unlimited trips on all subways (except PATH) and MTA bus routes (except for express buses). The PATH QuickCard is being phased out, having been replaced by the . The MTA is testing "smart card" payment systems to replace the MetroCard. services operating to and from Manhattan are the (LIRR), which connects Manhattan and other New York City boroughs to ; the , which connects Manhattan to Upstate New York and Southwestern Connecticut; and trains, which run to various points in New Jersey.

The US$11.1 billion project, which will bring LIRR trains to , is under construction and is scheduled to open in 2022; this project will create a new train tunnel beneath the , connecting the of Manhattan with .

Four multi-billion-dollar projects were completed in the mid-2010s: the $1.4 billion in November 2014, the $2.4 billion in September 2015, the $4 billion in March 2016, and Phase 1 of the $4.5 billion in January 2017.

offers a wide variety of local buses within Manhattan under the brand . An extensive network of express bus routes serves commuters and other travelers heading into Manhattan. The bus system served 784 million passengers citywide in 2011, placing the bus system's ridership as the highest in the nation, and more than double the ridership of the second-place Los Angeles system.

The , one of two commuter cable car systems in North America, whisks commuters between and Manhattan in less than five minutes, and has been serving the island since 1978. (The other system in North America is the .) The , which runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, annually carries over 21 million passengers on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) run between Manhattan and Staten Island.

Each weekday, five vessels transport about 65,000 passengers on 109 boat trips. The ferry has been fare-free since 1997, when the then-50-cent fare was eliminated. In February 2015, Mayor announced that the city government would begin to extend ferry transportation to traditionally underserved communities in the city. The first routes of NYC Ferry opened in 2017.

All of the system's routes have termini in Manhattan, and the Lower East Side and Soundview routes also have intermediate stops on the East River.

The metro region's commuter rail lines converge at and , on the west and east sides of Midtown Manhattan, respectively. They are the two busiest rail stations in the United States. About one-third of users of mass transit and two-thirds of railway passengers in the country live in New York and its suburbs. provides inter-city passenger rail service from Penn Station to , , , and Washington, D.C.; and ; cross-Canadian border service to and ; and destinations in the and .

Major highways • • • • • • • • Taxis See also: and The called for twelve numbered avenues running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the , each 100 feet (30 m) wide, with on the east side and on the west side.

There are several intermittent avenues east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from eastward to in an area now known as in Manhattan's .

The numbered streets in Manhattan run east-west, and are generally 60 feet (18 m) wide, with about 200 feet (61 m) between each pair of streets. With each combined street and block adding up to about 260 feet (79 m), there are almost exactly 20 blocks per mile. The typical block in Manhattan is 250 by 600 feet (76 by 183 m). According to the original Commissioner's Plan, there were numbered crosstown streets, but later the grid was extended up to the northernmost corner of Manhattan, where the last numbered street is .

Moreover, the numbering system continues even in , north of Manhattan, despite the fact that the grid plan is not as regular in that borough, whose last numbered street is 263rd Street. Fifteen crosstown streets were designated as 100 feet (30 m) wide, including , , and Streets, which became some of the borough's most significant transportation and venues.

is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at in Lower Manhattan and continuing north into the Bronx at Manhattan's northern tip. In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating major named intersections at ( and 14th Street), ( and 23rd Street), ( and 34th Street), ( and 42nd Street), and (/ and 59th Street). "Crosstown traffic" refers primarily to vehicular traffic between Manhattan's and . The trip is notoriously frustrating for drivers because of heavy on narrow local streets laid out by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, absence of express roads other than the at the far north end of Manhattan Island; and restricted to very limited crosstown automobile travel within , further prohibited beginning in 2018 south of within the park, to augment pedestrian safety.

Proposals in the mid-1900s to build express roads through the city's densest neighborhoods, namely the and , did not go forward. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety.

In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present, significantly shaping traffic patterns in Manhattan. Another consequence of the strict grid plan of most of Manhattan, and the grid's skew of approximately 28.9 degrees, is a phenomenon sometimes referred to as (by analogy with ).

On separate occasions in late May and early July, the sunset is aligned with the street grid lines, with the result that the sun is visible at or near the western horizon from street level. A similar phenomenon occurs with the sunrise in January and December. The and , both designed by controversial New York master planner , comprise a single, long skirting the east side of Manhattan along the and south of . The is the corresponding parkway on the West Side north of . River crossings Being primarily an island, Manhattan is linked to New York City's outer boroughs by numerous bridges, of various sizes.

Manhattan has fixed connections with to its west by way of the , the , and the , and to three of the four other New York City boroughs— to the northeast, and and (both on ) to the east and south. Its only direct connection with the fifth New York City borough, , is the across , which is free of charge. The ferry terminal is located near at Manhattan's southern tip.

It is also possible to travel on land to Staten Island by way of Brooklyn, via the . The George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connects , in , to , in New Jersey. There are numerous bridges to the Bronx across the , and five (listed north to south)—the (known officially as the Robert F.

Kennedy Bridge), (also known as the 59th Street Bridge), , , and —that cross the to connect Manhattan to Long Island. Several tunnels also link Manhattan Island to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey. The , which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and , is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and that sail through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers.

The , connecting Lower Manhattan to , was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel. The , built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940; President was the first person to drive through it. The runs underneath and connects the at the southern tip of Manhattan to in Brooklyn. Heliports Manhattan has three public heliports: the (also known as the Atlantic Metroport) at East 34th Street, owned by New York City and run by the (NYCEDC); the , owned by the and run by the NYCEDC; and the , a privately owned heliport that is owned by the Hudson River Park Trust.

offered regularly scheduled helicopter service connecting the with in Queens and in , before going out of business in 2009. Utilities Gas and electric service is provided by to all of Manhattan.

Con Edison's electric business traces its roots back to 's , the first investor-owned electric utility. The company started service on September 4, 1882, using one generator to provide 110 (DC) to 59 customers with 800 light bulbs, in a one-square-mile area of Lower Manhattan from his . the world's largest system, which consists of 105 miles (169 km) of steam pipes, providing steam for heating, hot water, and air conditioning by some 1,800 Manhattan customers.

Cable service is provided by and telephone service is provided by , although is available as well. Manhattan witnessed the doubling of the supply delivered to the borough when a new opened on November 1, 2013. The is responsible for garbage removal. The bulk of the city's trash ultimately is disposed at mega-dumps in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Ohio (via transfer stations in New Jersey, Brooklyn and Queens) since the 2001 closure of the on . A small amount of trash processed at transfer sites in New Jersey is sometimes incinerated at facilities.

Like New York City, New Jersey and much of Greater New York relies on exporting its trash to far-flung areas. New York City has the largest clean-air diesel- and bus fleet, which also operates in Manhattan, in the country. It also has some of the first hybrid taxis, most of which operate in Manhattan. Health care Main articles: and New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected .

As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed , New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by plants. The north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water.

Manhattan, surrounded by two rivers, had a limited supply of . To satisfy its growing population, the City of New York acquired land in adjacent and constructed the old system there, which went into service in 1842 and was superseded by the , which opened in 1890. This, however, was interrupted in 2008 for the ongoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant that can supply an estimated 290 million gallons daily when completed, representing an almost 20% addition to the city's availability of water, with this addition going to Manhattan and the Bronx.

Water comes to Manhattan through , , and , completed in 1917, 1936, and (Manhattan's supply) 2013, respectively. Address algorithm • are used in . • Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. • Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.

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In 1980, there were still the remains of the various downtown revolutions that had reinvigorated New York's music and art scenes and kept Manhattan in the position it had occupied since the 1940s as the cultural center of the world.

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Retrieved June 13, 2013. These rocks are Manhattan schist, part of that ancient supercontinent, fragments of Pangaea left behind when the continent split. They are just glimpses of what is below the surface in abundance in Downtown and Midtown. And it is these fragments of very hard rock that provide the perfect foundations for New York's highest buildings. Where Manhattan schist can be found very close to the surface you can build high, and so Downtown and Midtown have become home to Manhattan's tallest buildings.

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Accessed June 30, 2009. "Families have overtaken commerce as the catalyst for change in this TRIangle BElow CAnal Street (although the only triangle here is its heart: Hudson Street meeting West Broadway at Chambers Street, with Canal its north side) ...

Artists began seeking refuge from fashionable SoHo (SOuth of HOuston) as early as the mid-70s." • Cohen, Joyce. , The New York Times, May 17, 1998. Accessed June 30, 2009. "NO ONE is quite certain what to call this part of town. Nolita—north of Little Italy, that is—certainly pinpoints it geographically.

The not-quite-acronym was apparently coined several years ago by real-estate brokers seeking to give the area at least a little cachet." • Louie, Elaine. , , August 5, 1999. Accessed November 20, 2016. • Feirstein, Sanna (2001), , New York: , p. 103, • Sternbergh, Adam.

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He embodied the East Village and the Lower East Side, Bill Morgan, a friend and Mr. Ginsberg's archivist, said yesterday." • Dunlap, David W. , The New York Times, November 13, 1994. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Gay Chelsea's role has solidified with the arrival of A Different Light bookstore, a cultural cornerstone that had been housed for a decade in an 800-square-foot (74 m 2) nook at 548 Hudson Street, near Perry Street. It now takes up more than 5,000 square feet (500 m 2) at 151 West 19th Street and its migration seems to embody a northward shift of gay life from Greenwich Village...

Because of Chelsea's reputation, Mr. Garmendia said, single women were not likely to move in. But single men did. "The whole neighborhood became gay during the 70's", he said." • Grimes, Christopher.

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and David S. Dunbar, eds. Empire City: New York Through the Centuries (2005), 1015 pages of • Still, Bayrd, ed. Mirror for Gotham: New York as Seen by Contemporaries from Dutch Days to the Present (New York University Press, 1956) • Virga, Vincent, ed. Historic Maps and Views of New York (2008) • Stokes, I.N.

Phelps. The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498–1909 compiled from original sources and illustrated by photo-intaglio reproductions of important maps plans views and documents in public and private collections (6 vols., 1915–28). A highly detailed, heavily illustrated chronology of Manhattan and New York City. see All volumes are on line free at: • v. 1. The period of discovery (1524–1609); the Dutch period (1609–1664). The English period (1664–1763). The Revolutionary period (1763–1783).

Period of adjustment and reconstruction; New York as the state and federal capital (1783–1811) • v. 2. Cartography: an essay on the development of knowledge regarding the geography of the east coast of North America; Manhattan Island and its environs on early maps and charts / by F.C. Wieder and I.N. Phelps Stokes. The Manatus maps. The Castello plan. The Dutch grants. Early New York newspapers (1725–1811). Plan of Manhattan Island in 1908 • v. 3. The War of 1812 (1812–1815).

Period of invention, prosperity, and progress (1815–1841). Period of industrial and educational development (1842–1860). The Civil War (1861–1865); period of political and social development (1865–1876). The modern city and island (1876–1909) • ; v. 4. The period of discovery (565–1626); the Dutch period (1626–1664). The English period (1664–1763).

The Revolutionary period, part I (1763–1776) • ; v. 5. The Revolutionary period, part II (1776–1783). Period of adjustment and reconstruction New York as the state and federal capital (1783–1811). The War of 1812 (1812–1815) ; period of invention, prosperity, and progress (1815–1841).

Period of industrial and educational development (1842–1860). The Civil War (1861–1865) ; Period of political and social development (1865–1876). The modern city and island (1876–1909) • ; v. 6. Chronology: addenda. Original grants and farms. Bibliography. Index. • , and .

New York: An Illustrated History (2003), book version of 17-hour Burns documentary, • & (1999), , New York: , , The standard scholarly history, 1390pp • Ellis, Edward Robb.

The Epic of New York City: A Narrative History (2004) 640pp; ; Popular history concentrating on violent events & scandals • Homberger, Eric.

The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York City's History (2005) • , ed. (2010), (2nd ed.), New Haven: , • Kouwenhoven, John Atlee. The Columbia Historical Portrait of New York: An Essay In Graphic History.

*1953) • Lankevich, George J. New York City: A Short History (2002) • McCully, Betsy. City At The Water's Edge: A Natural History of New York (2005), environmental history • Reitano, Joanne.

The Restless City: A Short History of New York from Colonial Times to the Present (2010), Popular history with focus on politics and riots • (April 2015). . Analysis of architectural and social aspects of "ultra-luxury towers ... the smokestack-like protuberances that now disrupt the skyline of midtown Manhattan." • Story, Louise and Saul, Stephanie (February 2015). . A series of 6 articles "examining people behind shell companies buying high-end real estate" in midtown Manhattan.

Part 1: Time Warner Center: Symbol of the Boom, Part 2: The Mysterious Malaysian Financier, Part 3: The Besieged Indian Builder, Part 4: The Mexican Power Brokers, Part 5: The Russian Minister and Friends, Summary: The Hidden Money Buying Up New York Real Estate.

() Wikivoyage has a travel guide for . Local government and services: • • Maps: • Maps of and , plus and , all from • Historical: • • William J. Broad, , The New York Times, October 2007.

Ten sites in Manhattan that helped to build the first atomic bomb in the 1940s • by , 1639, from the

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