Best Western Hotels in Sydney. Ovolo Hotels in Sydney. Radisson Hotels in Sydney Best Japanese Food in Sydney, New South Wales. South Pacific. Australia.
There's a certain precision to good Japanese cuisine. A beautiful neatness and cleanness in both presentation and taste. That's not to say it's dull though — sometimes the most unassuming looking morsel will pack a flavour punch that will knock you off your seat.
Japanese restaurants in Sydney take advantage of some of the best and freshest produce on earth and use it to create masterpiece dishes, many of which truly are world renowned. This list includes restaurants that have been producing dazzling food for years, while some are newer on the scene. Some are traditional while others follow a more modern path, and we've tried to provide an option for all budgets.
In each one you'll have a memorable meal that will help you fall in love with Japanese cuisine all over again. , CBD Regularly billed as one of the greatest dining experiences in Sydney, Tetsuya's is famous, hyped and yes, expensive — so is Tetsuya Wakuda's Japanese-French fine dining degustation experience worth it?
In short: yes. The attention to detail that goes into every course is extraordinary, the service is always world class and the food is exquisite.
The course of confit of ocean trout that comes towards the end of the degustation is internationally acclaimed for good reason, but no less impressive are earlier courses of scampi tail served with frozen egg yolk and caviar, or the rare wagyu tenderloin that could be cut with a teaspoon. You're already splurging just by being here, so go all the way and get the matched drinks — it's a flow of sakes and wines that genuinely do add to the ultra high-end dining experience.
SASHIMI SHINSENGUMI, CROWS NEST Across the bridge, tucked away in Crows Nest is a tiny Japanese eatery that deserves to be as famous as Tetsuya's. Sashimi Shinsengumi seats just over a dozen people, and each night serves a 16-20 course 'omakase' menu — meaning it's chef's choice for the entire night. Shinji Matsui puts on a show throughout the meal, cutting, blowtorching and shaping each mouthful of sushi and sashimi, just moments before you eat it.
It's seafood heavy, with delicate morsels of mackerel, fatty salmon belly and just-cooked scallops — all are expertly seasoned, so no dunking wildly into pots of soy sauce here.
It's completely BYO, but don't expect to just turn up — dinner service is always booked out weeks, if not months in advance. Trent van der Jagt , DARLINGHURST By day, Gaku serves up steaming bowls of ramen. By night, it's an innovative izakaya with ingredients and techniques borrowed from across Europe and Asia. So, really, you get the best of both Japanese worlds — both in the four types of ramen that chefs Haru Inukai and Shimon Hanakura dish up and the innovative dinner menu. At first glance, it's what you'd expect from a Japanese grill: karaage, wagyu, sashimi and pork belly.
But look closer and you'll find ingredients and techniques borrowed from France, Italy and China. The wagyu is bresaola, cured and thinly sliced and served with Padrón peppers and a shichimi buttermilk.
There's a burrata salad, too, with chunks of tomato and salty bonito flakes, and Inukai's signature, a riff on Hakka salt-baked chicken. , POTTS POINT There aren't many places in Sydney doing modern Japanese izakaya-style food better than this Potts Point eatery. There's a real sense of playfulness to the servings — miso eggplant on a stick is sweet and savoury all at once, unctuous and gooey but firm enough to hold its shape — it's utterly moreish.
The 'Japanese Bolognaise' is an umami powerhouse of thick udon noodles coated in a chilli pork mince. Petuna ocean trout is served raw with black pepper and wasabi, letting the freshness of the fish be the star. Make sure to wash it down with one of the excellent cocktails with a Japanese twist — yuzu caramel Old Fashioned anyone?
Don't forget dessert either, the delicate cones of green tea soft serve aren't too sweet to stop you from going in for seconds. Trent van der Jagt , CANTERBURY Seventy-two hours is the time it takes husband and wife owners Takumi and Miki Marui to prepare the pork ramen ($15) at their beloved home-style Japanese restaurant.
Why? Because it tastes better. The sliced chashu is smoky, the broth is rich, but not too rich that you won't finish the bowl (which is their intention), the noodles perfectly chewy and the marinated soft-boiled egg makes it a ten out of ten dish. That alone should tell you what type of place this small Canterbury Road eatery is. Locals come to Bon for the quality of food and the ever-changing daily specials that range from tuna belly to sea urchin.
It's certainly up there with the best of them, but you'd never know it from its humble appearance — it's well-hidden behind a skinny roller door by day on one of Sydney's busiest roads. Grab your pen and order paper, and start writing down dishes like the karaage chicken ($12) with house-made tartare sauce. It's hot, juicy and tender — the way fried chicken should be.
Small plates like handmade gyoza ($10), assorted sushi and sashimi ($16) are always fresh and served elegantly on the plate. And classics like the chicken donburi ($14) and pork katsu curry ($15) are packed with so much flavour, you'll want to personally thank the chef before you leave.
Letícia Almeida , DARLINGHURST The wafting smell of grilling meat will hit you as you walk into this teensy, 25-seater yakitori bar where delicious morsels on sticks are what you're going to be smashing. The menu has a strong selection of sharable bites like sashimi, some spectacular gyoza and steamed buns stuffed with glistening pork belly, but the yakitori sticks are the stars.
Everything from chicken meatballs and lamb shoulder to chicken hearts and gizzards are threaded onto skewers and grilled. Knock 'em back with some plum wine or a Japanese beer and you're set.
The ramen here is also incredible, but sometimes runs out before dinner service as only a limited number of bowls are made daily. , SURRY HILLS Come for the food, stay for the whisky — that's our advice at this super fun diner-bar in Surry Hills. Japanese style bar food that's perfect for sharing is the vibe here. It's affordable, tasty and great for small groups.
Kenji's fried chicken with wasabi mayo, the pork belly with miso and eggplant and the agedashi tofu are all standouts and match perfectly with a beer or two. Want something a little lighter? Try one of sushi hand rolls or a few freshly shucked oysters. The sake list is impressive, with something for every taste and did we mention the whisky? They have over 60 types just from Japan alone...
, PYRMONT You can spend all the money in the world and still not buy class — in fact, a few spots in the Star Casino complex give off that exact vibe. But nestled in behind a very discrete entrance is Sokyo, an elegant, delicious and, yes, classy spot for a meal. The sashimi is uniformly fresh and delicious, Maguro Tataki is a must-order — the presentation with edible flowers, smoked ponzu and blush-coloured fat slices of fish is just perfect. The baby capsicum tempura poppers and grilled lamb served with a miso and eggplant puree showcase Japanese fusion at its best.
Service is discrete but friendly, the wine list is excellent. Sokyo isn't cheap but it's a class act through and through. SUSHI ON STANLEY, DARLINGHURST On the other end of the price scale is this gem, tucked away in an area of Darlinghurst more known for Italian cuisine. Fine dining it ain't, but the food here is damn fine and unbeatable value. The sushi and sashimi is all fresh and the huge menu has almost every bento box combination you could think of — like a huge meal of tempura, teriyaki chicken, rice, miso and salad for under $15.
Menu items like the udon noodle soups or spicy salmon salad are excellent if you're after something lighter and the walls are always coated in handwritten market-price specials. Want more? It's also BYO for beer and wine. , SURRY HILLS Go early, because Toko in Surry Hills is popular, but doesn't take bookings. There is however an excellent bar you can grab a cocktail at while you wait for a table.
Famous for its first rate sushi bar, robata grill and considered wine list, Toko does incredible things with Australian seafood and packs a punch in the carnivore stakes as well with some of the best wagyu sirloin we've had in Sydney. Our menu picks include the grilled scallops, duck breast with pickled nashi pear and the spicy salmon roll.
Desserts aren't an afterthought here — try the yuzu cheesecake for a sweet slap of citrus. Alternatively there are a couple of decent value chef's tasting menus which might get you eating a few amazing things you wouldn't have otherwise considered.
, THE ROCKS One bite of the kingfish jalapeno with yuzu soy and you'll understand why this is the signature dish of this excellent fine dining modern Japanese restaurant. The salty sweet slivers of fish are given a chilli kick that never overpowers — only compliments. Sake's original outpost (there are now others in Double Bay, Brisbane and Melbourne) is set into a heritage listed building in the tourist haven that is The Rocks.
The miso-caramelised toothfish, wagyu brisket and the sashimi tacos are all excellent — in fact Sake's only real downside is you'll run out of stomach space well before you run out of things you'll want to order. , SURRY HILLS Presentation in this ultra-modern Japanese Surry Hills space is everything — and it's no surprise really as head chef Kerby Craig trained as an apprentice at . The restaurant has had a refresh of late and is now much more casual, focusing on Japanese bar food and burgers.
Be sure to try the fried prawn katsu burger — but there are vego and gluten free options available. Top image: Nikki To/Cho Cho San. Published on June 04, 2018 by Sushi Yachiyo, for it's freshness, variety and technical precision is pretty impressive.
And, the guys there are great to see for any occasion. Had some sushi at busshari a couple of weeks ago, and it wasnt great...good... but not great. Really missing Tsukasa from crown street... they were sensational, but I think my new favourite is Yachiyo... :)
best japanese date sydney western - The best Japanese restaurants in Sydney
Hotel description Property Location With a stay at Best Western Haven Glebe in Glebe, you'll be in the suburbs, within a 10-minute walk of Sze Yup Temple and Blackwattle Bay Park. This 4.5-star motel is 0.6 mi (0.9 km) from Glebe Markets and 1.6 mi (2.5 km) from Sydney Fish Market.Rooms Make yourself at home in one of the 57 air-conditioned rooms featuring refrigerators and flat-screen televisions.
Complimentary wireless Internet access keeps you connected, and digital programming is available for your entertainment. Private bathrooms with showers feature complimentary toiletries and hair dryers. Conveniences include phones, as well as safes and desks.Amenities Take advantage of recreation opportunities such as a fitness center, or other amenities including complimentary wireless Internet access and tour/ticket assistance.Dining Take advantage of the motel's room service (during limited hours).Business, Other Amenities Featured amenities include a computer station, express check-out, and dry cleaning/laundry services.
Self parking (subject to charges) is available onsite. Room description Rooms are reasonable in size, and furnishings are modern, basic and clean. Well-maintained bathrooms. Good value for money. Hotel location Located in the inner city suburb of Glebe, which is a 5 to 10 minute walk to Sydney University and the University of Technology Sydney (UTS).
The area is also considered one of Sydney's best dining precincts and is vibrant on weekends when Sydney-siders descend on the local Glebe flea markets. A 5 minute drive or 20 minute walk in to the Sydney Central Business District. Public transport is at your doorstep, allowing easy access to all of Sydney's major attractions such as the Opera House, Circular Quay, The Rocks, Darling Harbour, Star City, Chinatown and the Capitol Theatre. The Glebe light rail station is walking distance, providing easy access to the ICC Sydney (International Convention Centre).
Additional description Located adjacent to the courtyard, the Oasis Restaurant is a delightful space to enjoy a continental buffet breakfast. Traditional medium-rise building with a car park. There is a medium sized lobby that is air conditioned and brightly lit. How to get to the hotel From Sydney Airport: Take Train T2 Airport Line towards Circular Quay, get off at Central Station, then Take Bus 431 or 433 towards Glebe, get off at Glebe Point Rd Near Wigram Rd From Central / Town Hall: Take Bus 431 or 433 towards Glebe, get off at Glebe Point Rd Near Wigram Rd.
This article is about the Australian metropolis. For the local government area, see . For other uses, see . Sydney ( ( )) is the of and the in and . Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds and about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the to the , to the north, and to the . Sydney is made up of 658 , 40 and 15 contiguous . Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,131,326. Sydney : Population 5,131,326 (2017) () • Density 415/km 2 (1,070/sq mi) (2017) Established 1788 Area 12,367.7 km 2 (4,775.2 sq mi)(GCCSA) () • Summer () () Location • 877 km (545 mi) NE of • 923 km (574 mi) S of • 287 km (178 mi) NE of • 3,936 km (2,446 mi) E of • 1,404 km (872 mi) E of (31) (49) (24) Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall 22.5 °C 73 °F 14.5 °C 58 °F 1,222.7 mm 48.1 in Footnotes Coordinates: have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, and it remains one of the richest in Australia in terms of , with thousands of located throughout the region.
In 1770, during his in , Lieutenant , after leaving , saw the entrance to Port Jackson, but sailed past and did not enter the inlet. In 1788, the of , led by , were the first recorded Europeans to sail into Port Jackson.
Here they founded Sydney as a British , the first . Phillip named the city "Sydney" in recognition of . Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A occurred in the colony in 1851, and over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After , it experienced and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world.
At the time of the , more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney and about 40 percent of residents spoke a at home. Furthermore, 36% of the population reported having been . Despite being one of the most in the world, the 2018 ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of , making it one of the . It is classified as an Alpha by , indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced with strengths in finance, manufacturing and . There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of 's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is also home to the oldest library in Australia, , opened in 1826.
Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the . The city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks.
Boasting over 1,000,000 ha (2,500,000 acres) of , its notable natural features include , the , and , the oldest parkland in the country. Built attractions such as the and the -listed are also well known to international visitors.
The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is , one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, , the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the . featuring kangaroos in . The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia.
suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought.
The between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the clan.
He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain.
Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans. The earliest British settlers called the natives people.
"Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". from to was inhabited by the clan. The principal language groups were , , and . The earliest to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.
Establishment of the colony The Founding of Australia, 26 January 1788, by Captain Arthur Phillip R.N. Sydney Cove. —before that, —and had for a long time been sending their across the Atlantic to the .
That trade was ended with the by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier. Captain Philip led the First Fleet of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of fresh water.
He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. This was to be the location for the new colony. Phillip described as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".
The colony was at first to be titled "New Albion" (after , another name for ), but Phillip decided on "Sydney". The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788. Lieutenant William Dawes produced a town plan in 1790 but it was ignored by the colony's leaders. Sydney's layout today reflects this lack of planning. Between 1788 and 1792, 3,546 male and 766 female convicts were landed at Sydney—many "professional criminals" with few of the skills required for the establishment of a colony.
The food situation reached point in 1790. Early efforts at agriculture were fraught and supplies from overseas were scarce. From 1791 on, however, the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of trade lessened the feeling of isolation and improved supplies.
The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging. Phillip sent exploratory missions in search of better soils and fixed on the region as a promising area for expansion and moved many of the convicts from late 1788 to establish a small township, which became the main centre of the colony's economic life, leaving Sydney Cove only as an important port and focus of social life.
Poor equipment and unfamiliar soils and climate continued to hamper the expansion of farming from Farm Cove to Parramatta and , but a building programme, assisted by convict labour, advanced steadily. Convict artist 's A Northward View of Sydney Cove, 1794 Officers and convicts alike faced starvation as supplies ran low and little could be cultivated from the land. The region's indigenous population was also suffering.
It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the epidemic of 1789. Enlightened for his age, Phillip's personal intent was to establish harmonious relations with local Aboriginal people and try to reform as well as discipline the convicts of the colony. Phillip and several of his officers—most notably —left behind journals and accounts of which tell of immense hardships during the first years of settlement. Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens.
Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares. was opened in 1811, which is one of Sydney's oldest roads and Australia's first between two cities – and .
Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation. Between 1788 and 1792, convicts and their jailers made up the majority of the population; in one generation, however, a population of emancipated convicts who could be granted land began to grow.
These people pioneered Sydney's private sector economy and were later joined by soldiers whose military service had expired, and later still by free settlers who began arriving from Britain.
Governor Phillip departed the colony for England on 11 December 1792, with the new settlement having survived near starvation and immense isolation for four years. Conflicts of 1804 Between 1790 and 1816, Sydney became one of the many sites of the , a series of conflicts between the and the resisting Indigenous clans. In 1790, when the British established farms along the , an Aboriginal leader resisted the Europeans by waging a -style warfare on the settlers in a series of wars known as the which took place in western Sydney.
He raided farms until Governor Macquarie dispatched troops from the in 1816 and ended the conflict by killing 14 Indigenous Australians in a raid on their campsite. In 1804, Irish convicts led the , a by against colonial authority in the area of the of . The first and only major convict uprising in Australian history suppressed under , the rebellion ended in a battle fought between convicts and the at .
The of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in , where the of New South Wales, , was ousted by the under the command of , who led the rebellion.
Conflicts arose between the and the officers of the Rum Corps, many of which were land owners such as . Modern development 19th century Aerial illustration of Sydney, 1888 Early Sydney was molded by the hardship suffered by early settlers. In the early years, and disease caused widespread problems, but the situation soon improved.
The military colonial government was reliant on the army, the . Macquarie served as the last autocratic , from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social and economic development of Sydney which saw it transition from a to a budding free society.
He established public works, a , churches, and charitable institutions and sought good relations with the Aborigines. Over the course of the 19th-century Sydney established many of its major cultural institutions.
Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for Sydney included the construction of grand public buildings and institutions fit for a colonial capital. began to take shape as a ceremonial thoroughfare of grand buildings. The year 1840 was the final year of convict transportation to Sydney, which by this time had a population of 35,000.
Gold was discovered in the colony in 1851 and with it came thousands of people seeking to make money. Sydney's population reached 200,000 by 1871. Demand for infrastructure to support the growing population and subsequent economic activity led to massive improvements to the city's railway and systems throughout the 1850s and 1860s.
After a period of rapid growth, further discoveries of gold in began drawing new residents away from Sydney towards in the 1850s, which created a strong that still exists to this day. Nevertheless, Sydney exceeded 's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city. Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies .
Sydney's beaches had become popular seaside holiday resorts, but daylight was considered indecent until the early 20th century. 20th century–present Sydney Harbour in 1932 Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901.
Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales. The of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world. For much of the 1930s up to one in three breadwinners was unemployed. Construction of the served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932. The population continued to boom despite the Depression, having reached 1 million in 1925.
When Britain declared on Germany in 1939, Australia too entered. During the war Sydney experienced a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a wartime economy. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sydney's harbour was attacked by the Japanese in May and June 1942 with a with some loss of life.
Households throughout the city had built air raid shelters and performed drills. Sydney saw a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a war economy, and also the elimination of unemployment. Labour shortages forced the government to accept women in more active roles in war work. , ca. 1945 Consequently, Sydney experienced population growth and increased cultural diversification throughout the post-war period.
The people of Sydney warmly welcomed in 1954 when the reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her . Having arrived on the through Sydney Heads, Her Majesty came ashore at Farm Cove. There were 1.7 million people living in Sydney at 1950 and almost 3 million by 1975. The Australian government launched a large scale multicultural immigration program.
New industries such as information technology, education, financial services and the arts have risen. Sydney's iconic Opera House was opened in 1973 by Her Majesty. A new skyline of concrete and steel swept away much of the old lowrise and often sandstone skyline of the city in the 1960s and 1970s, with being the tallest building in Sydney from its completion in 1967 until 1976 and is also notable for being the first skyscraper in Australia.
This prolific growth of contemporary high-rise architecture was put in check by heritage laws in the 1990s onwards, which prevent demolition of any structure deemed historically significant. Since the 1970s Sydney has undergone a rapid economic and social transformation.
As a result, the city has become a cosmopolitan . To relieve congestion on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the opened in August 1992. The were held in Sydney and became known as the "best Olympic Games ever" by the President of the .
Sydney has maintained extensive political, economic and cultural influence over Australia as well as international renown in recent decades. Following the Olympics, the city hosted the , the and Catholic 2008, led by . Sydney lies on a where the ocean level has risen to flood deep . Sydney is a coastal basin with the to the east, the to the west, the to the north, and the to the south.
The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size. Sydney spans two geographic regions. The lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys.
The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated. can be found along its coastline with Bondi Beach being one of the most famous. The wraps around the western edge of the city and becomes the Hawkesbury River before reaching .
Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. The is mostly industrial and drains a large area of Sydney's western suburbs into Port Jackson. The southern parts of the city are drained by the and the into Botany Bay.
Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney are . Geology Sydney is made up of mostly Triassic rock with some recent dykes and necks. The was formed when the Earth's crust expanded, subsided, and filled with sediment in the early Triassic period.
The sand that was to become the sandstone of today was washed there by rivers from the south and northwest, and laid down between 360 and 200 million years ago. The sandstone has lenses and fossil riverbeds. The bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries. Deep river valleys known as were carved during the period in the of the coastal region where Sydney now lies. The rising sea level between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago flooded the rias to form estuaries and deep harbours.
, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria. Ecology A dry sclerophyll in Sydney with eucalyptus trees ( , ) The most prevalent in the Sydney region are which consist of trees, , , sclerophyll shrubs (typically and ) and a semi-continuous grass in the , mainly in an open woodland setting.
These plants tend to have rough and spiky leaves, as they're grown in areas with low . Wet sclerophyll forests are found in the damp, elevated areas of Sydney, such as in the .
They are defined by straight, tall tree with an elaborate, moist understorey of soft-leaved shrubs, and herbs. Sydney is home to dozens of species, which commonly include the , , , and the , among others. bird species ubiquitously found in Sydney are the , , and the . species are also numerous and predominantly include . Sydney has a few and species, such as the and the , respectively.
Climate A summer thunderstorm over the city taken from , 1991. Under the classification, Sydney has a ( Cfa) with warm summers, cool winters and uniform rainfall throughout the year. At Sydney's primary weather station at , extreme temperatures have ranged from 45.8 °C (114.4 °F) on 18 to 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) on 22 June 1932. An average of 14.9 days a year have temperatures at or above 30 °C (86 °F) in the central business district (CBD). In contrast, the metropolitan area averages between 35 and 65 days, depending on the suburb.
The highest minimum temperature recorded at Observatory Hill is 27.6 °C (82 °F), in February 2011 while the lowest maximum temperature is 7.7 °C (46 °F), recorded in July 1868. The weather is by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. Sydney experiences an effect.
This makes certain parts of the city more vulnerable to extreme heat, including coastal suburbs. In late spring and summer, temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are not uncommon, though hot, dry conditions are usually ended by a . This powerful storm brings winds and rapid fall in temperature, followed by brief heavy rain and . The far-western suburbs, which border the , experience a -like wind in the warm months that originates from the .
Due to the inland location, at night is recorded in a few times in winter. Autumn and spring are the transitional seasons, with spring showing a larger temperature variation than autumn. over Sydney CBD with the in background (September 2009).
The rainfall has a moderate to low variability and it is spread through the months, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year. From 1990–1999, Sydney received around 20 per year. In late autumn and winter, may bring large amounts of rainfall, especially in the CBD. In spring and summer, are usually the cause of heavy rain events. Depending on the , summer weather may be humid or dry, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity and than late spring/early summer.
In summer, most rain falls from thunderstorms and in winter from . Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836, while a fall of , or soft hail, mistaken by many for snow, in July 2008, has raised the possibility that the 1836 event was not snow, either. The city is rarely affected by , although remnants of do affect the city. The plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: and on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation.
Many areas of the city bordering have experienced bushfires, these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The city is also prone to severe . One such storm was the , which produced massive hailstones up to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. The has reported that 2002 to 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859.
The summer of 2007–08, however, proved to be the coolest since 1996–97 and is the only summer this century to be at or below average in temperatures. In 2009, dry conditions brought a severe . The average annual temperature of the sea ranges from 18.5 °C (65.3 °F) in September to 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) in February. Climate data for Sydney () Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 45.8 (114.4) 42.1 (107.8) 39.8 (103.6) 35.4 (95.7) 30.0 (86) 26.9 (80.4) 26.5 (79.7) 31.3 (88.3) 34.6 (94.3) 38.2 (100.8) 41.8 (107.2) 42.2 (108) 45.8 (114.4) Average high °C (°F) 26.5 (79.7) 26.5 (79.7) 25.4 (77.7) 23.3 (73.9) 20.6 (69.1) 18.0 (64.4) 17.4 (63.3) 18.9 (66) 21.2 (70.2) 22.8 (73) 23.8 (74.8) 25.5 (77.9) 22.5 (72.5) Daily mean °C (°F) 23.0 (73.4) 23.1 (73.6) 21.7 (71.1) 20.7 (69.3) 16.5 (61.7) 13.9 (57) 13.0 (55.4) 14.3 (57.7) 16.6 (61.9) 18.6 (65.5) 20.0 (68) 21.9 (71.4) 18.5 (65.3) Average low °C (°F) 19.6 (67.3) 19.7 (67.5) 18.1 (64.6) 15.3 (59.5) 12.5 (54.5) 9.8 (49.6) 8.7 (47.7) 9.7 (49.5) 12.0 (53.6) 14.4 (57.9) 16.3 (61.3) 18.3 (64.9) 14.5 (58.1) Record low °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 9.6 (49.3) 9.3 (48.7) 7.0 (44.6) 4.4 (39.9) 2.1 (35.8) 2.2 (36) 2.7 (36.9) 4.9 (40.8) 5.7 (42.3) 7.7 (45.9) 9.1 (48.4) 2.1 (35.8) Average rainfall mm (inches) 96.0 (3.78) 136.6 (5.38) 109.4 (4.31) 137.0 (5.39) 117.6 (4.63) 117.8 (4.64) 80.8 (3.18) 91.8 (3.61) 69.2 (2.72) 82.2 (3.24) 104.8 (4.13) 79.4 (3.13) 1,222.7 (48.14) Average rainy days 12.3 12.9 13.3 11.1 12.2 10.5 10.2 8.4 8.8 11.1 12.7 11.2 134.7 Average afternoon (%) 61 62 60 59 58 56 52 48 50 53 57 58 56 Mean monthly 235.6 202.4 213.9 207.0 195.3 177.0 204.6 244.9 237.0 244.9 228.0 244.9 2,635.5 Percent 53 54 56 61 59 60 65 72 66 61 55 55 60 Source #1: (1981–2010 averages, records 1861–) Source #2: , (sunshine hours) View of Sydney from the The regions of Sydney include the CBD or (colloquially referred to as 'the City') and , the , , (including the South-west), and the (including the North-west).
The divides Sydney into five districts based on the 33 LGAs in the metropolitan area; the Western City, the Central City, the Eastern City, the North District, and the South District. Inner suburbs , spanning Johnstons Bay, links western suburbs to the CBD. The CBD extends about 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) south from Sydney Cove. It is bordered by Farm Cove within the Royal Botanic Garden to the east and to the west.
Suburbs surrounding the CBD include and to the east, and to the south, and to the west, and and to the north. Most of these suburbs measure less than 1 square kilometre (0.4 square miles) in area. The Sydney CBD is characterised by considerably narrow streets and thoroughfares, created in its convict beginnings in the 18th century.
Several localities, distinct from suburbs, exist throughout Sydney's inner reaches. and are transport hubs with ferry, rail, and bus interchanges.
, Darling Harbour, and are important locations for culture, tourism, and recreation. , which is located between and , is a historical shopping . Opened on 1 April 1892, its shop fronts are an exact replica of the original internal shopping facades. , located beneath the Sydney Tower, is the largest shopping centre by area in Sydney. There is a long trend of amongst Sydney's inner suburbs. Pyrmont located on the harbour was redeveloped from a centre of shipping and international trade to an area of , tourist accommodation, and gambling.
Originally located well outside of the city, Darlinghurst is the location of a former , manufacturing, and mixed housing. It had a period when it was known as an area of . The terrace style housing has largely been retained and Darlinghurst has undergone significant gentrification since the 1980s.
is a former industrial area of which is undergoing urban renewal worth $8 billion. On the city harbour edge the historic suburb and wharves of Millers Point are being built up as the new area of . The enforced rehousing of local residents due to the Millers Point/Barangaroo development has caused significant controversy despite the $6 billion worth of economic activity it is expected to generate. The suburb of is a well known suburb for its streets of restored , , and shopping including the weekly Oxford Street markets.
Inner West in is one of the most complete and commercial precincts in Australia. The Inner West generally includes the , , , and . These span up to about 11 km west of the CBD. Suburbs in the Inner West have historically housed working class industrial workers, but have undergone gentrification over the 20th century. The region now mainly features medium- and high-density housing.
Major features in the area include the and the Parramatta River, as well as a large cosmopolitan community. The Anzac Bridge spans Johnstons Bay and connects to and the City, forming part of the . The area is serviced by the , , and railway lines, including the ; which is the first to be constructed in New South Wales. Railway Station is a secondary railway hub within Sydney, and major station on the Suburban and lines. It was constructed in 1876, and will be a future terminus of . The area is also serviced by numerous bus routes and cycleways.
Other shopping centres in the area include and in . Eastern suburbs . The Eastern Suburbs encompass the , the , the , and parts of the . The Greater Sydney Commission envisions a resident population of 1,338,250 people by 2036 in its Eastern City District (including the City and Inner West). They include some of the most affluent and advantaged areas in the country, with some streets being amongst the most expensive in the world.
Wolseley Road, in Point Piper, has a top price of $20,900 per square metre, making it the ninth-most expensive street in the world. More than 75% of neighbourhoods in the fall under the top decile of SEIFA advantage, making it the least disadvantaged area in the country.
Major landmarks include , a major tourist site; which was added to the in 2008; and , featuring a and an estimated office work force of 6,400 by 2035, as well as a on the . The suburb of contains the , the , the , , and the . Randwick's 'Collaboration Area' has a baseline estimate of 32,000 jobs by 2036, according to the Greater Sydney Commission.
Construction is underway for the . Although main construction was due to complete in 2018, completion has potentially been delayed to March 2020. The project aims to provide reliable and high-capacity tram services to residents in the City and South-East. Major shopping centres in the area include and , although many residents shop in the City. Southern Sydney with the Sydney skyline in background. Southern Sydney includes the suburbs in the of former , Georges River Council (collectively known as the area), and broadly it also includes the suburbs in the of , south of the (colloquially known as 'The Shire').
The , near , is the site of the first landfall on the eastern coastline made by Lt. (later Captain) James Cook in 1770. , a historic suburb named after the French navigator (1741–88), is notable for its old military outpost at and the . The suburb of in is close to , Australia's oldest national park. Hurstville, a large suburb with a multitude of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings dominating the skyline, has become a CBD for the southern suburbs.
Northern suburbs , a series of which form the 2 km (1.2 mi) wide entrance to Sydney Harbour. Because '' is not a clearly defined region, 'Northern Suburbs' may also include the suburbs in the , and the .
The Northern Suburbs include several landmarks – , , , and Curzon Hall in . This area includes suburbs in the of , , the and parts of the . The , an informal geographic term referring to the northern metropolitan area of Sydney, consists of , , , , , , , and many others. The North Shore, an area, has one of the highest property prices in Sydney with the recent property price inflation sending the average property prices in suburbs such as , , and over 2 million dollars.
The Lower North Shore usually refers to the suburbs adjacent to the harbour such as , , , , , , , , , and North Sydney. and are often also considered as being part of the . The Lower North Shore's eastern boundary is , or at the at and . The Upper North Shore usually refers to the suburbs between and .
It is made up of suburbs located within and councils. The North Shore includes the commercial centres of and Chatswood. North Sydney itself consists of a large commercial centre, with its own business centre, which contains the second largest concentration of high-rise buildings in Sydney, after the CBD.
North Sydney is dominated by advertising, marketing businesses and associated trades, with many large corporations holding office in the region. The Northern Beaches area includes , one of Sydney's most popular holiday destinations for much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The Northern Beaches area extends south to the entrance of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), west to and north to the entrance of . The 2011 Australian census found the Northern Beaches to be the most and district in Australia, contrasting with its more-diverse neighbours, the North Shore and the .
Hills district The generally refers to the suburbs in north-western Sydney including the local government areas of , parts of the and .
Actual suburbs and localities that are considered to be in the Hills District can be somewhat amorphous and variable. For example, the Hills District Historical Society restricts its definition to the Hills Shire local government area, yet its study area extends from Parramatta to the Hawkesbury. The region is so named for its characteristically comparatively hilly topography as the Cumberland Plain lifts up, joining the Hornsby Plateau. Several of its suburbs also have 'Hills' in their names, such as , , , , , and , among others.
and are historic roads in Australia, as they are the second and third roads, respectively, laid in the colony. Western suburbs An aerial view of : (bottom) to (top-right). The greater western suburbs encompasses the areas of , the sixth largest business district in Australia, settled the same year as the harbour-side colony, , Liverpool, , and . Covering 5,800 square kilometres (2,200 sq mi) and having an estimated resident population as at 30 June 2008 of 1,665,673, western Sydney has the most in the country.
The population is predominantly of a background, with major employment in the and trade. The western suburb of , in the , is home to , a operated by . , a botanical garden situated in , attracts thousands of visitors each year, including a significant number from outside Australia. Another prominent park and garden in the west is in .
The greater west also includes , a suburb created to host the 2000 Summer Olympics, and , a located in . The in is a 19th-century water bridge that is listed on the as a site of State significance.
To the northwest, , an Australian zoo in , near , is a major , not just for Western Sydney, but for NSW and Australia. in Parramatta is Australia's busiest Westfield shopping centre, having 28.7 million customer visits per annum. Established in 1799, the , a and in Parramatta, was included in the on 1 August 2007 and in 2010 (as part of the 11 penal sites constituting the ), making it the only site in greater western Sydney to be featured in such lists.
Moreover, the house is Australia's oldest surviving public building. , a historically significant ridge in the west, is also listed on the NSW State Heritage Register. Further to the southwest is the region of Macarthur and the city of , a significant population centre until the 1990s considered a region separate to Sydney proper.
, a shopping complex in Campbelltown, become one of the largest shopping complexes in Sydney. The southwest also features , the oldest elevated reservoir constructed in that is still in use and is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register.
The southwest is home to one of Sydney's oldest trees, the , which was planted in the 1840s by in the suburb of . , demolished in the 1970s, was one of Sydney's tallest buildings until height restrictions were lifted in the 1960s. The earliest structures in the colony were built to the bare minimum of standards. Upon his appointment, Governor Lachlan Macquarie set ambitious targets for the architectural design of new construction projects. The city now has a world heritage listed building, several national heritage listed buildings, and dozens of Commonwealth heritage listed buildings as evidence of the survival of Macquarie's ideals.
In 1814 the Governor called on a convict named to design . The lighthouse and its design earned Greenway a pardon from Macquarie in 1818 and introduced a culture of refined architecture that remains to this day. Greenway went on to design the in 1819 and the style in 1824. became more popular from the 1830s. 's and of 1856 were built in style along with 's of 1845.
Kirribilli House, completed in 1858, and St Andrew's Cathedral, Australia's oldest cathedral, are rare examples of construction. From the late 1850s there was a shift towards Classical architecture. designed the in 1857.
The , completed in 1891 in style, was designed by . Barnet also oversaw the 1883 reconstruction of Greenway's Macquarie Lighthouse. was built in 1844 to the specifications of Lewis, with additions from Barnet in 1887 and W L Vernon in 1899. The neo-Classical and style was completed in 1889.
designs gained favour amongst Sydney's architects from the early 1890s. was completed in 1893 using both Romanesque Revival and approaches.
The was designed in Romanesque Revival fashion by and completed in 1898. It was built on the site of the Sydney Central Markets and accommodates 200 shops across its three storeys.
Many of Sydney's oldest buildings were built with materials sourced from . As the wealth of the settlement increased, and as Sydney developed into a metropolis after Federation in 1901, its buildings became taller.
Sydney's first tower was Culwulla Chambers on the corner of King Street and Castlereagh Street which topped out at 50 metres (160 feet) making 12 floors. The Commercial Traveller's Club, located in Martin Place and built in 1908, was of similar height at 10 floors. It was built in a brick stone veneer and demolished in 1972 to make way for Harry Seidler's MLC Centre. This heralded a change in Sydney's cityscape and with the lifting of height restrictions in the 1960s there came a surge of high-rise construction.
Acclaimed architects such as , , , , , and have each made their own contribution to the city's skyline. The Great Depression had a tangible influence on Sydney's architecture. New structures became more restrained with far less ornamentation than was common before the 1930s. The most notable architectural feat of this period is the Harbour Bridge. Its steel arch was designed by and completed in 1932. A total of 39,000 tonnes of structural steel span the 503 metres (1,650 feet) between Milsons Point and .
The atrium of , an example of Sydney's contemporary architecture and came to Sydney from the 1940s. Since its completion in 1973 the city's Opera House has become a World Heritage Site and one of the world's most renowned pieces of Modern design.
It was conceived by with contributions from Peter Hall, Lionel Todd, and David Littlemore. Utzon was awarded the in 2003 for his work on the Opera House. Sydney is home to Australia's first building by renowned Canadian architect , the (2015), based on the design of a . An entrance from –a pedestrian pathway and former railway line–is located on the eastern border of the site.
Contemporary buildings in the CBD include , , , the building, , , and . The tallest structure is , designed by Donald Crone and completed in 1981. Regulations limit new buildings to a height of 235 metres (771 feet) due to the proximity of , although strict restrictions employed in the early 2000s have slowly been relaxed in the past ten years.
and have been in place since at least 1977 to protect Sydney's heritage after controversial demolitions in the 1970s led to an outcry from Sydneysiders to preserve the old and keep history intact, sufficiently balancing old and new architecture. Housing in . Sydney real estate prices are some of the most expensive in the world, surpassing both New York City and Paris. There were 1.76 million dwellings in Sydney in 2016 including 925,000 (57%) detached houses, 227,000 (14%) semi-detached terrace houses and 456,000 (28%) units and apartments.
Whilst are common in the inner city areas, it is detached houses that dominate the landscape in the outer suburbs. Due to environmental and economic pressures there has been a noted trend towards denser housing. There was a 30% increase in the number of apartments in Sydney between 1996 and 2006. Public housing in Sydney is managed by the . Suburbs with large concentrations of public housing include , , , and . The Government has announced plans to sell nearly 300 historic public housing properties in the harbourside neighbourhoods of Millers Point, Gloucester Street, and The Rocks.
Sydney is one of the most expensive real estate markets globally. It is only second to Hong Kong with the average property costing 14 times the annual Sydney salary as of December 2016. A range of heritage housing styles can be found throughout Sydney.
Terrace houses are found in the inner suburbs such as Paddington, The Rocks, Potts Point and Balmain–many of which have been the subject of . These terraces, particularly those in suburbs such as The Rocks, were historically home to Sydney's miners and labourers. In the present day, terrace houses now make up some of the most valuable real estate in the city.
homes, constructed around the time of Federation in 1901, are located in , , and in . Haberfield is known as "The Federation Suburb" due to the extensive number of Federation homes. Workers cottages are found in Surry Hills, , and Balmain. are common in , , and . Modern, ''-type of homes are predominantly found in the outer suburbs, such as in, , and to the northwest, .
and to the greater west, and , and to the southwest. Parks and open spaces in Hyde Park. The fan of water jets represent the rising of the sun. The is the most important green space in the Sydney region, hosting both scientific and leisure activities. There are 15 separate parks under the administration of the City of Sydney. Parks within the city centre include , and Prince Alfred Park.
The outer suburbs include and in the east, and in the south, in the north, and in the west, which is in the world. The Royal National Park was proclaimed on 26 April 1879 and with 13,200 hectares (51 square miles) is the second oldest national park in the world.
The largest park in the Sydney metropolitan area is Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, established in 1894 with an area of 15,400 hectares (59 square miles). It is regarded for its well-preserved records of indigenous habitation and more than 800 rock engravings, cave drawings and middens have been located in the park. , which is the oldest in Australia. The area now known as The Domain was set aside by Governor Arthur Phillip in 1788 as his private reserve. Under the orders of Macquarie the land to the immediate north of The Domain became the Royal Botanic Garden in 1816.
This makes them the oldest botanic garden in Australia. The Gardens are not just a place for exploration and relaxation, but also for scientific research with herbarium collections, a library and laboratories. The two parks have a total area of 64 hectares (0.2 square miles) with 8,900 individual plant species and receive over 3.5 million annual visits. To the south of The Domain is Hyde Park, the oldest public parkland in Australia which measures 16.2 hectares (0.1 square miles) in area.
Its location was used for both relaxation and the of animals from the earliest days of the colony. Macquarie dedicated it in 1810 for the "recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of the town" and named it in honour of the original in . About 3 km (1.9 mi) long, is Sydney's busiest street. Researchers from have ranked Sydney amongst the top ten world cities that are highly integrated into the global economy.
The Global Economic Power Index ranks Sydney number eleven in the world. The Global Cities Index recognises it as number fourteen in the world based on global engagement. The prevailing economic theory in effect during early colonial days was , as it was throughout most of .
The economy struggled at first due to difficulties in cultivating the land and the lack of a stable monetary system. Governor Lachlan Macquarie solved the second problem by creating from every in circulation. The economy was clearly in nature by the 1840s as the proportion of free settlers increased, the maritime and wool industries flourished, and the powers of the were curtailed. Central business district of Sydney at night from Wheat, gold, and other minerals became additional export industries towards the end of the 1800s.
Significant capital began to flow into the city from the 1870s to finance roads, railways, bridges, docks, courthouses, schools and hospitals. policies after allowed for the creation of a manufacturing industry which became the city's largest employer by the 1920s. These same policies helped to relieve the effects of the Great Depression during which the unemployment rate in New South Wales reached as high as 32%.
From the 1960s onwards Parramatta gained recognition as the city's second CBD and finance and tourism became major industries and sources of employment. Sydney's nominal gross domestic product was AU$400.9 billion and AU$80,000 per capita in 2015.
Its gross domestic product was AU$337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia. The Financial and Insurance Services industry accounts for 18.1% of gross product and is ahead of Professional Services with 9% and Manufacturing with 7.2%. In addition to Financial Services and Tourism, the Creative and Technology sectors are focus industries for the City of Sydney and represented 9% and 11% of its economic output in 2012.
Corporate citizens There were 451,000 businesses based in Sydney in 2011, including 48% of the top 500 companies in Australia and two-thirds of the regional headquarters of multinational corporations. Global companies are attracted to the city in part because its time zone spans the closing of business in North America and the opening of business in Europe.
Most foreign companies in Sydney maintain significant sales and service functions but comparably less production, research, and development capabilities.
There are 283 multinational companies with regional offices in Sydney. Domestic economics , a major street in Sydney CBD, runs from in the north to in the south. Sydney has been ranked between the fifteenth and the fifth most expensive city in the world and is the most expensive city in Australia. To compensate, workers receive the seventh highest wage levels of any city in the world. Sydney's residents possess the highest purchasing power of any city after .
Working residents of Sydney work an average of 1,846 hours per annum with 15 days of leave. The labour force of Greater Sydney Region in 2016 was 2,272,722 with a participation rate of 61.6%.
It was made up of 61.2% full-time workers, 30.9% part-time workers, and 6.0% unemployed individuals. The largest reported occupations are professionals, clerical and administrative workers, managers, technicians and trades workers, and community and personal service workers.
The largest industries by employment across Greater Sydney are Health Care and Social Assistance with 11.6%, Professional Services with 9.8%, Retail Trade with 9.3%, Construction with 8.2%, Education and Training with 8.0%, Accommodation and Food Services 6.7%, and Financial and Insurance Services with 6.6%. The Professional Services and Financial and Insurance Services industries account for 25.4% of employment within the City of Sydney.
In 2016, 57.6% of working age residents had a total weekly income of less than $1,000 and 14.4% had a total weekly income of $1,750 or more. The median weekly income for the same period was $719 for individuals, $1,988 for families, and $1,750 for household. Unemployment in the City of Sydney averaged 4.6% for the decade to 2013, much lower than the current rate of unemployment in Western Sydney of 7.3%.
Western Sydney continues to struggle to create jobs to meet its population growth despite the development of commercial centres like Parramatta. Each day about 200,000 commuters travel from Western Sydney to the CBD and suburbs in the east and north of the city. Home ownership in Sydney was less common than renting prior to the Second World War but this trend has since reversed. Median house prices have increased by an average of 8.6% per annum since 1970.
The median house price in Sydney in March 2014 was $630,000. The primary cause for rising prices is the increasing cost of land which made up 32% of house prices in 1977 compared to 60% in 2002. 31.6% of dwellings in Sydney are rented, 30.4% are owned outright and 34.8% are owned with a mortgage.
11.8% of mortgagees in 2011 had monthly loan repayments of less than $1,000 and 82.9% had monthly repayments of $1,000 or more. 44.9% of renters for the same period had weekly rent of less than $350 whilst 51.7% had weekly rent of $350 or more.
The median weekly rent in Sydney is $450. Financial services , Martin Place Macquarie gave a charter in 1817 to form the first bank in Australia, the . New private banks opened throughout the 1800s but the financial system was unstable. Bank collapses were a frequent occurrence and a crisis point was reached in 1893 when 12 banks failed. The Bank of New South Wales exists to this day as . The Commonwealth Bank of Australia was formed in Sydney in 1911 and began to issue notes backed by the resources of the nation.
It was replaced in this role in 1959 by the which is also based in Sydney. The began operating in 1987 and with a market capitalisation of $1.6 trillion is now one of the ten largest exchanges in the world. The Financial and Insurance Services industry now constitutes 43% of the economic product of the City of Sydney.
Sydney makes up half of Australia's finance sector and has been promoted by consecutive Commonwealth Governments as 's leading financial centre. was pioneered in Sydney and the city is a leading hub for firms. In the 2017 , Sydney was ranked as having the eighth most competitive financial center in the world. In 1985 the Federal Government granted 16 banking licences to foreign banks and now 40 of the 43 foreign banks operating in Australia are based in Sydney, including the , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
Manufacturing Sydney has been a manufacturing city since the protectionist policies of the 1920s. By 1961 the industry accounted for 39% of all employment and by 1970 over 30% of all Australian manufacturing jobs were in Sydney. Its status has declined in more recent decades, making up 12.6% of employment in 2001 and 8.5% in 2011. Between 1970 and 1985 there was a loss of 180,000 manufacturing jobs.
The city is still the largest manufacturing centre in Australia. Its manufacturing output of $21.7 billion in 2013 was greater than that of Melbourne with $18.9 billion.
Observers have noted Sydney's focus on the domestic market and high-tech manufacturing as reasons for its resilience against the high of the early 2010s.
Tourism and international education , a situated in a laneway between and George Street, features 120 suspended bird cages. Sydney is a gateway to Australia for many international visitors.
It has hosted over 2.8 million international visitors in 2013, or nearly half of all international visits to Australia. These visitors spent 59 million nights in the city and a total of $5.9 billion. The countries of origin in descending order were China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Germany, Hong Kong, and India. The city also received 8.3 million domestic overnight visitors in 2013 who spent a total of $6 billion.
26,700 workers in the City of Sydney were directly employed by tourism in 2011. There were 480,000 visitors and 27,500 people staying overnight each day in 2012.
On average, the tourism industry contributes $36 million to the city's economy per day. Tourists visiting the Sydney Opera House Popular destinations include the , the Sydney Harbour Bridge, , , , , the , the Royal Botanic Garden, the Royal National Park, the , the , the , the , , Taronga Zoo, Bondi Beach, the Blue Mountains, and Sydney Olympic Park.
Major developmental projects designed to increase Sydney's tourism sector include a at Barangaroo and the redevelopment of , which involves a new , now Australia's largest.
Sydney is the highest ranking city in the world for international students. More than 50,000 international students study at the city's universities and a further 50,000 study at its and English language schools. International education contributes $1.6 billion to the local economy and creates demand for 4,000 local jobs each year. Main article: Significant overseas-born populations Country of birth Population (2016) China 224,685 United Kingdom 151,684 India 130,573 New Zealand 86,526 Vietnam 81,045 Philippines 75,480 Lebanon 55,979 South Korea 49,508 Hong Kong 40,577 Italy 40,492 Iraq 39,237 South Africa 35,313 Fiji 31,510 Nepal 30,424 Indonesia 29,989 Malaysia 21,211 The population of Sydney in 1788 was less than 1,000.
With convict transportation it almost tripled in ten years to 2,953. For each decade since 1961 the population has increased by more than 250,000. Sydney's population at the time of the 2011 census was 4,391,674.
It has been forecast that the population will grow to between 8 and 8.9 million by 2061. Despite this increase, the predicts that Melbourne will replace Sydney as Australia's most populous city by 2053. The four most densely populated suburbs in Australia are located in Sydney with each having more than 13,000 residents per square kilometre (33,700 residents per square mile). celebrations in . Sydney is home to the largest Chinese population in Australia. Wikimedia Commons has media related to .
The median age of Sydney residents is 36 and 12.9% of people are 65 or older. The married population accounts for 49.7% of Sydney whilst 34.7% of people have never been married. 48.9% of families are couples with children, 33.5% are couples without children, and 15.7% are single-parent families.
32.5% of people in Sydney speak a language other than English at home with , , , and the most widely spoken. There were 54,746 people of indigenous heritage living in Sydney in 2011.
Most immigrants to Sydney between 1840 and 1930 were , or . There were significant clusters of people based on nationality or religion throughout the history of Sydney development. In the early 20th century Irish people were centred in Surry Hills, the in Paddington. Following World War II, Sydney's ethnic groups began to diversify. Common ethnic groups in Sydney include, but are not limited to, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and communities.
As of the 2011 census night there were 1,503,620 people living in Sydney that were born overseas, accounting for 42.5% of the population of the City of Sydney and 34.2% of the population of Sydney, the seventh greatest proportion of any city in the world. The 2016 census reported that 39 percent of Greater Sydney were migrants, above New York City (36 percent), Paris (25 percent), Berlin (13 percent) and Tokyo (2 percent).
If local residents with at least one migrant-born parent is included, then 65 percent of Sydney's population is migrant. Sydney's largest ancestry groups are , Australian, Irish, Chinese and Scottish. Foreign countries of birth with the greatest representation are England, China, India, New Zealand and Vietnam.
The concentration of immigrants in Sydney, relative to the rest of Australia (excluding Melbourne), make it the exception rather than the norm on having such a high overseas-born population. The , located in , is the fourth largest public gallery in Australia is rich in heritage, containing around 1,500 pieces of – the largest cluster of Indigenous sites in Australia, surpassing , which has around 5,000 sites but over a much greater land mass.
The park's indigenous sites include , art sites, , , marriage areas, birthing areas, sites, and tool manufacturing locations, among others, which are dated to be around 5,000 years old. The inhabitants of the area were the people. The opened in Sydney in 1857 with the purpose of collecting and displaying the natural wealth of the colony.
It remains Australia's oldest natural history museum. In 1995 the opened on the site of the first . It recounts the story of the city's development. Other museums based in Sydney include the and the . In 1866 then gave her assent to the formation of the . The Society exists "for the encouragement of studies and investigations in science, art, literature, and philosophy". It is based in a terrace house in owned by the .
The building was constructed in 1859 and used for astronomy and meteorology research until 1982 before being converted into a museum. The in is a public memorial dedicated to the achievement of the of . The was opened in 1991 and occupies an building in . Its collection was founded in the 1940s by artist and art collector John Power and has been maintained by the University of Sydney.
Sydney's other significant art institution is the which coordinates the coveted for portraiture. Contemporary art galleries are found in , , Darlinghurst, , , , and . Entertainment The on was opened in 1929. Sydney's first commercial theatre opened in 1832 and nine more had commenced performances by the late 1920s. The live medium lost much of its popularity to cinema during the Great Depression before experiencing a revival after World War II.
Prominent theatres in the city today include , , , , and . maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays. It occasionally features Australian theatre icons such as , , and . The city's other prominent theatre companies are , , and . The Sydney Opera House is the home of and .
It has staged over 100,000 performances and received 100 million visitors since opening in 1973. Two other important performance venues in Sydney are and the . The is located adjacent to the Royal Botanic Garden and serves the Australian music community through education and its biannual exams. Many writers have originated in and set their work in Sydney. The city was the headquarters for Australia's first published newspaper, the . 's A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay (1789) and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson in New South Wales (1793) have remained the best-known accounts of life in early Sydney.
Since the infancy of the establishment, much of the literature set in Sydney were concerned with life in the city's slums and working-class communities, notably 's The Working Man's Paradise (1892), 's (1934) and 's (1948).
The first Australian-born female novelist, , set various of her novels in Sydney. Contemporary writers, such as , were born in the city and thus set most of the work there–Harrower's debut novel (1957) was mostly set in a apartment.
Well known contemporary novels set in the city include 's (1992), 's 30 Days in Sydney: A Wildly Distorted Account (1999), 's (2007) and 's (2010). The is held every year between April and May. Filmmaking in Sydney was quite prolific until the 1920s when spoken films were introduced and American productions gained dominance in Australian cinema.
The of filmmaking saw a resurgence in film production in the city–with many notable features shot in the city between the 1970s and 80s, helmed by directors such as , and . commenced production in Sydney in 1998. Successful films shot in Sydney since then include , , , , , and . The is based in Sydney and has several famous alumni such as , , , , and .
The Sydney Harbour Bridge and Sydney Opera House illuminated during the 2015 festival of light Sydney is the host of several festivals throughout the year. The city's celebrations are the largest in Australia. The is held every year at Sydney Olympic Park.
is Australia's largest arts festival. is a travelling rock music festival that originated in Sydney. The city's two largest film festivals are and . is an annual outdoor exhibition of art installations, light projections, and music.
In 2015, Sydney was ranked 13th for being the top in the world. It hosts the in autumn. The has commenced each February since 1979. Sydney's has had numerous locations since the 1850s. It moved from George Street to Campbell Street to its current setting in Dixon Street in 1980. The Spanish Quarter is based in Liverpool Street whilst Little Italy is located in Stanley Street. Popular nightspots are found at , , , and . is the city's only casino and is situated around .
Religion is the of the . The indigenous people of Sydney held totemic beliefs known as "". Governor Lachlan Macquarie made an effort to found a culture of formal religion throughout the early settlement and ordered the construction of churches such as St Matthew's, St Luke's, St James's, and St Andrew's.
According to 2011 census, these and other religious institutions have contributed to the education and health of Sydney's residents over time. 28.3% identify themselves as , whilst 17.6% practice no religion, 16.1% are , 4.7% are Muslim, 4.2% are , 4.1% are Buddhist, 2.6% are Hindu, and 0.9% are Jewish. Media Main article: is Australia's oldest newspaper still in print. Now a paper owned by , it has been published continuously since 1831.
Its competitor is the which has been in print since 1879. Both papers have Sunday tabloid editions called and respectively. was founded in Sydney in 1880 and became Australia's longest running magazine. It closed after 128 years of continuous publication.
Sydney heralded Australia's first newspaper, the Sydney Gazette, published until 1842. Each of Australia's three commercial television networks and two public broadcasters is headquartered in Sydney. 's offices and news studios are based in , and are based in Pyrmont, Seven has a news studio in the in the is located in , and the is based in .
Multiple digital channels have been provided by all five networks since 2000. is based in and sells subscription cable television to most parts of the urban area. Sydney's first commenced broadcasting in the 1920s.
Radio became a popular tool for politics, news, religion, and sport and has managed to survive despite the introduction of television and the Internet. was founded in 1925 and under the ownership of Fairfax Media is the oldest station still broadcasting. Competing stations include the more popular , , , , , and . International cricket matches have been hosted annually at since 2012. Sydney's earliest migrants brought with them a passion for sport but were restricted by the lack of facilities and equipment.
The first organised sports were boxing, wrestling, and horse racing from 1810 in . Horse racing remains popular to this day and events such as the attract widespread attention. The first cricket club was formed in 1826 and matches were played within Hyde Park throughout the 1830s and 1840s. Cricket is a favoured sport in summer and big matches have been held at the since 1878.
The compete in the league and the and contest the national Twenty20 competition. First played in Sydney in 1865, rugby grew to be the city's most popular football code by the 1880s.
One-tenth of the state's population attended a New South Wales versus New Zealand rugby match in 1907. Rugby league separated from rugby union in 1908.
The contest the competition, while the represent the city in the . The national rugby union team competes in Sydney in international matches such as the , , and . Sydney is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the competition: , , , , , , , , and . contests the annual against . and the compete in the (men's) and (women's) soccer competitions and Sydney frequently hosts matches for the Australian national men's team, the .
The and are local clubs that play in the . The Giants also compete in . The compete in the . The play in the . The contest the . The are a member of the . The and play in the . The are competitors in the national women's netball league. Sailing on Women were first allowed to participate in recreational swimming when separate baths were opened at in the 1830s. From being illegal at the beginning of the century, sea bathing gained immense popularity during the early 1900s and the first club was established at Bondi Beach.
for surf bathing surfaced from time to time and concerned men as well as women. The is an annual 14-kilometre (8.7-mile) running race from the CBD to Bondi Beach and has been held since 1971. In 2010, 80,000 runners participated which made it the largest run of its kind in the world.
Sailing races have been held on since 1827. Yachting has been popular amongst wealthier residents since the 1840s and the was founded in 1862. The is a 1,170-kilometre (727-mile) event that starts from Sydney Harbour on Boxing Day. Since its inception in 1945 it has been recognised as one of the most difficult yacht races in the world. Six sailors died and 71 vessels of the fleet of 115 failed to finish in the 1998 edition. The is based in and since its opening in 1893 has hosted the on 13 occasions.
opened in 1833 and holds several major cups throughout the year. Sydney benefitted from the construction of significant sporting infrastructure in preparation for its hosting of the . Sydney Olympic Park accommodates athletics, aquatics, tennis, hockey, archery, baseball, cycling, equestrian, and rowing facilities. It also includes the high capacity used for rugby, soccer, and Australian rules football. was completed in 1988 and is used for rugby and soccer matches.
Sydney Cricket Ground was opened in 1878 and is used for both cricket and Australian rules football fixtures. A is held here at the beginning of each year as the warm-up for . Two of the most successful players in history: and were born in and live in the city. The , which was designed in 1908. During early colonial times the presiding and his military shared absolute control over the population. This lack of democracy eventually became unacceptable for the colony's growing number of free settlers.
The first indications of a proper legal system emerged with the passing of a Charter of Justice in 1814. It established three new courts, including the , and dictated that was to be followed. In 1823 the passed an act to create the in New South Wales and give the Supreme Court the right of review over new legislation. From 1828 all of the common laws in force in England were to be applied in New South Wales wherever it was appropriate.
Another act from the British Parliament in 1842 provided for members of the Council to be elected for the first time. The Constitution Act of 1855 gave New South Wales a .
The existing Legislative Council became the upper house and a new body called the was formed to be the lower house.
An was introduced and constituted five members of the Legislative Assembly and the Governor. It became responsible for advising the ruling Governor on matters related to the administration of the state.
The colonial settlements elsewhere on the continent eventually seceded from New South Wales and formed their own governments. separated in 1825, did so in 1850, and followed in 1859. With the proclamation of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 the status of local governments across Sydney was formalised and they became separate institutions from the state of New South Wales.
Government in the present Sydney is divided into (also known as councils or shires) which are comparable in nature to . These local government areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales Government. The 31 local government areas making up Sydney according to the are: Sydney's local government areas Sydney is the location of the secondary official residences of the and the , and respectively. The sits in on . This building was completed in 1816 and first served as a hospital.
The Legislative Council moved into its northern wing in 1829 and by 1852 had entirely supplanted the surgeons from their quarters. Several additions have been made to the building as the Parliament has expanded, but it retains its original façade. was completed in 1845 and has served as the home of 25 Governors and 5 . The also in Sydney when needed. The highest court in the state is the Supreme Court of New South Wales which is located in Queen's Square in Sydney.
The city is also the home of numerous branches of the intermediate and the lower . Public activities such as main roads, traffic control, public transport, policing, education, and major infrastructure projects are controlled by the New South Wales Government.
It has tended to resist attempts to amalgamate Sydney's more populated local government areas as merged councils could pose a threat to its governmental power. Established in 1842, the City of Sydney is one such local government area and includes the CBD and some adjoining inner suburbs. It is responsible for fostering development in the local area, providing local services (waste collection and recycling, libraries, parks, sporting facilities), representing and promoting the interests of residents, supporting organisations that target the local community, and attracting and providing infrastructure for commerce, tourism, and industry.
The City of Sydney is led by an elected Council and who has in the past been treated as a representative of the entire city. In federal politics, Sydney was initially considered as a ; the newly created city of ultimately filled this role.
Six Australian Sydney, more than any other city, including first Prime Minister and . The Education became a proper focus for the colony from the 1870s when public schools began to form and schooling became compulsory.
The population of Sydney is now highly educated. 90% of working age residents have completed some schooling and 57% have completed the highest level of school.
1,390,703 people were enrolled in an educational institution in 2011 with 45.1% of these attending school and 16.5% studying at a university.
Undergraduate or postgraduate qualifications are held by 22.5% of working age Sydney residents and 40.2% of working age residents of the City of Sydney.
The most common fields of tertiary qualification are commerce (22.8%), engineering (13.4%), society and culture (10.8%), health (7.8%), and education (6.6%). The Madsen Building houses geoscience at the There are six public universities based in Sydney: The , , , , , and . Four public universities maintain secondary campuses in the city: the , , , and .
5.2% of residents of Sydney are attending a university. The University of New South Wales and the University of Sydney are ranked top 50 in the world, the University of Technology Sydney is ranked 193, while Macquarie University ranks 237, and the Western Sydney University below 500. Sydney has public, denominational, and independent schools.
7.8% of Sydney residents are attending primary school and 6.4% are enrolled in secondary school. There are 935 public preschool, primary, and secondary schools in Sydney that are administered by the .
14 of the 17 selective secondary schools in New South Wales are based in Sydney. Public vocational education and training in Sydney is run by and began with the opening of the in 1878. It offered courses in areas such as mechanical drawing, applied mathematics, steam engines, simple surgery, and English grammar. The college became the in 1992 and now operates alongside its sister TAFE facilities across the Sydney metropolitan area, namely the , the , and the . At the 2011 census, 2.4% of Sydney residents are enrolled in a TAFE course.
Health The of the , the oldest teaching hospital in the city. The first hospital in the new colony was a collection of tents at . Many of the convicts that survived the trip from England continued to suffer from , , , and . Healthcare facilities remained hopelessly inadequate despite the arrival of a prefabricated hospital with the and the construction of brand new hospitals at Parramatta, , and in the 1790s. Governor Lachlan Macquarie arranged for the construction of and saw it completed in 1816.
Parts of the facility have been repurposed for use as but the hospital itself still operates to this day. The city's first emergency department was established at Sydney Hospital in 1870. Demand for emergency medical care increased from 1895 with the introduction of an ambulance service. The Sydney Hospital also housed Australia's first teaching facility for nurses, the Nightingale Wing, established with the input of in 1868. Healthcare gained recognition as a citizen's right in the early 1900s and Sydney's public hospitals came under the oversight of the Government of New South Wales.
The administration of healthcare across Sydney is handled by eight local health districts: Central Coast, Illawarra Shoalhaven, Sydney, Nepean Blue Mountains, Northern Sydney, South Eastern Sydney, South Western Sydney, and Western Sydney.
The was established in 1852 and became the first of several major hospitals to be opened in the coming decades. was founded in 1857, followed by in 1880, the in 1881, the in 1882, the in 1885, the in 1894, and the in 1895.
in 1978 was the last major facility to open. Transport Sydney Harbour Bridge (southern approach shown) carries trains, motorised vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians The motor vehicle, more than any other factor, has determined the pattern of Sydney's urban development since World War II. The growth of low density housing in the city's outer suburbs has made car ownership necessary for hundreds of thousands of households.
The percentage of trips taken by car has increased from 13% in 1947 to 50% in 1960 and to 70% in 1971. The most important roads in Sydney were the nine , including the 110-kilometre (68-mile) . Widespread criticism over Sydney's reliance on sprawling road networks, as well as the motor vehicle, have stemmed largely from proponents of mass public transport and high density housing.
On an international scale, Sydney was ranked at 51 out of 100 cities in the world for sustainability and effectiveness of public transport in a report by –lagging behind , but ahead of both and . There can be up to 350,000 cars using Sydney's roads simultaneously during peak hour, leading to significant traffic congestion. 84.9% of Sydney households own a motor vehicle and 46.5% own two or more.
is high in Sydney–of people that travel to work, 58.4% use a car, 9.1% catch a train, 5.2% take a bus, and 4.1% walk. In contrast, only 25.2% of working residents in the City of Sydney use a car, whilst 15.8% take a train, 13.3% use a bus, and 25.3% walk. With a rate of 26.3%, Sydney has the highest utilisation of public transport for travel to work of any Australian capital city. is the hub of the Sydney once had one of the in the world.
It was the second largest in the British Empire, after London, with routes covering 291 kilometres (181 miles). The internal combustion engine made buses more flexible than trams and consequently more popular, leading to the progressive closure of the tram network with the final tram operating in 1961.
From 1930 there were 612 buses across Sydney carrying 90 million passengers per annum. In 1997, the (also known as the Dulwich Hill Line) opened between Central station and . It was extended to in 2000 and then in 2014. It links the and with and facilitated 9.1 million journeys in the 2016-17 financial year.
A second, the 12 km (7.5 mi) line serving the CBD and south-eastern suburbs is planned to open in early 2019. When the light rail project is completed, it would cover a total distance of 12 km with 19 different stops. The Parramatta Light Rail has also been announced.
today are conducted by a mixture of Government and private operators. In areas previously serviced by trams the government operates, in other areas, there are private (albeit part funded by the state government) operators. Integrated tickets called operate on both government and private bus routes. State Transit alone operated a fleet of 2,169 buses and serviced over 160 million passengers during 2014. In total, nearly 225 million boardings were recorded across the bus network is a nightly bus service that operate between midnight and 5am, also replacing trains for most of this period.
Patronage of 's Sydney public transport services based on tap on and tap off data from the . Train services are operated by . The organisation maintains 176 stations and 937 kilometres (582 miles) of railway and provides 281 million journeys each year.
Sydney's railway was first constructed in 1854 with progressive extension to the network to serve both freight and passengers across the city, suburbs, and beyond to country NSW. In the 1850s and 1860s the railway reached Parramatta, , Liverpool, , , and . In 2014 94.2% of trains arrived on time and 99.5% of services ran as scheduled.
Construction of , an automated system separate from the existing suburban network, started in 2013. The is expected to open in 2019, with plans in place to by 2024. At the time the Sydney Harbour Bridge opened in 1932, the city's was the largest in the world.
Patronage declined from 37 million passengers in 1945 to 11 million in 1963 but has recovered somewhat in recent years. From its hub at the ferry network extends from to .
, officially "Sydney Kingsford-Smith Airport", is located in the inner southern suburb of with two of the runways going into Botany Bay. It services 46 international and 23 domestic destinations. As the busiest airport in Australia it handled 37.9 million passengers in 2013 and 530,000 tonnes of freight in 2011.
It has been announced that a new facility named will be constructed at from 2016 at a cost of $2.5 billion. is Sydney's second busiest airport, and serves general aviation, charter and some scheduled cargo flights.
Bankstown is also the fourth busiest airport in Australia by number of aircraft movements. has surpassed Port Jackson as the city's major shipping port. Cruise ship terminals are located at and . Environmental issues and pollution reduction Further information: and As , and have become a major issue for Australia, Sydney has in the past been criticised for its lack of focus on reducing pollution, cutting back on emissions and maintaining .
Since 1995, there have been significant developments in the analysis of in the Sydney metropolitan region. The development led to the release of the Metropolitan Air Quality Scheme (MAQS), which led to a broader understanding of the causation of pollution in Sydney, allowing the government to form appropriate responses to the pollution.
Australian cities are some of the most cities in the world. Sydney in particular has a very high level of car dependency, especially by world city standards. It also has a low level of mass-transit services, with a historically low-density layout and significant , thus increasing the likelihood of car dependency. Strategies have been implemented to reduce private by encouraging and , initiating the development of high density housing and introducing a fleet of 10 new , the largest order of the pollution-free vehicle in Australia.
Electric cars do not produce carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide, gases which contribute to climate change. have increased by 113% across Sydney's inner-city since March 2010, with about 2,000 bikes passing through top peak-hour intersections on an average weekday. Transport developments in the and east of the city have been designed to encourage the use of Sydney's expanding public transportation system. The City of Sydney became the first council in Australia to achieve formal certification as in 2008.
The city has reduced its 2007 carbon emissions by 6% and since 2006 has reduced carbon emissions from city buildings by up to 20%. The City of Sydney introduced a Sustainable Sydney 2030 program, with various targets planned and a comprehensive guide on how to reduce energy in homes and offices within Sydney by 30%.
Reductions in energy consumption have slashed energy bills by $30 million a year. have been established on many CBD buildings in an effort to minimise carbon pollution by around 3,000 tonnes a year. The city also has an "urban forest growth strategy", in which it aims to regular increase the in the city by frequently planting trees with strong leaf density and to provide cleaner air and create moisture during hot weather, thus lowering city temperatures.
Sydney has also become a leader in the development of and enforcing the requirement of all building proposals to be energy-efficient. The development, completed in 2013, is an example of this implementation and design. Utilities is Sydney's largest water supply dam. Obtaining sufficient fresh water was difficult during early colonial times.
A catchment called the sourced water from what is now the CBD but was little more than an open sewer by the end of the 1700s. The Botany Swamps Scheme was one of several ventures during the mid 1800s that saw the construction of wells, tunnels, steam pumping stations, and small dams to service Sydney's growing population.
The first genuine solution to Sydney's water demands was the which came into operation in 1886 and cost over £2 million. It transports water 100 kilometres (62 miles) from the , , and rivers and continues to service about 15% of Sydney's total water needs. Dams were built on these three rivers between 1907 and 1935. In 1977 the brought several more dams into service. The now manages eleven major dams: one of the largest domestic water supply dams in the world, , , , , , , , , the , and .
Water is collected from five catchment areas covering 16,000 square kilometres (6,178 square miles) and total storage amounts to 2.6 teralitres (0.6 cubic miles). The came into operation in 2010. The two distributors which maintain Sydney's electricity infrastructure are and . Their combined networks include over 815,000 power poles and 83,000 kilometres (52,000 miles) of electricity cables.
Sydney maintains and friendship city relations with numerous global cities. These were established to form links of friendship, cultural understanding, inter-community relations, and to develop closer economic ties. Sydney is officially affiliated with: • , , United States, since 1968 • , Japan, since 1980 • , New Zealand, since 1982 • , England, , since 1984 • , China, since 1986 • , , Italy, since 1986 Friendship Cities • , France, since 1998 • , Germany, since 2000 • , Greece, since 2000 • , Ireland, since 2002 • .
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