Don't scratch if you got stung, if you do so, the tentacles will release even more of their powerful toxin in to your bloodstream. A lot of people say Vinegar is the weapon of choice. This is certainly true when it comes to box jellyfish, for blue bottle jellyfish respectively Portuguese Man O War, this is not true. Ice helps because it controls the spread of the poison and numbs the area you got stung. However, it does not deactivate the toxin which got injected in to your bloodstream. Believe it or not, hot water is the best thing you can do. If you got stung in your hand, put your hand .
best dating portuguese man of war sting effects - What is the best way to treat a Portuguese Man O War sting?
The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war. One of the most painful effects on skin is the consequence of attack by oceanic hydrozoans known as Portuguese men-of-war, which are amazing for their size, brilliant color, and power to induce whealing. They have a small float that buoys them up and from which hang long tentacles.
The wrap of these tentacles results in linear stripes, which look like whiplashes, caused not by the force of their swing but from deposition of urticariogenic and irritant substances. West Nile fever: A febrile disease caused by the that is transmitted from birds to the common Culex mosquito and then to people.
The virus is named after the area it was first found in Uganda. occurs in parts of Africa and Asia and, infrequently, in Southern Europe and the Middle East.
The had never been seen in birds or people in the Western Hemisphere prior to an outbreak in the summer of 1999 in New York City.> The virus has since moved across the United States. Signs and symptoms include the sudden onset of drowsiness, and due to encephalitis, in the abdomen, a , and swollen glands (). These features are usually but not always mild. Fatal cases tend to involve infants and small children under age 5, the aged, and people with an impaired immune system.
The outbreak in New York, which was entirely unexpected, reflects the reality of global travel today that can transport exotic to new areas. If a mosquito-borne virus enters a new area, the entire mosquito population may be susceptible, putting everyone living there at risk. West Nile is also known as . The virus is closely related to other flaviviruses including those responsible for , Japanese encephalitis and Murray Valley encephalitis.
The is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck just below the Adams apple. The gland wraps around the windpipe (trachea) and has a shape that is similar to a butterfly formed by two wings (lobes) and attached by a middle part (isthmus). The gland works like a tiny factory that uses (mostly from the in foods such as seafood and salt) to produce thyroid hormones. These hormones help to regulate the body's and effects processes, such as growth and other important functions of the body.
The two most important thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), representing 99.9% and 0.1% of thyroid hormones respectively. The hormone with the most biological power is actually T3. Once released from the thyroid gland into the blood, a large amount of T4 is converted to T3 - the active hormone that affects the of cells throughout our body.
The eye is our organ of sight. The eye has a number of components which include but are not limited to the , , pupil, , , , , choroid and vitreous. • Cornea: clear front window of the eye that transmits and focuses light into the eye. • Iris: colored part of the eye that helps regulate the amount of light that enters • Pupil: dark aperture in the iris that determines how much light is let into the eye • Lens: transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina • Retina: nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and creates electrical impulses that travel through the optic nerve to the brain • Macula: small central area in the retina that contains special light-sensitive cells and allows us to see fine details clearly • Optic nerve: connects the eye to the brain and carries the electrical impulses formed by the retina to the visual cortex of the brain • Vitreous: clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye The eye is our organ of sight.
The eye has a number of components which include but are not limited to the , , pupil, lens, , , , choroid and vitreous. • Cornea: clear front window of the eye that transmits and focuses light into the eye. • Iris: colored part of the eye that helps regulate the amount of light that enters • Pupil: dark aperture in the iris that determines how much light is let into the eye • Lens: transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina • Retina: nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and creates electrical impulses that travel through the optic nerve to the brain • Macula: small central area in the retina that contains special light-sensitive cells and allows us to see fine details clearly • Optic nerve: connects the eye to the brain and carries the electrical impulses formed by the retina to the visual cortex of the brain • Vitreous: clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body.
It is positioned in the chest behind the sternum (breastbone; in front of the trachea, , and ; and above the muscle that separates the chest and abdominal . The normal heart is about the size of a closed fist, and weighs about 10.5 ounces. It is cone-shaped, with the point of the cone pointing down to the left.
Two-thirds of the heart lies in the left side of the chest with the balance in the right chest. Heart Detail: The heart is composed of specialized , and it is four-chambered, with a right and ventricle, and an anatomically separate left atrium and ventricle. The blood flows from the systemic veins into the right atrium, thence to the right ventricle, from which it is pumped to the , then returned into the left atrium, thence to the left ventricle, from which it is driven into the systemic arteries.
The heart is thus functionally composed of two hearts: the right heart and the . The right heart consists of the right atrium, which receives deoxygenated blood from the body, and the right ventricle which pumps it to the lungs under low pressure; and the left heart, consisting of the left atrium, which receives oxygenated blood from the lung, and the left ventricle, which pumps it out to the body under high pressure. Heart Catheter: Catheter procedures are much easier than surgery on patients because they involve only a needle puncture in the skin where the catheter is inserted into a vein or an artery.
Doctors don't have to surgically open the chest or operate directly on the heart to repair the defect.
This means that recovery can be much easier and quicker. The use of catheter procedures has grown a lot in the past 20 years. They have become the preferred way to repair many simple heart defects, such as: • septal defect.
The doctor inserts the catheter through a vein and threads it up into the heart to the septum. The catheter has a tiny umbrella‑like device folded up inside it. When the catheter reaches the septum, the device is pushed out of the catheter and positioned so that it plugs the hole between the atria.
The device is secured in place and the catheter is then withdrawn from the body. • Pulmonary valve stenosis. The doctor inserts the catheter through a vein and threads it into the heart to the pulmonary valve. A tiny balloon at the end of the catheter is quickly inflated to push apart the leaflets, or "doors," of the valve.
The balloon is then deflated and the catheter is withdrawn. Procedures like this can be used to repair any narrowed valve in the heart. Doctors often use an or a transesophageal (trans-e-SOF-ah-ge-al) echocardiogram (TEE) as well as an to guide them in threading the catheter and doing the repair. A TEE is a special type of echocardiogram that takes pictures of the back of the heart through the (the tube leading from the mouth to the stomach).
TEE also is often used to define complex heart defects. Catheter procedures also are sometimes used during surgery to help repair complex defects The aorta is the largest artery in the body.
The aorta begins at the top of the , the heart's muscular pumping chamber. The heart pumps blood from the left ventricle into the aorta through the . Three leaflets on the valve open and close with each heartbeat to allow one-way flow of blood. The aorta is a tube about a foot long and just over an inch in diameter. The aorta is divided into four sections: • The rises up from the heart and is about 2 inches long.
The branch off the ascending aorta to supply the heart with blood. • The aortic arch curves over the heart, giving rise to branches that bring blood to the head, neck, and arms. • The descending thoracic aorta travels down through the chest.
Its small branches supply blood to the ribs and some chest structures. • The abdominal aorta begins at the , splitting to become the paired iliac arteries in the lower abdomen. Most of the major organs receive blood from branches of the abdominal aorta. Like all arteries, the aorta's wall has several layers: • The intima, the innermost layer, provides a smooth surface for blood to flow across.
• The media, the middle layer with muscle and elastic fibers, allows the aorta to expand and contract with each heartbeat. • The adventitia, the outer layer, provides additional support and structure to the aorta.
Carotid Arteries Disease: Also called carotid artery stenosis, the term refers to the narrowing of the carotid arteries. This narrowing is usually caused by the buildup of fatty substances and deposits, called plaque. Carotid artery occlusion refers to complete blockage of the artery.
When the carotid arteries are obstructed, you are at an increased risk for a , the third leading cause of death in the U.S. Pericardial sac: A conical sac of fibrous tissue which surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. Also called the pericardium. The pericardium has outer and inner coats. The outer coat is tough and thickened, loosely cloaks the heart, and is attached to the central part of the and the back of the sternum (breastbone).
The inner coat is double with one layer closely adherent to the heart while the other lines the inner surface of the outer coat with the intervening space being filled with fluid. This small amount of fluid, the fluid, acts as a lubricant to allow normal heart movement within the chest. The word "pericardium" means around the heart. The outer layer of the pericardium is called the parietal pericardium.
The inner part of the pericardium that closely envelops the heart is called the visceral pericardium or epicardium. Balloon angioplasty: Coronary is accomplished using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted through an artery in the groin or arm to enlarge a narrowing in a coronary artery. occurs when plaque builds up () in the walls of the arteries to the heart.
Angioplasty is successful in opening in 90% of patients. 40% of patients with successful coronary angioplasty will develop recurrent narrowing at the site of balloon inflation.
The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). The trachea (windpipe) conducts inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, called . The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller branches (), finally becoming microscopic. The bronchioles eventually end in clusters of microscopic air sacs called alveoli. In the alveoli, oxygen from the air is absorbed into the blood. Carbon dioxide, a waste product of , travels from the blood to the alveoli, where it can be exhaled.
Between the alveoli is a thin layer of cells called the interstitium, which contains blood vessels and cells that help support the alveoli. The lungs are covered by a thin tissue layer called the pleura. The same kind of thin tissue lines the inside of the chest cavity -- also called pleura.
A thin layer of fluid acts as a lubricant allowing the lungs to slip smoothly as they expand and contract with each breath. Lung Cancer: of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as a .
Since tends to spread or very early after it forms, it is a very life-threatening and one of the most difficult cancers to treat. While can spread to any organ in the body, certain organs -- particularly the adrenal glands, , brain, and bone -- are the most common sites for lung .
Lung cancers can arise in any part of the lung, but 90%-95% of cancers of the lung are thought to arise from the epithelial cells, the cells lining the larger and smaller airways ( and ); for this reason, lung cancers are sometimes called bronchogenic cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas. Lung cancer is the most common cause of death due to cancer in both men and women throughout the world.
The incidence of lung cancer is strongly correlated with , with about 90% of lung cancers arising as a result of use. The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the time over which has occurred.
Pleural effusion: Excess fluid between the two membranes that cover the (the visceral and parietal pleurae) separating the lungs from the chest wall.
A small quantity of fluid is normally spread thinly over the visceral and parietal pleurae and acts as a lubricant between the two membranes. Any significant increase in the quantity of pleural fluid is a . The most common symptoms of pleural effusion are and painful (). Many pleural effusions cause no symptoms but are discovered during physical examination or detected on chest X-rays; X-ray is the most convenient way to confirm the diagnosis. Pleural effusion can be caused by heart and , hypoalbuminemia (low levels of albumin in the blood), infections, , and malignancies.
This article is about the marine invertebrate found in the Atlantic. For the species found in the Indo-Pacific, see . For other uses, see . The Atlantic Portuguese man o' war ( Physalia physalis), also known as the man-of-war, is a of the family found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Its long deliver a painful , which is and powerful enough to kill fish or, rarely, humans. Despite its appearance, the Portuguese man o' war is not a true but a , which is not actually a single (true jellyfish are single organisms), but a made up of specialized individual animals (of the same species) called or .
These polyps are attached to one another and physiologically integrated, to the extent that they cannot survive independently, creating a symbiotic relationship, requiring each polyp to work together and function like an individual animal. Portuguese man o' war Kingdom: Phylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: The Atlantic Portuguese man o' war lives at the surface of the ocean. The gas-filled bladder, or pneumatophore, remains at the surface, while the remainder is submerged.
As the Portuguese man o' war has no means of propulsion, they move according to the winds, currents, and tides. Although they are most commonly found in the in tropical and subtropical regions, they have been found as far north as the , and the .
Strong winds may drive them into bays or onto beaches. Often, finding a single Portuguese man o'war is followed by finding many others in the vicinity. They can sting while beached; the discovery of a man o' war washed up on a beach may lead to the closure of the beach. Illustration of Physalia physalis, 1807 Being a colonial siphonophore, the Portuguese man o' war is composed of three types of medusoids (gonophores, siphosomal nectophores, and vestigial siphosomal nectophores) and four types of polypoids (free gastrozooids, gastrozooids with tentacles, gonozooids, and gonopalpons), grouped into cormidia beneath the pneumatophore, a sail-shaped structure filled with gas.
The pneumatophore develops from the , unlike the other polyps. This sail is , with the tentacles at one end. It is translucent, and is tinged blue, purple, pink, or . It may be 9 to 30 cm (3.5 to 11.8 in) long and may extend as much as 15 cm (5.9 in) above the water.
The Portuguese man o' war fills its gas bladder with up to 14% carbon monoxide. The remainder is nitrogen, oxygen, and argon—atmospheric gases that diffuse into the gas bladder. Carbon dioxide also occurs at trace levels. The sail is equipped with a siphon. In the event of a surface attack, the sail can be deflated, allowing the colony to temporarily submerge. The other three polyp types are known as dactylozooid (defense), gonozooid (reproduction), and gastrozooid (feeding). These polyps are clustered.
The dactylozooids make up the tentacles that are typically 10 m (33 ft) in length, but can reach over 30 m (98 ft). The long tentacles "fish" continuously through the water, and each tentacle bears stinging, venom-filled (coiled, thread-like structures), which sting, paralyze, and kill adult or larval and fishes. Large groups of Portuguese man o' war, sometimes over 1,000 individuals, may deplete fisheries.
Contractile cells in each tentacle drag the prey into range of the digestive polyps, the gastrozooids, which surround and digest the food by secreting enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, while the gonozooids are responsible for reproduction.
This species and the smaller Indo-Pacific man o' war ( ) are responsible for up to 10,000 human stings in each summer, particularly on the east coast, with some others occurring off the coast of and .
One of the problems with identifying these stings is that the detached tentacles may drift for days in the water, and the swimmer may not have any idea if they have been stung by a man o' war or by some other less venomous creature. [ ] The stinging, venom-filled nematocysts in the tentacles of the Portuguese man o' war can paralyze small fish and other prey. Detached tentacles and dead specimens (including those that wash up on shore) can sting just as painfully as the live organism in the water and may remain potent for hours or even days after the death of the organism or the detachment of the tentacle.
Stings usually cause severe pain to humans, leaving whip-like, red welts on the skin that normally last two or three days after the initial sting, though the pain should subside after about 1 to 3 hours (depending on the biology of the person stung). However, the venom can travel to the and may cause symptoms that mimic an allergic reaction including swelling of the , airway blockage, cardiac distress, and an inability to breathe (though this is not due to a true allergy, which is defined by ).
Other symptoms can include fever and shock, and in some extreme cases, even death, although this is extremely rare. Medical attention for those exposed to large numbers of tentacles may become necessary to relieve pain or open airways if the pain becomes excruciating or lasts for more than three hours, or breathing becomes difficult.
Instances where the stings completely surround the trunk of a young child are among those that have the potential to be fatal. Treatment of stings Stings from a Portuguese man o' war are often extremely painful. They result in severe characterized by long, thin open wounds that resemble those caused by a whip. These are not caused by any impact or cutting action, but by irritating substances in the tentacles.
Treatment for a Portuguese man o' war sting usually begins with the application of poured salt water to rinse away any remaining microscopic nematocysts. Salt water should be used as fresh water has been shown to cause nematocystic discharge. (vinegar) or a solution of and water is believed to deactivate the remaining nematocysts and usually provides some pain relief, though some isolated studies suggest that in some individuals vinegar dousing may increase toxin delivery and worsen symptoms.
Vinegar has also been claimed to provoke hemorrhaging when used on the less severe stings of of smaller species. The current recommended treatment from studies in Australia is to avoid the use of vinegar, as local studies have shown this to exacerbate the symptoms. The vinegar or ammonia soak is then often followed by the application of shaving cream to the wound for 30 seconds, followed by shaving the area with a razor and rinsing the razor thoroughly between each stroke.
This removes any remaining unfired nematocysts. Heat in the form of hot salt water or hot packs may be applied: heat speeds the breakdown of the toxins already in the skin. cream may also be used. Portuguese man o' war in , Colombia The organism has few predators of its own; one example is the , which feeds on the Portuguese man o' war as a common part of its diet.
The turtle's skin, including that of its tongue and throat, is too thick for the stings to penetrate. The blue sea slug specializes in feeding on the Portuguese man o' war, as does the violet snail . The is immune to the venom of the Portuguese man o' war; young individuals carry broken man o' war tentacles, presumably for offensive and/or defensive purposes. The 's primary diet consists of jellyfish, but it also consumes the Portuguese man o' war.
A small fish, (the man-of-war fish or shepherd fish), is partially immune to the venom from the stinging cells and can live among the tentacles. It seems to avoid the larger, stinging tentacles but feeds on the smaller tentacles beneath the gas bladder. The Portuguese man o' war is often found with a variety of other marine fish, including . All these fish benefit from the shelter from predators provided by the stinging tentacles, and for the Portuguese man o' war, the presence of these species may attract other fish to eat.
• ^ . (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or required.) • Nick Pisa (27 August 2010). . Mail Online . Retrieved 2017-12-04. • Grzimek, B.; Schlager, N.; Olendorf, D. (2003). Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopaedia. Thomson Gale. • Greene, Thomas F. Marine Science Textbook. • Millward, David (8 September 2012). . . Archived from on 2012-10-31 . Retrieved 2012-09-07. • Clark, F. E.; C. E. Lane (1961). "Composition of float gases of Physalia physalis".
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. . Retrieved 2009-09-04. In Australia, particularly on the east coast, up to 10 000 stings occur each summer from the bluebottle ( Physalia spp.) alone, with others also from the "hair jellyfish" ( Cyanea) and "blubber" ( Catostylus). Common stingers in South Australia and Western Australia, include bluebottle, as well the four-tentacled cubozoa or box jellyfish, the "jimble" ( Carybdea rastoni) • Yanagihara, Angel A.; Kuroiwa, Janelle M.Y.; Oliver, Louise M.; Kunkel, Dennis D. (December 2002).
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Retrieved 2014-06-13. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war. One of the most painful effects on skin is the consequence of attack by oceanic hydrozoans known as Portuguese men-of-war, which are amazing for their size, brilliant color, and power to induce whealing. They have a small float that buoys them up and from which hang long tentacles. The wrap of these tentacles results in linear stripes, which look like whiplashes, caused not by the force of their sting but from deposition of venom toxins, and irritant substances.
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Death by 'jellyfish': South African man dies after Portuguese Man o' War sting