What is radiometric dating and how is it used? We will calculate absolute age using radiometric dating geologic time webquest worksheet unit review packet optional Relative dating worksheet answer key - Is the number one destination for online dating with more. Biology webquest. Geologic time. Online dating days to respond. Another numerical relationship is having the students use a method called radiometric dating to. Start studying Geology: Relative Dating, Fossils, and Radiometric Dating. Web Quest 1 Middle School.
• Info Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, usually based on a comparison between the observed abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope and its decay products, using known decay rates.
more... The use of radiometric dating was first published in 1907 by Bertram Boltwood and is now the principal source of information about the absolute age of rocks and other geological features, including the age of the Earth itself, and can be used to date a wide range of natural and man-made materials.
• They are obtained with different radiometric dating methods depending on the type of rock and its age. Ages that have a tilde (~) prefix are approximate ages for GSSPs that have not been defined or not been accurately dated. … • Chemically, zircon is a particularly useful mineral because of its ability to incorporate many trace elements.
Many of these elements can be used for radiometric dating to provide an age for the crystal. It is know to exchange uranium, thorium and rare earth elements (REE) such as yttrium, and lutetium. … • The Earth's human population is divided among about two hundred independent states that interact through diplomacy, conflict, travel, trade, and media.
According to evidence from sources such as radiometric dating, the Earth was formed around four and a half billion years ago. Within its first billion years, life appeared in its oceans and began to affect its atmosphere and surface, promoting the proliferation of aerobic as well as anaerobic organisms and causing the formation of the atmosphere's ozone layer.
… • While the Sun and planets may survive, the Solar System, in any meaningful sense, will cease to exist. The time frame of the Solar System's formation has been determined using radiometric dating.
Scientists estimate that the Solar System is 4.6 billion years old. … • By allowing the establishment of geological timescales, it provides a significant source of information about the ages of fossils and the deduced rates of evolutionary change. Radiometric dating is also used to date archaeological materials, including ancient artifacts.
Different methods of radiometric dating vary in the timescale over which they are accurate and the materials to which they can be applied. … • Australia leads the world in zircon mining, producing 37% of the world total and accounting for 40% of world EDR (economic demonstrated resources) for the mineral. Zircon has played an important role during the evolution of radiometric dating. Zircons contain trace amounts of uranium and thorium (from 10 ppm up to 1 wt%) and can be dated using several modern analytical techniques.
… • Strictly speaking, radioisotopic labeling includes only cases where radioactivity is artificially introduced by experimenters, but some natural phenomena allow similar analysis to be performed. In particular, radiometric dating uses a closely related principle. In proteomics, the study of the full set of proteins expressed by a genome, identifying diseases biomarkers can involve the usage of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), that provides isotopic labeled forms of amino acid used to estimate protein levels.
… • Radiometric dating is a good tool, and gets better each decade. • Estimates varied from a few hundred thousand to billions of years. By the early 20th century, radiometric dating allowed the Earth's age to be estimated at two billion years. The awareness of this vast amount of time opened the door to new theories about the processes that shaped the planet. … • In the absence of reliable methods for obtaining absolute ages for rocks, it was thought that reversals occurred approximately every million years.
The next major advance in understanding reversals came when techniques for radiometric dating were developed in the 1950s. Allan Cox and Richard Doell, at the United States Geological Survey, wanted to know whether reversals occurred at regular intervals, and invited the geochronologist Brent Dalrymple to join their group.
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Deoxyribozyme , Artificial gene synthesis , Genome (book) , Microevolution , Designer baby , Gene , Nutriepigenomics , Gene expression profiling , Site-specific recombinase technology , History of genetic engineering , Genetic engineering , Biology and consumer behaviour , Genome evolution , Minimal genome , RNA-Seq , Primary transcript , Therapeutic gene modulation , Helitron (biology) , Non-coding DNA , Vectors in gene therapy , Extrachromosomal DNA , Koinophilia , Molecular cloning , Mitochondrial DNA , Transitional fossil , Chapter 15: Tracing Evolutionary History Name ________________________ Period _________ Chapter 15: Tracing Evolutionary History Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Early earth and the origin of life Answer the following questions as you read modules 15.1–15.3: stromatolites 1.
Ancient rocks constructed by ancient prokaryotic cells are referred to as ____________. 2.The prokaryotes that made the stromatolites were photosynthetic. Why does that suggest that these were actually not the first organisms that inhabited the planet? This is due to the complex nature of photosynthesis, which makes it unlikely that it evolved so quickly.
3. List the four main stages by which scientists believe that life on Earth could have arisen. (1) Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules, (2) the synthesis of polymers, (3) creation of protocells, (4) origin of self-replicating molecules 4.The first photosynthetic bacteria were important to the development of life on Earth because they a. removed O2 from the atmosphere. b. produced water vapor. c. added O2 to the atmosphere. d. converted methane gas into sugar. 5. True or false: Lab experiments show that monomers can assemble into polymers without the aid of enzymes.
If false, make it a correct statement. True 6. Complete the following table, which describes the stages in the origin of life. Abiotic synthesis of polymers Description The spontaneous creation of polymers from monomers Formation of protocells The spontaneous formation of cells from collections of organic molecules Self-replicating RNA The ability of RNA to replicate itself from nucleotide monomers 7.
Briefly describe the importance of ribozymes in the replication of RNA. With the ability to self-replicate, ribozymes could begin to be shaped by the forces of natural selection. This would mark the beginning of the evolution of more diverse life forms. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 97 # 152826 Cust: Pearson Au: Reece Pg.
No. 97 REEC7833_08_C15_PRF.indd 97 Title: Active Reading Guide for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 8e C/M/Y/K Short / Normal DESIGN SERVICES OF S4-CARLISLE Publishing Services 29/10/14 11:04 AM Chapter 15: Tracing Evolutionary History Big idea: Major events in the history of life Answer the following questions as you read modules 15.4–15.6: 1.
The broad changes that have taken place on Earth since life began are referred to as macroevolution ______________. 2. Which of the following was a key event in the history of life on Earth? a. Colonization of land b. Appearance of eukaryotic cells c. Appearance of prokaryotic cells d. All of the above 3. How long did it take for animals to evolve once multicellular eukaryotes appeared? Refer to Figure 15.4 on page 297 of your textbook. About 1.5 billion years 4. What percentage of carbon-14 is left after 11,400 years?
Refer to Figure 15.5 on page 298 of your textbook. 25% 5. True or false: Radiometric dating is based on the decay of radioactive isotopes over time. If false, make it a correct statement. True 6. What key event marks the boundaries between eras in the geological record? The boundaries are marked by mass extinctions. 7. During what period did the dinosaur flourish?
For approximately how many years did dinosaurs walk the Earth? They flourished during the Jurassic period. Dinosaurs were around for about 190 million years. Big idea: Mechanisms of macroevolution Answer the following questions as you read modules 15.7–15.13: plate tectonics states that the Earth’s crust is made up of a series of large plates.
1. The theory of ____________ 98 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. # 152826 Cust: Pearson Au: Reece Pg.
No. 98 REEC7833_08_C15_PRF.indd 98 Guide for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 8e Title: Active Reading C/M/Y/K Short / Normal DESIGN SERVICES OF S4-CARLISLE Publishing Services 29/10/14 11:04 AM Chapter 15: Tracing Evolutionary History 2. Are South America and Africa getting closer or farther apart? Refer to Figure 15.7B on page 300 of your textbook. They are getting farther apart. 3. True or false: Biogeography is the study of the distribution of all organisms on the planet.
If false, make it a correct statement. True 4. In 150 years, an earthquake strikes along the San Andreas fault causing a small chunk of California to break off and move off the coast.
Briefly explain how this event could trigger macroevolution given enough time. The organisms found in each environment would begin to be subjected to different selective forces. Given enough time, these forces could lead to organisms that are no longer able to interbreed. 5. Mass extinctions can obviously be viewed in a negative light, but is there anything positive that can come out of them? They create new opportunities for life to evolve and fill the voids left by the extinctions.
6. Evidence suggests that we might be at the beginning of a sixth mass extinction. The difference between the previous five and this possible one is that this one is a result of what? This extinction would be caused predominantly by human activities. 7. True or false: After the dinosaurs became extinct, marsupials expanded greatly through adaptive radiation, filling many of the open roles left behind by the dinosaurs.
If false, make it a correct statement. False, mammals expanded greatly after the extinction of the dinosaurs. 8. During adaptive radiations, the diversification of one type of organism can spur the development of a different type of organism. Briefly explain how this is possible and provide an example of such an event. The diversification of land plants helped to spur the diversification of insects that pollinated them.
9. How far back do you have to go to find a common ancestor to Monotremes, mammals, and marsupials? Refer to Figure 15.10 on page 304 of your textbook. a. Approximately 65 million years ago b. Approximately 175 million years ago c. Approximately 140 million years ago d.
Approximately 50 million years ago Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 99 # 152826 Cust: Pearson Au: Reece Pg. No. 99 REEC7833_08_C15_PRF.indd 99 Title: Active Reading Guide for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 8e C/M/Y/K Short / Normal DESIGN SERVICES OF S4-CARLISLE Publishing Services 29/10/14 11:04 AM Chapter 15: Tracing Evolutionary History 10.
Complete the following table, which describes the different ways in which changes in developmental genes can drive great evolutionary effects.
Changes in rate and timing Description A change in the timing or rate of developmental events Example Development of the human skull Changes in spatial pattern Changes in patterns of expression that have effects on body form New genes and changes in genes Duplications of genes that may result in the formation of new body structures Changes in gene regulation Changes that can occur as a result of a gene being regulated differently in different organisms Expression of The different numbers Changes in gene homeotic genes in of homeotic genes in expression in tetrapods and snakes fruit flies and mice stickleback fish change in rate and time in humans is the development of our skull from the 11.
An example of ____________________ fetus to the adult. 12. A structure that evolves for one use and, over time, begins to be used for a different function is exaptation Provide two examples. an example of a(n) ____________. The feathers of birds and the flippers of penguins 13. True or false: Many complex structures that are seen in organisms today are a result of quick, evolutionary leaps. If false, make it a correct statement.
False, they would have been the result of gradual changes and the creation of many intermediate stages. 14. According to Figure 15.13 on page 307 of your textbook, how long ago did the evolution of modern horses begin? What is considered the ancestor of the modern horse? About 5 million years ago; Hyracotherium is considered the ancestor of the modern horse. Big idea: Phylogeny and the tree of life Answer the following questions as you read modules 15.14–15.19: phylogeny 1.
The evolutionary progression of a species or a group of species is known as ____________. 2. Briefly explain how two organisms that live in different areas of the world can have similar adaptations and even resemble one another. Provide an example of such an occurrence. In convergent evolution, organisms come to share characteristics because of the similarity of their environments.
Examples are the Australian and North American moles. 3. True or false: The fingers of humans and chimpanzees are an example of analogy. If false, make it a correct statement. False, chimps and humans evolved from a shared ancestor. 100 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. # 152826 Cust: Pearson Au: Reece Pg. No. 100 REEC7833_08_C15_PRF.indd 100Guide for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 8e Title: Active Reading C/M/Y/K Short / Normal DESIGN SERVICES OF S4-CARLISLE Publishing Services 29/10/14 11:04 AM Chapter 15: Tracing Evolutionary History Systematics is a part of biology that deals with the classification of organisms based on 4.
___________ shared characteristics and the determination of their evolutionary connectedness. 5. The binomial scientific name of humans is Homo sapiens.
What genus do we belong to? Homo 6. Which of the following includes all of the others? a.Species b.Family c.Phylum d.Order 7. The amnion, hair, mammary glands, gestation, and long gestation would all be considered shared derived characters Refer to Figure 15.16A on page 310 of your textbook.
______________________. 8. The simplest explanation for a set of observations is known as ______________. a. parsimony b. ingroup c.cladistics d. shared ancestral characters 9. Examine the phylogenetic tree in Figure 15.16B on page 311 of your textbook and identify the outgroup.
Lizards and snakes 10. True or false: The more recently two species branched away from each other, then the more similar their sequences of DNA should be. If false, make it a correct statement. True 11. A method for establishing evolutionary relatedness using DNA or other molecules is known systematics as molecular ___________________. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 101 # 152826 Cust: Pearson Au: Reece Pg.
No. 101 REEC7833_08_C15_PRF.indd 101 Title: Active Reading Guide for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 8e C/M/Y/K Short / Normal DESIGN SERVICES OF S4-CARLISLE Publishing Services 29/10/14 11:04 AM Chapter 15: Tracing Evolutionary History 12.
A biologist discovers that the genes that code for crucial enzymes in glycolysis (look back at Chapter 6) are remarkably similar in humans, yeast, and oak trees. What can she infer from these data? She can infer that these organisms share remarkably similar biochemical pathways. 13. Eukaryotes have DNA in their mitochondria that code for molecules used in cellular respiration.
The vast majority of eukaryotic DNA is housed in the nucleus. The process of cellular respiration produces substances that can mutate DNA. Would mitochondrial DNA be good for establishing a molecular clock? Briefly explain your answer either way. Based on the idea that you need a known and relatively stable rate of mutation, mitochondrial DNA may not be the best source of DNA for a molecular clock because that DNA may be more prone to mutation.
14. List the three major events depicted in Figure 15.19A on page 314 of your textbook. Divergence of bacteria; gene transfer from mitochondrial ancestor; gene transfer from chloroplast ancestor 15.
Horizontal gene transfer is a process by which DNA can be transferred from one genome to _____________________ another through the following ways: Viral infection, plasmid exchange, and the fusion of two organisms Connecting the Big Ideas Use your knowledge of the information contained within this chapter’s “Big Ideas” to answer this question. Homology and analogy are commonly confused. How are they different? Do they both provide support for evolution by natural selection?
Explain your answer. 102 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. # 152826 Cust: Pearson Au: Reece Pg. No. 102 REEC7833_08_C15_PRF.indd 102Guide for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, 8e Title: Active Reading C/M/Y/K Short / Normal DESIGN SERVICES OF S4-CARLISLE Publishing Services 29/10/14 11:04 AM
Question: "How does radiometric dating fit with the view of a young earth?" Answer: Radiometric dating does not fit with the “young earth” view. Radiometric dating is a method which scientists use to determine the age of various specimens, mainly inorganic matter (rocks, etc.), though there is one radiometric dating technique, radiocarbon dating, which is used to date organic specimens.
How do these dating techniques work? Basically, scientists take advantage of a natural process by which unstable radioactive “parent” isotopes decay into stable “daughter” isotopes spontaneously over time. Uranium-238 (U238), for example, is an unstable radioactive isotope which decays into Lead-206 (Pb206) naturally over time (it goes through 13 unstable intermediate stages before it finally stabilizes into Pb206).
In this case, U238 is the “parent” and Pb206 is the “daughter.” Scientists begin by measuring how long it takes for a parent isotope to decay into a daughter isotope. In this particular case, it takes 4,460,000,000 years for half of a sample of U238 to decay into Pb206.
It takes another 4,460,000,000 years for half of the remaining sample to decay into Pb206 and then another 4,460,000,000 years for half of what’s then left to decay, and so on. The time it takes for half of a sample to decay is called a “half-life.” By measuring radioactive half-lives, by measuring how much parent and daughter are present in any given specimen, and by making certain key assumptions, scientists believe they are able to accurately determine the age of a specimen.
The measurements involved can be quite accurate. The question is what are the underlying key assumptions and how reliable are they? The three key underlying assumptions are 1) the rate of decay of parent into daughter has remained constant throughout the unobservable past; 2) the specimen which we are examining hasn’t been contaminated in any way (that is, no parent or daughter has been added or taken away at any point during the unobservable past), and 3) we can determine how much parent and daughter were present at the beginning of the decay process – not all of the Pb206 present today necessarily came from decaying U238; Pb206 may have been part of the original constitution of the specimen.
If any of these assumptions are wrong, the method cannot accurately determine the age of a specimen. While the second and third assumptions have always been a bit troublesome, especially the third assumption, which considers the original constitution of a particular specimen, the first assumption was thought to be a pretty safe bet since scientists were not able to vary the decay rates much in a lab.
Recently, however, new research has revealed that the decay rates may have been drastically different in the unobservable past. This calls the whole method into question. AiG’s Dr. Carl Wieland explains, “When uranium decays to lead, a by-product of this process is the formation of helium, a very light, inert gas which readily escapes from rock. Certain crystals called zircons, obtained from drilling into very deep granites, contain uranium which has partly decayed into lead.
By measuring the amount of uranium and ‘radiogenic lead’ in these crystals, one can calculate that, if the decay rate has been constant, about 1.5 billion years must have passed. (This is consistent with the geologic ‘age’ assigned to the granites in which these zircons are found.) There is a significant amount of helium from that ‘1.5 billion years of decay’ still inside the zircons.
This is at first glance surprising for long-agers, because of the ease with which one would expect helium (with its tiny, light, unreactive atoms) to escape from the spaces within the crystal structure. There should surely be hardly any left, because with such a slow buildup, it should be seeping out continually and not accumulating. …Results show that because of all the helium still in the zircons, these crystals (and since this is Precambrian basement granite, by implication the whole earth) could not be older than between 4,000 and 14,000 years.
In other words, in only a few thousand years, 1.5 billion years’ worth (at today’s rates) of radioactive decay has taken place” (). For more on this, see AiG’s radiometric dating FAQ page at . The point is that radiometric dating is not the sure thing that it has been made out to be over the last century. There still remains a lot of research to do, but, as it currently stands, the accuracy of radiometric dating remains ambiguously suspect at best.
How Radiometric Dating Works: Relative not Absolute Ages