Best radiocarbon dating archaeology pdf

best radiocarbon dating archaeology pdf

RADIOCARBON DATING. In the 1940s, researchers began to study the effect of cosmic radiation on the upper atmosphere. They found that it could transform common nitrogen-14 (14N) into a radioactive isotope of carbon called carbon-14 (14C), or radiocarbon However, people working with radiocarbon dating feel confident that good sample collection can overcome this problem. Some organisms may exclude the heavier carbon-14 isotopes preferentially, making them look too old (e.g., living shellfish that have a radiocarbon “age” of several hundred years) The radiocarbon method has a less convenient, but senior partner in the form of tree-ring dating.

best radiocarbon dating archaeology pdf

The primary focus of this technical study is to simultaneously evaluate ("test") the influence of the shape of the selected 14C-age calibration curve on the calibrated output ages, as well as the proper functioning of numeric algorithms in CalPal-software, over an extended timescale, for different Calibration Curves, under extreme conditions.

• Pastoralism and camelid management have been essential to all aspects of pre-Hispanic Andean societies. Here, we present zooarchaeological and isotopic data on domestic camelid remains from Huaca Cao Viejo (El Brujo archaeological complex) on the northern coast of Peru, and dated to the Lambayeque/Sicán period—to characterise their biological age, diet, life history, possible geographic origin and ritual use.

Domestic camelids, representing a wide range of biological ages and a high rate of polydactyly, were found as burial offerings in direct association with human funerary bundles (fardos).

Direct AMS dates indicated that camelids were buried over a short period of time (AD 1022–1176) confirming the Lambayeque presence in the Chicama Valley during the first half of the Late Intermediate Period. Stable isotopic analyses were carried out on both bone collagen and hair keratin, including incremental analysis. A considerable variability in δ13C values at both the intra-individual and the intra-group level and a large contribution of C4 resources to diet are shown.

This clearly supports local management and camelids originating from various herds. Zooarchaeological and isotopic evidences suggest diversity in herding practices and suggest the • Several questions remain regarding the timing and nature of the Neanderthal-anatomically modern human (AMH) transition in Europe.

The situation in Eastern Europe is generally less clear due to the relatively few sites and a dearth of reliable radiocarbon dates. Claims have been made for both notably early AMH and notably late Neanderthal presence, as well as for early AMH (Aurignacian) dispersal into the region from Central/Western Europe. The Kostenki-Borshchevo complex (European Russia) of Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) sites offers high-quality data to address these questions. Here we revise the chronology and cultural status of the key sites of Kostenki 17 and Kostenki 14.

The Kostenki 17/II lithic assemblage shares important features with Proto-Aurignacian material, strengthening an association with AMHs. New radiocarbon dates for Kostenki 17/II of ~41-40 ka cal BP agree with new dates for the recently excavated Kostenki 14/IVw, which shows some similarities to Kostenki 17/II.

Dates of ~41 ka cal BP from other Kostenki sites cannot be linked to diagnostic archaeological material, and therefore cannot be argued to date AMH occupation. Kostenki 14's Layer in Volcanic Ash assemblage, on the other hand, compares to Early Aurignacian material. New radiocarbon dates targeting diagnostic lithics date to 39-37 ka cal BP.

Overall, Kostenki's early EUP is in good agreement with the archaeological record further west. Our results are therefore consistent with models predicting interregional penecontemporaneity of diagnostic EUP assemblages. Most importantly, our work highlights ongoing challenges for reliably radiocarbon dating the period. Dates for Kostenki 14 agreed with the samples' chronostratigraphic positions, but standard pre-treatment methods consistently produced incorrect ages for Kostenki 17/II.

Extraction of hydroxyproline from bone collagen using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, however, yielded results consistent with the samples' chronostratigraphic position and with the layer's archaeological contents.

This suggests that for some sites compound-specific techniques are required to build reliable radiocarbon chronologies. • Presence of carbonized Zea mays kernels in association with C14 dated wood charcxoal in a hearth feature at the Dawson Creek site on Rice Lake, Ontario suggested introduction of this cultigen during the Middle Woodland period.

The accepted date of 1405+-60 B.P. appeared to correlate well with early maize introduction on Princess Point sites in southwestern Ontario circa 500-800 A.D. Note: A direct dating project on maize kernels from Ontario archaeological sites (Beales 2013) indicates that the Dawson Creek Feature 11 maize was actually Late Woodland in age (circa 1450-1700 A.D.). Jackson agrees that bioturbation may have occurred in the feature given original notes on some erosion of the central hearth basin surface (Jackson 1988).

I • The study area presented in this paper comprises two geographical entities in northern Upper Nubia located between the Second and the Third Cataract of the Nile River: Sai Island and the Amara West district, on the present left bank of the river. Four sites, three at Sai Island and one in the Amara West district, were excavated. They represent three distinct archaeological complexes, named Arkinian, Khartoum Variant , and Abkan, which encompass a long time period from ca.

11,000 to 6000 cal years BP (9000–4000 BC) and range from late foraging to early pastoralism. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating was applied to multi-proxy materials in order to provide a frame of reference for this important chronological and economic period in this area.

Different types of materials were selected, namely wood charcoal, charcoal tempers in pottery, ostrich eggshell, and aquatic gastropod shells. Twenty-four new AMS radiocarbon dates are presented to (a) cross-check the accuracy and reliability of the chronology of late foraging and early pastoral sites in our study area; (b) integrate, update, and revise the previously available radiometric dates; and (c) reconstruct a comprehensive framework of the chronology of late foraging and early pastoralism in Upper Nubia.

Résumé La zone d'étude présentée dans cet article comprend deux entités géographiques en Haute Nubie septentrionale situées entre la deuxième et la troisième cataracte du Nil: l'île de Sai et le district d'Amara Ouest, sur la rive gauche actuelle du fleuve. Quatre sites, trois à l'île de Sai et un dans le district d'Amara Ouest, ont été fouillés.

Ils représentent trois complexes archéologiques, nommés Arkinien, Khartoum Variant et Abkien, qui englobent une longue période à partir d'environ 11000 à 6000 ans cal BP (9000–4000 BC) et la transition de la fin des chasseurs-cueilleurs au début du pastoralisme.

Des datations radiocarbone à l'accélérateur (AMS) ont été appliquées à des matériaux différents afin de fournir un cadre de référence pour cette importante période chronologique et économique dans cette zone. Différents types de matériaux organiques et inorganiques ont été sélectionnés : charbon de bois, inclusions de charbon dans la poterie, coquilles d'oeuf d'autruche et tests de gastéropodes aquatiques.

Vingt-quatre nouvelles datations sont présentées pour (a) vérifier l'exac-titude et la fiabilité de la chronologie sur la transition de la fin des chasseurs-cueilleurs au début du pastoralisme dans notre zone d'étude; (b) intégrer, mettre à jour et réviser les dates radiométriques précédemment disponibles; (c) recons-truire un cadre chronologique global de la transition entre chasseurs-cueilleurs et pasteurs en Haute Nubie.

• The South Caucasus occupies the divide between ancient Mesopotamia and prehistoric Europe, and was thus crucial in the development of Old World societies. Chronologies for the region, however, have lacked the definition achieved in surrounding areas. Concentrating on the Tsaghkahovit Plain of north-western Armenia, Project ArAGATS’s multi-site radiocarbon dataset has now produced Bayesian modelling, which provides tight chronometric support for tracing the transmission of technology, population movement and social developments that shaped the Eurasian Bronze and Iron Ages.

• A time frame for late Iroquoian prehistory is firmly established on the basis of the presence/absence of European trade goods and other archeological indicators. However, independent dating evidence is lacking. We use 86 radio - carbon measurements to test and (re)define existing chronological understanding. Warminster, often associated with Cahiagué visited by S.

de Champlain in 1615–1616 CE, yields a compatible radiocarbon-based age. However, a well-known late prehistoric site sequence in southern Ontario, Draper-Spang-Mantle, usually dated ~1450–1550, yields much later radiocarbon-based dates of ~1530–1615. The revised time frame dramatically rewrites 16th-century contact-era history in this region. Key processes of violent conflict, community coalescence, and the introduction of European goods all happened much later and more rapidly than previously assumed.

Our results suggest the need to reconsider current understandings of contact-era dynamics across northeastern North America • Short-lived occupation sites are the most common component of the archaeological record at the regional scale level, but are often underrepresented due to their low amount of cultural material and greater visibility of larger sites.

Small ephemeral sites can however provide unique information regarding land and resource use, travel routes, harvesting practices, group size, food processing, ceremonial activities and chronology of occupation, especially in pre-urban societies.

One of the most prominent proxies for short-lived occupation is combustion features, defined as accumulations of ash, burnt bones, heat-altered sediments and stone tools. These features provide insights into behavioral evolution, food consumption, settlement patterns and foraging strategies, and the preservation of the archaeological record.

To obtain this information, a microscopic level of investigation is required in order to address the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of combustion features.

We deployed such kind of microarchaeological approach to the study of combustion features at the DjRr-4 rock shelter along the Indian River, British Columbia, settled by Coast Salish peoples at least 1300 years ago. Using a combination of micromorphology of sediments, phytolith and diatom analysis, paleobotany, zooarchaeology, lithic analysis and radiocarbon dating, we were able to show that the shelter was used intermittently over short time spans as a base camp for hunting, likely as a station along a trail that connected the coast to interior regions.

Our results are consistent with chronological data for the region and with the adoption of bow and arrow by Coast Salish peoples. • During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), very specific but rare osseous decorated artifacts were produced using the “pseudo-excise” technique. These artifacts present a large geographical distribution, extending at least from the Aquitaine basin to Asturias.

While in France a Badegoulian age is traditionally accepted for the “pseudo-excise” technique, this is mostly based on arguable data from old excavations and/or problematic archaeostratigraphic contexts. Since it is a key-site for this matter we have focused our attention on Pégourié Cave (Lot, France) in order to establish the chronocultural attribution of pseudo-excised pieces in southwest France. The interdisciplinary reassessment of the lithic and osseous industries from Layer 8 and 9, including inter-layer refittings, has shown (1) the irrelevance of previous stratigraphic subdivisions and (2) the strong cultural heterogeneity of this assemblage, which combines Azilian, Magdalenian, Badegoulian, Solutrean and Gravettian components.

At the same time, a broad 14C program based on the direct dating of specific bone and antler technical wastes and tools—including a pseudo-excised point—was implemented after 3D recording using photogrammetry. The results obtained have allowed us to establish a new, firm confirmation of the Badegoulian age of pseudo-excised decoration and, in doing so, to more precisely define the time-range of this specific feature's trans-regional dissemination.

Finally, by comparing the results with recent data notably obtained at Llonín cave (Asturias, Spain), new light has been shed on the cultural geography of southwestern Europe during the LGM, allowing us to discuss and fuel the still-controversial “Iberian Badegoulian” hypothesis. • This contribution describes the discovery and subsequent investigation of a cist in a rock-cut pit at Achavanich, Highland.

Discovered and excavated in 1987, the cist was found to contain the tightly contracted skeletal remains of a young woman, accompanied by a Beaker, three flint artefacts and a cattle scapula. Initial post excavation work established a date for the skeleton together with details of her age and sex, and preliminary pollen analysis of sediments attaching to the Beaker was undertaken. The findings were never fully published and, upon the death of the excavator, Robert Gourlay, the documentary archive was left in the Highland Council Archaeology Unit.

Fresh research in 2014–17, initiated and co-ordinated by the first-named author and funded by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland with assistance from National Museums Scotland, the Natural History Museum and Harvard Medical School, has produced a significant amount of new information on the individual and on some of the items with which she was buried. This new information includes two further radiocarbon dates, a more detailed osteological report, isotopic information pertaining to the place where she had been raised and to her diet, histological information on the decomposition of her body, and genetic information that sheds light on her ancestry, her hair, eye and skin colour and her intolerance of lactose.

(This is the first time that an ancient DNA report has been published in the Proceedings.) Moreover, a facial reconstruction adds virtual flesh to her bones. The significance of this discovery within the Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age of this part of Scotland is discussed, along with the many and innovative ways in which information on this individual, dubbed ‘Ava’, has been disseminated around the world.

• Archaeologists now routinely use summed radiocarbon dates as a measure of past population size, yet few have coupled these measures to theoretical expectations about social organization.

To help move the 'dates as data' approach from description to explanation, this paper proposes a new integrative theory and method for quantitative analyses of radiocarbon summed probability distributions (SPDs) in space. We present this new approach to 'SPDs in space' with a case study of 3571 geo-referenced radiocarbon dates from Wyoming, USA.

We develop a SPD for the Holocene in Wyoming, then analyze the spatial distribution of the SPD as a function of time using a standard nearest-neighbor statistic. We compare population growth and decline throughout the Holocene with expectations for different Ideal Distribution Models from population ecology that predict the relationship between habitat quality and population density. Results suggest that populations in Wyoming were initially clustered and then became increasingly dispersed through the course of the Holocene.

These results suggest that Allee-like benefits to aggregation, rather than ideal free-driven dispersion patterns, explain settlement decisions in response to growing populations.

Our approach is a first step in constructing a method and theory for describing relationships between social organization and population growth trends derived from archaeological radiocarbon time-series.

• The question under discussion is whether the dates of the Late Bronze (LBIIB)-LBIII (Iron IA) transitions in three sites in the southern Levant, namely Megiddo, Tell es-Safi/Gath and Qubur el-Walaydah occur at the same time, as has been proposed by Israel Finkelstein in his article in 2016 in Egypt and Levant. Here we respond to Finkelstein's comments. We add some new data, clarify the issues that were raised, and conclude that the Late Bronze (LBIIB)-LBIII (Iron IA) transitions occurred at different times in northern and southern Israel.

best radiocarbon dating archaeology pdf

best radiocarbon dating archaeology pdf - RADIOCARBON DATING IN NEAR

best radiocarbon dating archaeology pdf

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Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Danuta Michalska Nawrocka, Małgorzata Szczepaniak and Andrzej Krzyszowski (May 9th 2012). Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological Sites Chronology, Radiometric Dating, Danuta Michalska Nawrocka, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/36579. Available from: Danuta Michalska Nawrocka, Małgorzata Szczepaniak and Andrzej Krzyszowski (May 9th 2012).

Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological Sites Chronology, Radiometric Dating, Danuta Michalska Nawrocka, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/36579. Available from: Embed this code snippet in the HTML of your website to show this chapter We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals.

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best radiocarbon dating archaeology pdf

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