Best dating north london uk

best dating north london uk

North London Dating. Flower33. 76 · london · Surrey. I`m very easy going with a young outlook on life . I am a happy, caring, honest,loving chubby person who enjoys warm romantic times . I love listening to music and having a chat, my friends say I am a good listener. I work in computers, so if your hard drive needs looking. Craig44 FreeDating.co.uk is one of the most popular free dating sites in the UK. Free online dating with profile search and messaging. Join Today - Free Forever! Start Your Search.

best dating north london uk

Have a game of Bogan Bingo If you think bingo is for old dears, think again. Bogan Bingo claims to take players back to the glory days when the game was untamed and was an alternative version of the game we know today.

If you’re looking for an unusual evening packed full of laughs with an over-the-top atmosphere (and accompanied by a soundtrack of Bon Jovi and Bruce Springsteen) be sure to date your date here. Located in Camden’s market, expect quirky prizes and of course lots of alcohol.

Share a camembert at Camden’s Cheese Bar If you know your date is a fan of cheese then why not venture to the Cheese Bar in , where you can indulge in some delicious cheesy dishes.

After all, nothing quite says romance like taking turns dunking bread into a baked camembert. With several enticing options on the menu to choose from, this spot is a cheese-lover’s paradise. Plus it’s the perfect opportunity to throw some cheese-related chat up lines into the equation. The Cheese Bar Camden | Stock up a picnic basket at Hampstead’s delis Hampstead has an incredible selection of independent delis, so it’s a great idea to load up your picnic basket and head to Hampstead Heath to enjoy the scenic views of London.

Once it starts getting dark, (and if your date is going well) to enjoy a peaceful evening drink in, such as The Horseshoe and The Gallery.

Nothing quite beats an intimate picnic with exceptional food followed by a couple of beverages in a cosy pub. Take a stroll through Highgate Cemetery It may seem a slightly eerie choice for a date, however, Highgate Cemetery is actually one of London’s ‘Magnificent Seven’ (one of the seven largest cemeteries in London), and is known for its natural beauty.

The stunning, gothic features provide ample talking points, which is great in case you’re worried about awkward silences. If you and your date love nature, the famous place of rest attracts all sorts of different birds and animals, making it an ideal setting for a romantic stroll.

Highgate Cemetery | Compete in a pub quiz in Primrose Hill Show off your general knowledge by challenging your date to a pub quiz at Primrose Hill’s The Queen’s. Why not take a stroll through the park beforehand and admire some amazing views over London before settling down in the pub for an evening of quizzing. Either work together as a team or compete against your date and enjoy the laid-back, cosy atmosphere of the pub. Watch the sun set at Alexander Palace Admire the beautiful city skyline on the benches at Alexandra Palace and watch the sun set behind The Shard, The Gherkin and other iconic London buildings.

You could even take a bottle of wine and enjoy the views stretching right across the city – plus it’s completely free! Afterwards, if you fancy it (and if you’re visiting on the weekend) you can take up the ice rink for an evening of skating.


best dating north london uk

best dating north london uk - North London Dating Site, 100% Free Online Dating in North London, EN


best dating north london uk

Despite almost half of adult Londoners being single, the capital’s constant fast pace can make it difficult to meet like-minded singles. If you think it's time to take your love life online, London dating with a premium dating site like ours can instantly increase your chances of meeting someone special with real long term potential. Are you ready to fall in love with EliteSingles? London Dating: The London singles life London is a dynamic city, filled with fascinating people.

Yet finding them (and the time to meet them) is a familiar difficulty for many London singles. With long hours and juggling a , finding a partner who ticks all your boxes can become a very real problem for many Londoners. For some, often means exploring London’s nightlife at the weekend, hoping to find that ‘special someone’ in a pub or nightclub. Yet a noisy bar is often not the place to get to know someone properly.

And for others, living within a tight-knit can narrow your horizons when trying to meet singles outside your immediate social circles. Given the mix of London singles out there, finding exactly what you look for in a partner can prove challenging. But fret not, here’s how we can help... How to meet local London singles with EliteSingles From Hammersmith to Hackney, and Chiswick to Croydon, London singles are without a doubt the most diverse crowd in the country.

The good news is that EliteSingles has established itself as the leading for British singles from all sorts of backgrounds. Whether you’re looking to discover , meeting amazing or , or explore the London , we’ve got your back. Our success in uniting such a broad population is underlined by one major goal: to connect London singles who are serious about finding a long-term relationship.

And here’s why we excel when compared to other sites. We’re unique because we specialise in introducing compatible members to one another using an . Backed with years of experience in online dating, our approach to matchmaking is based on an in-depth and a specially developed algorithm. This enables us to get a 360-degree picture of your characteristics and partner preferences, which then allows us to match you with people to a high degree of accuracy.

We also monitor who’s using our dating site, which involves hiding inactive users and verifying all new profiles. This means you can be sure of only seeing real people, with real potential. Having also developed one of the , you can keep up to date with your matches whilst you’re on the move. Do you commute to London for work and live outside the city? Why not check out our local dating pages for singles in , and ! If you've been looking for the one in London but need a little more help !

Your London dating guide “When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life, for there is in London all that life can afford,’ said Samuel Johnson. Centuries on, Dr.

Johnson’s famous quote still resonates (though he might have had a change of heart if he’d spent a week trying to negotiate Victoria at rush hour…). Jokes aside, London is full of possibilities when it comes to dating. With top-quality restaurants, bars and outdoor spaces, there are plenty of ways to impress on that all-important in London. Consider what would be interesting for your date and try to ensure that the venue is intimate, romantic and relaxing.

For a closer look at where the best date locations are in North, East, South and West London: If you’re after some handy tips, take a look at these date ideas below… Eating out If a meal is more your thing, an exciting and on-trend experience awaits at , an Indian restaurant inspired by Bombay’s café culture.

With a unique menu that’s great to share together, and a lively atmosphere, it’s perfect for a dinner date. Take a trip to London’s only Michelin-starred pub, , to savour an award-winning lunch.

If you and your date are more morning people, why not head out for brunch together. Few places do casual late-morning eating as well as . What’s more, they’ve got plenty of locations dotted around London, so you don’t have to worry about going hungry!

Nightlife in London If a face-to-face dinner date seems a little intense, why not meet for a more casual drink in one of London’s great bars or traditional pubs, like off Grays Inn Road.

If you’re after a romantic glass of wine in superb surroundings, nothing beats at Embankment. , near Old Street, serves some of the capital’s most interesting cocktails, has great live jazz and cosy couches – perfect for a first date.

For a classic movie date, try the on Portobello Road. With velvet chairs and a champagne bar, it’s a good way to make a trip to the pictures extra special. Arts, Culture & More With some of the best theaters in the world, those wanting to do something more cultural have endless possibilities in London. From on the Southbank, the City’s sprawling , to the many unique fringe theatres scattered throughout town, seeing a play is a dating classic. Art aficionados are also spoilt for choice.

Whether you prefer an old stalwart like the , or more contemporary contenders like the or , the choice is abundant. Aside from London’s bonanza of museums, more leftfield ideas like a rugby match at or a day of cricket at prove the options are endless!


best dating north london uk

This article is about the capital city. For the region and county of England, see . For the historic city and financial district within London, see . For other uses, see . London ( ( ) ) is the and largest city of the . Standing on the in southeastern England, 50 miles (80 km) upstream from its with the , London has been a major settlement for two millennia.

was founded by the . The , London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km 2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains its medieval boundaries. The is also an borough holding .

is governed by the and the . • 020, 01322, 01689, 01708, 01737, 01895, 01923, 01959, 01992 Police and () () Outside Greater London: () () () () (2017) 0.965 – very high Website London is often considered as the world's leading and has been termed as the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, innovative, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, and the most vegetarian friendly city in the world.

London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation. London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest and has either the fifth or sixth largest .

It is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading destination, hosting more and than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In , London became the first city to have hosted three modern .

London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2016 municipal population (corresponding to ) was 8,787,892, the most populous of any and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. is the second , after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The population within the is the with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four : the ; ; the site comprising the , , and ; and the historic settlement in where the defines the , 0° , and .

Other landmarks include , the , , , , and . London has numerous , galleries, libraries and . These include the , , , , and . The is the oldest underground railway network in the world.

Main article: It is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form ; for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio ("in London").

Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in , written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed , who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources (usually Londinium), (usually Lunden), and (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages.

It is agreed that the name came into these languages from ; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *[Londonjon] or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into , the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic *(p)lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.

However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, and recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of an root * lend h- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *- injo- or *- onjo- (used to form place-names). has specifically suggested, on these grounds, that the name originally meant 'place that floods (periodically, tidally)'.

Until 1889, the name "London" applied to the , but since then it has also referred to the County of London and . "London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". Main articles: and Prehistory In 1993, the remains of a bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of .

This bridge either crossed the Thames or reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge. The function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank where the flows into the Thames.

Roman London In 1300, the was still confined within the Although there is evidence of scattered settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the about four years after the invasion of AD 43. This lasted only until around AD 61, when the tribe led by stormed it, burning it to the ground.

The next, heavily planned, incarnation of Londinium prospered, and it superseded as the capital of the of in 100.

At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60,000. Anglo-Saxon and Viking period London With the collapse of Roman rule in the early 5th century, London ceased to be a capital, and the walled city of Londinium was effectively abandoned, although Roman civilisation continued in the area of until around 450.

From around 500, an settlement known as developed slightly west of the old Roman city. By about 680, the city had regrown into a major port, although there is little evidence of large-scale production. From the 820s repeated assaults brought decline.

Three are recorded; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the last, in 994, was rebuffed. The siege of London in 1471 is attacked by a sally The Vikings established over much of eastern and northern England; its boundary stretched roughly from London to . It was an area of political and geographical control imposed by the Viking incursions which was formally agreed by the , and the king in 886.

The recorded that Alfred "refounded" London in 886. Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until about 950, after which activity increased dramatically.

By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England. , rebuilt in the style by King , was one of the grandest churches in Europe. had previously been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time on, London became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of : "It had the resources, and it was rapidly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a national capital." Middle Ages , as seen in this painting (by , 1749), is a and one of London's oldest and most important buildings After winning the , was crowned in the newly completed Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066.

William constructed the , the first of the many Norman castles in England to be rebuilt in stone, in the southeastern corner of the city, to intimidate the native inhabitants. In 1097, began the building of , close by the abbey of the same name. The hall became the basis of a new . In the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto accompanied the royal English court as it moved around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed in one place.

For most purposes this was Westminster, although the royal treasury, having been moved from Winchester, came to rest in the Tower. While the developed into a true capital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre, and it flourished under its own unique administration, the .

In 1100, its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000. Disaster struck in the form of the in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population. London was the focus of the in 1381. London was also a centre of England's before their by in 1290.

Violence against Jews took place in 1190, after it was rumoured that the new King had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation. In 1264 during the , 's rebels killed 500 Jews while attempting to seize records of debts. Early modern Map of London in 1593. There is only one bridge across the Thames, but parts of Southwark on the south bank of the river have been developed.

During the the produced a gradual shift to Protestantism, and much of London property passed from church to private ownership, which accelerated trade and business in the city. In 1475, the set up its main trading base ( ) of England in London, called the Stalhof or .

It existed until 1853, when the Hanseatic cities of , and sold the property to . cloth was shipped undyed and undressed from 14th/15th century London to the nearby shores of the , where it was considered indispensable. But the reach of English maritime enterprise hardly extended beyond the seas of north-west Europe.

The commercial route to Italy and the normally lay through and over the ; any ships passing through the to or from England were likely to be Italian or . Upon the re-opening of the to English shipping in January 1565, there ensued a strong outburst of commercial activity. The was founded. grew, and monopoly trading companies such as the were established, with trade expanding to the . London became the principal port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from an estimated 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.

In the 16th century and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the . By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still very compact.

There was an assassination attempt on in Westminster, in the on 5 November 1605. Vertue's 1738 plan of the , built during the In the the majority of Londoners supported the cause. After an initial advance by the in 1642, culminating in the battles of and , London was surrounded by a defensive perimeter wall known as the . The lines were built by up to 20,000 people, and were completed in under two months.

The fortifications failed their only test when the entered London in 1647, and they were levelled by Parliament the same year. London was by disease in the early 17th century, culminating in the of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population. The destroyed many parts of the city in 1666 The broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings. Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by as Surveyor of London.

In 1708 's masterpiece, was completed. During the , new districts such as were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in . In the east, the expanded downstream. London's development as an international matured for much of the 1700s.

In 1762, acquired and it was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London was dogged by crime, and the were established in 1750 as a professional police force. In total, more than 200 offences were punishable by death, including petty theft. Most children born in the city died before reaching their third birthday. View to the in the City of London in 1886 The became a popular place to debate ideas, with growing and the development of the making news widely available; and became the centre of the British press.

Following the invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies, many financiers relocated to London, especially a large Jewish community, and the first London international issue [ ] was arranged in 1817. Around the same time, the became the world leading war fleet, acting as a serious deterrent to potential economic adversaries of the United Kingdom.

The repeal of the in 1846 was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre.

In 1888, London became home to a series of murders by a man known only as and It has since become one of the world's most famous unsolved mysteries. According to Samuel Johnson: You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.

British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914 London was the world's from c.1831 to 1925. London's overcrowded conditions led to epidemics, claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866. Rising led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some of the surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the was created out of those areas of the counties surrounding the capital.

, and during the Second World War, and other bombings by the German killed over 30,000 Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city.

Immediately after the war, the were held at the original , at a time when London was still recovering from the war. A bombed-out London street during of the Second World War From the 1940s onwards, London became home to a large number of immigrants, primarily from countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, making London one of the most diverse cities worldwide. In 1951, the was held on the . The of 1952 led to the , which ended the "" for which London had been notorious.

Primarily starting in the mid-1960s, London became a centre for the worldwide , exemplified by the subculture associated with the , and . The role of trendsetter was revived during the era. In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded to take into account the growth of the urban area and a new was created.

During in Northern Ireland, London was subjected to bombing attacks by the for two decades, starting with the in 1973. Racial inequality was highlighted by the . Greater London's population declined steadily in the decades after the Second World War, from an estimated peak of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s.

The principal ports for London moved downstream to and , with the area becoming a focus for regeneration, including the development. This was borne out of London's ever-increasing role as a major international financial centre during the 1980s. The was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the . The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, which left London without a central administration until 2000 when London-wide government was restored, with the creation of the .

To celebrate the start of the 21st century, the , and were constructed. On 6 July 2005 London was awarded the , making London the first city to stage the three times. On 7 July 2005, three trains and a were bombed in a . In 2008, London named alongside New York City and Hong Kong as , being hailed as the world's three most influential .

In January 2015, Greater London's population was estimated to be 8.63 million, the highest level since 1939. During the in 2016, the UK as a whole decided to leave the European Union, but a majority of London constituencies voted to remain in the EU. Main articles: , , and The administration of London is formed of two tiers: a citywide, strategic tier and a local tier.

Citywide administration is coordinated by the (GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities. The GLA consists of two elected components: the , who has executive powers, and the , which scrutinises the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject the mayor's budget proposals each year. The headquarters of the GLA is , ; the mayor is , the first Muslim mayor of a major Western capital.

The mayor's strategy is published as the , which was most recently revised in 2011. The local authorities are the councils of the 32 and the . They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, , local roads and refuse collection.

Certain functions, such as , are provided through joint arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined revenue expenditure by London councils and the GLA amounted to just over £22 billion (£14.7 billion for the boroughs and £7.4 billion for the GLA). The is the for Greater London. It is run by the and is the third largest fire service in the world. are provided by the , the largest free-at-the-point-of-use emergency ambulance service in the world.

The charity operates in conjunction with the LAS where required. and the operate on the , which is under the jurisdiction of the from to the sea. National government , official residence of the London is the seat of the . Many government departments, as well as the residence at , are based close to the , particularly along .

The British Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" (although this was first applied to England itself, and not to Westminster, by ) because it has been a model for many other . There are 73 Members of Parliament (MPs) from London, elected from local parliamentary in the national .

As of May 2015 , 49 are from the , 21 are , and three are . The UK government ministerial post of was created in 1994 and currently occupied by . Policing and crime Main article: Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the , is provided by the , overseen by the Mayor through the (MOPAC).

The City of London has its own police force – the . The are responsible for police services on , , and services. A fourth police force in London, the , do not generally become involved with policing the general public. Crime rates vary widely by area, ranging from parts with serious issues to parts considered very safe. Today crime figures are made available nationally at and level. In 2015 there were 118 homicides, a 25.5% increase over 2014.

The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by category at borough and ward level, available on their website since 2000. Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably violent crime and murder by stabbing and other means have risen. There have been 50 murders from the start of 2018 to mid April 2018. Funding cuts to police in London are likely to have contributed to this, though other factors are also involved.

Satellite view of inner London (2010) , also referred to as Greater London, is one of nine and the top-level subdivision covering most of the city's metropolis. The small ancient at its core once comprised the whole settlement, but as its urban area grew, the resisted attempts to amalgamate the city with its suburbs, causing "London" to be defined in a number of ways for different purposes.

Forty per cent of Greater London is covered by the , within which 'LONDON' forms part of postal addresses. The London telephone (020) covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are excluded and some places just outside are included. The Greater London boundary has been in places. Outward urban expansion is now prevented by the , although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, resulting in a separately defined . Beyond this is the vast .

Greater London is split for some purposes into and . The city is split by the River Thames into and , with an informal area in its interior.

The coordinates of the nominal centre of London, traditionally considered to be the original at near the junction of and , are about .

However the geographical centre of London, on one definition, is in the , just 0.1 miles to the northeast of . Status Within London, both the and the have and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are .

The area of has incorporated areas that are part of the of , Kent, , Essex and . London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by or in written form. Its position was formed through , making its status as de facto capital a part of the . The capital of England was moved to London from as the developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the , and thus the political capital of the nation.

More recently, Greater London has been defined as a and in this context is known as London. Topography London from Greater London encompasses a total area of 1,583 square kilometres (611 sq mi), an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of 4,542 inhabitants per square kilometre (11,760/sq mi). The extended area known as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration, comprises a total area of 8,382 square kilometres (3,236 sq mi) has a population of 13,709,000 and a population density of 1,510 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,900/sq mi).

Modern London stands on the , its primary geographical feature, a river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east. The is a surrounded by gently rolling hills including , , and . Historically London grew up at the on the Thames.

The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive ; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width. Since the the Thames has been extensively , and many of its London now flow . The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding. The threat has increased over time because of a slow but continuous rise in level by the slow 'tilting' of the British Isles (up in Scotland and Northern Ireland and down in southern parts of England, Wales and Ireland) caused by .

In 1974, a decade of work began on the construction of the across the Thames at to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed. Climate Main article: London has a temperate (: Cfb ) receiving less precipitation than Rome, , , , Sydney and New York City. Temperature extremes in London range from 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) at Kew during August 2003 down to −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) at Northolt during January 1962.

Although, a temperature of −21.0 °C (−5.8 °F) was recorded in January 1795. Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot.

London's average July high is 24 °C (74 °F). On average London will see 31 days above 25 °C (77.0 °F) each year, and 4.2 days above 30.0 °C (86.0 °F) every year. During the there were 14 consecutive days above 30 °C (86.0 °F) and 2 consecutive days where temperatures reached 38 °C (100 °F), leading to hundreds of heat related deaths.

Winters are generally cool with little temperature variation. Heavy Snow is rare but snow happens at least once each winter. Spring and autumn can be pleasant. As a large city, London has a considerable effect, making the centre of London at times 5 °C (9 °F) warmer than the suburbs and outskirts. This can be seen below when comparing London Heathrow, 15 miles (24 km) west of London, with the London Weather Centre. Climate data for London (), elevation: 25 m or 82 ft, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1948–present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 17.2 (63) 19.8 (67.6) 24.2 (75.6) 29.4 (84.9) 32.8 (91) 35.6 (96.1) 36.7 (98.1) 38.1 (100.6) 35.4 (95.7) 29.9 (85.8) 20.8 (69.4) 17.4 (63.3) 38.1 (100.6) Mean maximum °C (°F) 13.1 (55.6) 14.1 (57.4) 17.2 (63) 21.3 (70.3) 25.8 (78.4) 28.5 (83.3) 30.1 (86.2) 29.7 (85.5) 25.5 (77.9) 20.5 (68.9) 16.2 (61.2) 13.5 (56.3) 31.5 (88.7) Average high °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 8.4 (47.1) 11.3 (52.3) 14.2 (57.6) 17.9 (64.2) 21.0 (69.8) 23.5 (74.3) 23.2 (73.8) 19.9 (67.8) 15.5 (59.9) 11.1 (52) 8.3 (46.9) 15.2 (59.4) Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2 (41.4) 5.3 (41.5) 7.6 (45.7) 9.9 (49.8) 13.3 (55.9) 16.4 (61.5) 18.7 (65.7) 18.5 (65.3) 15.7 (60.3) 12.0 (53.6) 8.0 (46.4) 5.5 (41.9) 11.3 (52.3) Average low °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 2.1 (35.8) 3.9 (39) 5.5 (41.9) 8.7 (47.7) 11.7 (53.1) 13.9 (57) 13.7 (56.7) 11.4 (52.5) 8.4 (47.1) 4.9 (40.8) 2.7 (36.9) 7.4 (45.4) Mean minimum °C (°F) −4.2 (24.4) −3.9 (25) −2.0 (28.4) −0.3 (31.5) 3.1 (37.6) 6.7 (44.1) 9.5 (49.1) 9.1 (48.4) 6.0 (42.8) 2.0 (35.6) −1.7 (28.9) −4.1 (24.6) −6.1 (21) Record low °C (°F) −13.2 (8.2) −9.6 (14.7) −5.1 (22.8) −2.6 (27.3) −0.9 (30.4) 1.5 (34.7) 5.6 (42.1) 5.9 (42.6) 1.8 (35.2) −3.3 (26.1) −7.0 (19.4) −11.8 (10.8) −13.2 (8.2) Average mm (inches) 55.2 (2.17) 40.9 (1.61) 41.6 (1.64) 43.7 (1.72) 49.4 (1.94) 45.1 (1.78) 44.5 (1.75) 49.5 (1.95) 49.1 (1.93) 68.5 (2.7) 59.0 (2.32) 55.2 (2.17) 601.7 (23.68) Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.1 8.5 9.3 9.1 8.8 8.2 7.7 7.5 8.1 10.8 10.3 10.2 109.6 Mean monthly 61.5 77.9 114.6 168.7 198.5 204.3 212.0 204.7 149.3 116.5 72.6 52.0 1,632.6 Source: For more station data near London, see .

Climate data for London Weather Centre, 2001–2014 normals Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 8.5 (47.3) 8.9 (48) 11.7 (53.1) 15.7 (60.3) 18.6 (65.5) 22.4 (72.3) 23.6 (74.5) 23.2 (73.8) 20.8 (69.4) 16.1 (61) 11.9 (53.4) 8.6 (47.5) 15.8 (60.5) Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 6.8 (44.2) 8.8 (47.8) 12.0 (53.6) 14.8 (58.6) 18.3 (64.9) 19.6 (67.3) 19.4 (66.9) 17.3 (63.1) 13.5 (56.3) 10.0 (50) 7.0 (44.6) 12.9 (55.1) Average low °C (°F) 5.0 (41) 4.7 (40.5) 5.8 (42.4) 8.2 (46.8) 10.9 (51.6) 14.1 (57.4) 15.5 (59.9) 15.5 (59.9) 13.7 (56.7) 10.9 (51.6) 8.0 (46.4) 5.4 (41.7) 9.8 (49.7) Source #1: Weather Online Source #2: Tutiempo Districts Main articles: and London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names, such as , , and .

These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or . Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32 in addition to the ancient City of London.

The City of London is the main financial district, and has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub in the to the east. The is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists. includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds. The average price for properties in is over £2 million with a similarly high outlay in most of .

The is the area closest to the original , known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London. The surrounding area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the including the and , which was developed into the for the . Architecture The is a historic medieval castle, the oldest part of which dates back to 1078 London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular style, partly because of their varying ages.

Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the , are constructed from . Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in central London pre-date the of 1666, these being a few trace remains, the and a few scattered survivors in the City. Further out is, for example, the , England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal c.1515. 17th-century churches by , neoclassical financial institutions such as the and the , to the early 20th century and the 1960s form part of the varied architectural heritage.

Trafalgar Square and its fountains, with Nelson's Column on the right The disused – but soon to be rejuvenated – 1939 by the river in the south-west is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of , most notably and .

The density of London varies, with high employment density in the , high residential densities in , and lower densities in . in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the , which originated nearby.

and , at the north and south ends of , respectively, have royal connections, as do the and in . is a nationally recognised monument in , one of the focal points of central London. Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster .

In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers, such as , , the and , are mostly in the two financial districts, the and .

High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of and other historic buildings. Nevertheless, there are a number of very tall skyscrapers in central London (see ), including the 95-storey , the . Other notable modern buildings include in with its distinctive oval shape and the in /. What was formerly the , by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now an entertainment venue called the . Cityscape The with in the background in October 2016 Natural history The London Natural History Society suggest that London is "one of the World's Greenest Cities" with more than 40 per cent green space or open water.

They indicate that 2000 species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the supports 120 species of fish. They also state that over 60 species of bird nest in and that their members have recorded 47 species of butterfly, 1173 moths and more than 270 kinds of spider around London.

London's areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. London has 38 (SSSIs), two and 76 . are common in the capital, including living by the , and common frogs, common , and . On the other hand, native reptiles such as , , and , are mostly only seen in .

Fox on Ayres Street, , Among other inhabitants of London are 10,000 , so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile (2.6 square kilometres) of London. These urban foxes are noticeably bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people's backyards. Foxes have even sneaked into the , where one was found asleep on a filing cabinet.

Another broke into the grounds of , reportedly killing some of Queen Elizabeth II's prized . Generally, however, foxes and city folk appear to get along. A survey in 2001 by the London-based found that 80 per cent of 3,779 respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around. This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole. Other mammals found in are , rats, mice, rabbit, shrew, vole, and squirrels, In wilder areas of Outer London, such as , a wide variety of mammals are found including , , field, bank and water , , , , , and , in addition to fox, squirrel and hedgehog.

A dead otter was found at The Highway, in , about a mile from the , which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city. Ten of England's eighteen species of have been recorded in Epping Forest: soprano, nathusius and common pipistrelles, noctule, serotine, barbastelle, daubenton's, brown Long-eared, natterer's and leisler's.

Among the strange sights seen in London have been a whale in the Thames, while the BBC Two programme "Natural World: Unnatural History of London" shows pigeons using the to get around the city, a that takes fish from outside , and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages. Herds of and also roam freely within much of and . A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.

Epping Forest is also known for its , which can frequently be seen in herds to the north of the Forest. A rare population of , black fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near .

, which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the twentieth century, are also found in the forest. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces. Black British The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London's population are making London the city with the , behind New York City, in terms of absolute numbers.

About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad. The table to the right shows the most common countries of birth of London residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the in Germany. With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the most populous city in the world.

Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939 immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,192,091 at the 2001 Census.

However, the population then grew by just over a million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to reach 8,173,941 in the latter enumeration. However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London and was home to 9,787,426 people in 2011, while its wider has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition used.

According to , London is the and the second . During the period 1991–2001 a net 726,000 immigrants arrived in London. The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres (610 sq mi). The population density is 5,177 inhabitants per square kilometre (13,410/sq mi), more than ten times that of any other . In terms of population, London is the 19th and the 18th region. Ethnic groups Other (2.2%) According to the , based on the estimates, 59.8 per cent of the 8,173,941 inhabitants of London were , with 44.9 per cent , 2.2 per cent , 0.1 per cent / and 12.1 per cent classified as .

20.9 per cent of Londoners are of and mixed-Asian descent. 19.7 per cent are of full Asian descent, with those of mixed-Asian heritage comprising 1.2 of the population. account for 6.6 per cent of the population, followed by and at 2.7 per cent each. peoples account for 1.5 per cent of the population, with comprising 1.3 per cent. A further 4.9 per cent are classified as "Other Asian". 15.6 per cent of London's population are of and mixed-Black descent. 13.3 per cent are of full Black descent, with those of mixed-Black heritage comprising 2.3 per cent.

account for 7.0 per cent of London's population, with 4.2 per cent as and 2.1 per cent as "Other Black". 5.0 per cent are of . Across London, and children outnumber children by about six to four in state schools. Altogether at the 2011 census, of London's 1,624,768 population aged 0 to 15, 46.4 per cent were White, 19.8 per cent were Asian, 19 per cent were Black, 10.8 per cent were Mixed and 4 per cent represented another ethnic group.

In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken in London and more than 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000.

Figures from the show that, in 2010 , London's foreign-born population was 2,650,000 (33 per cent), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2011 census showed that 36.7 per cent of 's population were born outside the UK. A portion of the German-born population are likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the in Germany.

Estimates produced by the indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London in the period July 2009 to June 2010 were those born in , Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh and .

Religion 0.6% According to the , the largest religious groupings are Christians (48.4 per cent), followed by those of (20.7 per cent), (12.4 per cent), no response (8.5 per cent), (5.0 per cent), (1.8 per cent), (1.5 per cent), (1.0 per cent) and other (0.6 per cent).

London has traditionally been Christian, and has a , particularly in the City of London. The well-known in the City and south of the river are administrative centres, while the , principal bishop of the and worldwide , has his main residence at in the . Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between and . The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby , which is the largest cathedral in .

Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is very low within the Anglican denomination. Church attendance continues on a long, slow, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics. London is also home to sizeable , , , and communities.

Notable mosques include the in Tower Hamlets, which is allowed to give the Islamic call to prayer through loudspeakers, the on the edge of and the of the . Following the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy Arab Muslims have based themselves around , Kensington, and in West London.

There are large Muslim communities in the eastern boroughs of and . Large Hindu communities are in the north-western boroughs of and , the latter of which hosts what was, until 2006, Europe's largest , . London is also home to 44 Hindu temples, including the . There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India.

The majority of live in London, with significant Jewish communities in , , , , , and in . in the is affiliated to London's historic Jewish community. It is the only synagogue in Europe which has held regular services continuously for over 300 years. has the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in the whole of Europe, overtaking synagogue (also in London) in 1998. The community set up the in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.

Accent There are many accents traditionally associated with London. The most well known of the London accents long ago acquired the label from , which is heard both in London itself, and across the wider region more generally. The accent of a 21st-century Londoner varies widely; what is becoming more and more common amongst the under-30s however is some fusion of Cockney with a whole array of ethnic accents, in particular , which form an accent labelled (MLE).

The other widely heard and spoken accent is RP () in various forms, which can often be heard in the media and many of other traditional professions and beyond, although this accent is not limited to London and South East England, and can also be heard selectively throughout the whole UK amongst certain social groupings.

Since the turn of the century the Cockney dialect is less common in the East End and has 'migrated' east to and the county of . The City of London, one of the largest financial centres in the world London produced in 2016 was £408 billion or $534 billion, over 22% of , while the economy of the ——generates about 30 per cent of the UK's GDP (or an estimated $669 billion in 2005).

London has five major business districts: the City, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Greater London had 27 million m 2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m 2 of office space. London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world. London is the world's most expensive office market for the last three years according to world property journal (2015) report.

As of 2015 the residential property in London is worth $2.2 trillion – same value as that of Brazil annual GDP. The city has the highest property prices of any European city according to the Office for National Statistics and the European Office of Statistics. On average the price per square metre in central London is €24,252 (April 2014). This is higher than the property prices in other G8 European capital cities; Berlin €3,306, Rome €6,188 and Paris €11,229.

The City of London The at and London's finance industry is based in the and , the two major in London. London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance. London took over as a major financial centre shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed before the Napoleonic armies.

For many bankers established in Amsterdam (e.g. Hope, Baring), this was only time to move to London. The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time. This unique concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the Commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London a leading .

Still, as of 2016 London tops the world rankings on the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI), and it ranked second in A.T. Kearney's 2018 Global Cities Index. London's largest industry is finance, and its make it a large contributor to the UK's . Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007.

London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. It is also the world's biggest currency trading centre, accounting for some 37 per cent of the $5.1 trillion average daily volume, according to the BIS. Over 85 per cent (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in the services industries.

Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the . However, by 2010 the City has recovered; put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance. Along with headquarters, the is home to the , , and insurance market.

Over half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the ) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London.

Over 70 per cent of the FTSE 100 are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of companies have offices in London. Media and technology Media companies are and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector. The is a significant employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the City. Many are edited in London. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.2 billion.

The is the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million of cargo each year. A growing number of technology companies are based in London notably in , also known as Silicon Roundabout. In April 2014, the city was among the first to receive a . In February 2014 London was ranked as the European City of the Future in the 2014/15 list by .

The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by , and . Tourism The London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits. It is also the top city in the world by visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$20.23 billion in 2015.

Tourism is one of London's prime industries, employing the equivalent of 350,000 full-time workers in 2003, and the city accounts for 54% of all inbound visitor spending in the UK. As of 2016 London is the world top city destination as ranked by users. In 2015 the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: (with visits per venue) • The : 6,820,686 • The : 5,908,254 • The (South Kensington): 5,284,023 • The : 5,102,883 • : 4,712,581 • The (South Kensington): 3,432,325 • The : 3,356,212 • : 3,235,104 • The : 2,785,249 • The : 2,145,486 The number of hotel rooms in London in 2015 stood at 138,769, and is expected to grow over the years.

Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London, however the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer distance rail network that enters London.

In 2007 he assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses. The public transport network is administered by (TFL). The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the or was created.

Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the . Aviation is the busiest airport in Europe as well as the second busiest in the world for international passenger traffic. (C is pictured) London is a major international air transport hub with the . Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these.

Additionally, also serve London, catering primarily to flights. • , in , West London, was for many years the for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, . In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened.

In 2014, gained from Heathrow the leading position in terms of international passenger traffic. • , south of London in , handles flights to more destinations than any other UK airport and is the main base of , the UK's largest airline by number of passengers.

• , north-east of London in , has flights that serve the greatest number of European destinations of any UK airport and is the main base of , the world's largest international airline by number of international passengers. • , to the north of London in , is used by several budget airlines for short-haul flights. • , the most central airport and the one with the shortest runway, in , East London, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full-service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable traffic.

• , east of London in , is a smaller, regional airport that caters for short-haul flights on a limited, though growing, number of airlines. In 2017, international passengers made up over 95% of the total at Southend, the highest proportion of any London airport. Rail Underground and DLR The is the world's oldest and third-longest system The , commonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldest and third longest system in the world. The system serves 270 and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the .

It dates from 1863. Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year.

An investment programme is attempting to reduce congestion and improve reliability, including £6.5 billion (€7.7 billion) spent before the . The , which opened in 1987, is a second, more using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the , and . Suburban A train at There are more than 360 in the on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network. South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines.

Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into , with the exception of the trains connecting in the north and in the south via and airports. London has Britain's busiest station by number of passengers – , with over 184 million people using the interchange station complex (which includes station) each year.

is the busiest station in Europe by the number of trains passing. With the need for more rail capacity in London, is due to open in 2018. It will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the with a branch to . It is Europe's biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost.

Inter-city and international is the main terminal for high speed and services, as well as commuter suburban and inter-city services London is the centre of the network, with 70 per cent of rail journeys starting or ending in London. Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several termini around the city centre, linking London with the rest of Britain including , , , Bristol, , , , , , , Liverpool, , , , Edinburgh and .

Some international railway services to were operated during the 20th century as , such as the to and the to Paris and Brussels. The opening of the in 1994 connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing services to begin.

Since 2007, high-speed trains link with , Paris, , and other European tourist destinations via the rail link and the . The first trains started in June 2009 linking to London. There are plans for a linking London to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire. Freight Although levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and waste. As a major hub of the British railway network, London's tracks also carry large amounts of freight for the other regions, such as from the Channel Tunnel and ports, and for at .

Buses and trams The is an iconic symbol of London London's is one of the largest in the world, running 24 hours a day, with about 8,500 buses, more than 700 bus routes and around 19,500 bus stops. In 2013, the network had more than 2 billion commuter trips per annum, more than the Underground. Around £850 million is taken in revenue each year. London has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the world and, from the 3rd quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced.

The distinctive red are an internationally recognised trademark of London transport along with and the Tube. London has a modern tram network, known as , centred on in . The network has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013. Since June 2008 has completely owned Tramlink, and it plans to spend £54m by 2015 on maintenance, renewals, upgrades and capacity enhancements. Cable car London's first and only cable car, known as the , opened in June 2012.

Crossing the , linking and the in the east of the city, the cable car is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although special fares are charged. Costing £60 million to build, it carries over 3,500 passengers every day, although this is very much lower than its capacity. Similar to the bike hire scheme, the cable car is sponsored in a 10-year deal by the airline .

Cycling Segregated cycle lanes are being implemented across London. in Stratford In the whole Greater London Area, around 650,000 people use a bike everyday. But out of a total population of around 8.8 million, this means that just around 7% of Greater London's population use a bike on an average day. This is a small proportion, when compared to many other cities in the world A reason may well be the poor investments for cycling in London of about £110 million per year, equating to around £12 per person, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands.

is nevertheless becoming increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of in July 2010 has been successful and generally well received. The lobbies for better provision. There are many , including several . Port and river boats From being the largest port in the world, the is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.

Most of this actually passes through the , outside the boundary of Greater London. London has frequent river boat services on the Thames known as . These run up to every 20 minutes between and . The , with 2.5 million passengers every year, is a frequent service linking the and Roads. Other operators run both commuter and tourist boat services in London. Roads Although the majority of journeys involving central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs.

The (around the city centre), the and roads (in the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the , outside the built-up area) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into . A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the ) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s.

The M25 is the second-longest ring-road motorway in Europe at 117 mi (188 km) long. The and connect London to , and and . London is notorious for its traffic congestion, with the average speed of a car in the rush hour being 10.6 mph (17.1 km/h). In 2003, a was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay £10 per day to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London.

Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced season pass. London government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily peak period Underground and bus users by 20,000 people, reduce road traffic by 10 to 15 per cent, increase traffic speeds by 10 to 15 per cent, and reduce queues by 20 to 30 per cent. Over the course of several years, the average number of cars entering the centre of London on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars – a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day.

, a world leading research university located in London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London has the greatest concentration of top class universities in the world and its international student population of around 110,000 is larger than any other city in the world.

A 2014 report termed London as the global capital of higher education. A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2014/15 , is ranked joint 2nd in the world, (UCL) is ranked 5th, and (KCL) is ranked 16th.

The has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research. The is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2015 its MBA programme was ranked second best in the world by the .

With 120,000 students in London, the federal is the largest contact teaching university in the UK. It includes five multi-faculty universities – , , , and – and a number of smaller and more specialised institutions including , the , , , the , the , the , the , the , the and the . Members of the University of London have their own procedures, and some award their own degrees.

A number of universities in London are outside the University of London system, including , , , , , , , , , and (the largest university of art, design, fashion, communication and the performing arts in Europe). In addition there are three international universities in London – , and . The front façade of the London is home to – (part of ), (the largest medical school in Europe), , and – and has a large number of affiliated teaching hospitals.

It is also a major centre for biomedical research, and three of the UK's eight are based in the city – , and (the largest such centre in Europe). There are a number of business schools in London, including the , (part of ), , , , , the and the .

London is also home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the , , , , , , , , the , the and . , established by Royal Charter having been founded by and the in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the Primary and secondary education The majority of primary and secondary schools and further-education colleges in London are controlled by the or otherwise state-funded; leading examples include , , , , , , , , , , and . There are also a number of private schools and colleges in London, some old and famous, such as , , , , , , and .

Leisure is a major part of the London economy, with a 2003 report attributing a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London at 25.6 events per 1000 people. Globally, the city is amongst the big four of the world, and according to official statistics, London is the world's third busiest film production centre, presents more live comedy than any other city, and has the biggest theatre audience of any city in the world.

in Within the in London, the entertainment district of the has its focus around , where London and world film are held, and , with its giant electronic advertisements. London's is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs, and restaurants, including the city's district (in ), and just to the east is , an area housing speciality shops.

The city is the home of , whose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century. The United Kingdom's , , , and are based in London and perform at the , the , , and the , as well as touring the country. Scene of the annual , 2014 's 1 mile (1.6 km) long Upper Street, extending northwards from , has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the United Kingdom.

Europe's busiest shopping area is , a shopping street nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) long, making it the longest shopping street in the UK. Oxford Street is home to vast numbers of retailers and , including the world-famous .

, home to the equally renowned , lies to the south-west. London is home to designers , , , , and , among others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it an international centre of fashion alongside Paris, , and New York City.

London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of and the restaurants of . is a modern reconstruction of the Globe Theatre on the south bank of the There is a variety of , beginning with the relatively new , a fireworks display at the ; the world's second largest , the , is held on the late each year. Traditional parades include November's , a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's , a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the and armies to celebrate the .

Literature, film and television in , bearing the number 221B London has been the setting for many works of literature. The pilgrims in 's late 14th-century set out for from London – specifically, from the inn, . spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary was also based there, and some of his work, most notably his play , was set in the city.

(1722) by is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 . The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly and (since the early 20th century) .

Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist , noted for his eyewitness account of the , , whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early London, and , regarded as one of the foremost literary figures of the 20th century.

Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are Dickens' novels, and 's stories. Also of significance is 's Calendar of the London Seasons (1834). Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include , author of a "biography" of London, and , who writes in the genre of .

has original text related to this article: , where wrote his . The village of has historically been a literary centre in London. London has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include , , , , , and a and community centred in . has its headquarters in London. London has been the setting for films including (1948), (1951), (1953), (1961), (1964), (1964), (1966), (1980), (1999), (2003), (2005), (2008) and (2010).

Notable actors and filmmakers from London include; , , , , , , , , , and . As of 2008 , the have taken place at the .

London is a major centre for television production, with studios including , and . Many television programmes have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera , broadcast by the BBC since 1985. Museums and art galleries Aerial view of . , and are visible near the top; and at the lower end; , , and lying in between. London is , galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major as well as playing a research role.

The first of these to be established was the in , in 1753. Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the globe. In 1824, the was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in .

In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of was developed as "", a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there: the (for the ), the , and the . The was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.

The national gallery of British art is at , originally established as an annexe of the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art; in 2000, this collection moved to , a new gallery housed in the former . Music The hosts concerts and musical events London is one of the major classical and capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as and , as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals.

The city is also home to many orchestras and concert halls, such as the (principal base of the and the ), () and the (). London's two main opera houses are the and the . The UK's largest is at the Royal Albert Hall. Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches. Several are within the city: , , and . , 3 , , City of Westminster London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest arena and , as well as many mid-sized venues, such as , the and the .

Several , including the , South West Four, , and 's are all held in London. The city is home to the original and the , where recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and , derived their sound from the streets and rhythms of London. London was instrumental in the development of , with figures such as the , , and all based in the city.

More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include 's , , , the , , , , the , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and . London is also a centre for urban music. In particular the genres , , and evolved in the city from the foreign genres of and , alongside local .

Music station was set up to support the rise of local music both in London and in the rest of the United Kingdom. lake with the London Eye in the distance A 2013 report by the said that London is the "greenest city" in Europe with 35,000 acres of public parks, woodlands and gardens. The largest parks in the are three of the eight , namely and its neighbour in the west, and to the north.

Hyde Park in particular is popular for and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park contains , the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near Wax Museum. , immediately to the north of Regent's Park, at 256 feet (78 m) is a popular spot from which to view the city skyline. Close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks, and . A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including and the remaining Royal Parks of to the southeast and and (the largest) to the southwest, is also a royal park, but, because it contains a palace, it is administered by the , unlike the eight .

Close to Richmond Park is which has the world's largest collection of living plants. In 2003, the gardens were put on the list of . There are also parks administered by London's borough Councils, including in the and in the centre. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the 320-hectare (790-acre) of , and , which covers 2,476 hectares (6,118 acres) in the east. Both are controlled by the . Hampstead Heath incorporates , a former and a popular location in the summer months when classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.

Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering. Walking . Areas that provide for walks include , , , , the eight , canals and disused railway tracks. Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of the , some 28 miles (45 km) of which is within , and The ; this runs 12 miles (19 km) through along the , a . Other , linking green spaces, have also been created, including the , the , ("Loop"), , , and the .

, home of the , has a 90,000 capacity. It is the UK's biggest stadium. London has hosted the three times: in , , and . making it the first city to host the modern Games three times. The city was also the host of the in . In 2017, London hosted the for the first time. London's is and it has six clubs in the English : , , , , , and . Other professional teams in London are , , , , and . , home of the , has an 82,000 capacity, the world's largest rugby union stadium From 1924, the original was the home of the .

It hosted the , with England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the as well as 's final. The new serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000. Two rugby union teams are based in London, and .

, and play in the club and other rugby union clubs in the city include , , and . in south-west London hosts home matches for the and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed. at . First played in 1877, the Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world.

While is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London – the second tier team, the , who play at the in , and the third tier team, the from , ; in addition, from north of London also play in League 1. One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the , held at the in the south-western suburb of . Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

London has two grounds, (home of ) in and (home of ) in . Lord's has hosted four finals of the . Other key events are the annual mass-participation , in which some 35,000 runners attempt a 26.2 miles (42.2 km) course around the city, and the on the from to . • See also: . • The London Mayor is not to be confused with the who heads the , which administers the . • Rankings of cities by metropolitan area GDP can vary as a result of differences in the definition of the boundaries and population sizes of the areas compared, exchange rate fluctuations and the method used to calculate output.

London and Paris are of broadly similar size in terms of total economic output which can result in third party sources varying as to which is the fifth-largest city GDP in the world. A report by the McKinsey Global Institute published in 2012 estimated that London had a city GDP of US$751.8 billion in 2010, compared to US$764.2 billion for Paris, making them respectively the sixth- and fifth-largest in the world. A report by PricewaterhouseCoopers published in November 2009 estimated that London had a city GDP measured in purchasing power parity of US$565 billion in 2008, compared to US$564 billion for Paris, making them respectively the fifth- and sixth-largest in the world.

The McKinsey Global Institute study used a metropolitan area with a population of 14.9 million for London compared to 11.8 million for Paris, whilst the PricewaterhouseCoopers study used a metropolitan area with a population of 8.59 million for London compared to 9.92 million for Paris. • According to the (Eurostat), London has the largest in the EU. Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition. • London is not a city in the sense that the word applies in the United Kingdom, that of having granted by the Crown.

• According to the Collins English Dictionary definition of 'the seat of government', London is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government.

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