Best rural dating new zealand

best rural dating new zealand

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best rural dating new zealand

He is a perfect fit. We work so well together. And I could not be happier. From almost the moment we talked I could sense the levels of connection we would have.

I have to stop and think about how quickly it's happened. Distance definitely has some advantages in life. Like not getting involved for someone for physical reasons. To fall in love with a persons mind is the greatest love we can have.

All the rest is a bonus. Thank you. Nicole, 2018-04-15


best rural dating new zealand

best rural dating new zealand - New Zealand Single Women Dating Site


best rural dating new zealand

New Zealand is a young country as compared to some like Italy, China and even in the Persian Gulf where the earliest civilizations go back several centuries. While originally New Zealand was only Maori, later it became bicultural with colonial and rural values. Contemporary New Zealand is a cosmopolitan culture and part of educated, developed Western society. So if you are planning a trip to the Southern hemisphere in search of socializing opportunities, stop by New Zealand and check out its men.

TIP: has many millionaire men from New Zealand looking for women to date. The hands-on pioneer Men in New Zealand are believed to be quite efficient in a practical and active kind of way. They are considered to be good with machines and animals , particularly horses, besides being able to turn their hands to nearly anything. This stereotype of the pioneer man has something in common with the frontier men of North America as well as the settlers of the Australian outbacks. The image of the rugged male Kiwi probably goes back to the time when men in New Zealand were the first settlers and had to make their living off the land.

Tough and practical, they could fix anything with a length of fencing wire and were sure to come up with a workable solution for almost any kind of problem.

And though now the vast majority live in cities and work in offices where there’s little use for fencing wire, New Zealand men are still proud of the image of the hands-on pioneer who is good at the tasks which rural life requires. So your New Zealand male friend may not speak five languages but you can surely depend upon him to mow the lawn and change a flat tire.

Suspicious of intellectualism The image of the male Kiwi as a strong, rugged and active guy goes together with a deep distrust of intellectualism. New Zealanders do not have a particularly high regard for intellectual activity, especially if it is more theoretical than practical. This is unlike many Europeans but similar to what people in Australia and some in America too think about purely intellectual pursuits.

Instead what is more valued is the 'kiwi ingenuity' according to which all problems are better solved by seeing what works than by applying a theory. This lack of faith in intellectual theorization goes back to the country’s social policy of the early and mid twentieth century, which historian Michael Bassett described as 'socialism without doctrines'.

Later a series of reforms introduced during the 1980s under the free market ideology further entrenched the people’s distrust of intellectual theory since the reforms were perceived as having ushered in higher poverty and inequality. In their daily lives thus New Zealand men may depict a laconic manner and mistrust of conversation. Having said this, don’t be surprised to find that your male friend has gone to college and holds a white collar job. Despite the people’s skepticism about intellectual pursuits, New Zealand has a fairly high participation rate in tertiary education.

And the country has produced its own share of academicians and scientists like Ernest Rutherford, J.G.A. Pocock and Alan MacDiarmid. Love of sports Yet another common trait of New Zealand men is their love of sports. Whilegolf, netball, tennis and cricket are the four top participatory sports, soccer is the most popular among young men and rugby union attracts the most spectators.

In fact rugby tours to Australia and the United Kingdom in the late 1880s and the early 1900s played an early role in instilling a national identity as distinct from their larger neighbor Australia and the “mother country” England.

New Zealand's national rugby union team is often regarded as the best in the world and is the reigning World Cup holder. New Zealand is also known for its extreme sports and adventure tourism as well as strong mountaineering tradition. Thus men can be found seriously involved in hiking, mountaineering, biking and camping while other outdoor pursuits such as fishing, swimming, running, tramping, canoeing, hunting, snow sports and surfing are gaining increasing popularity.

Rather private people New Zealanders, both of European descent and those of Maori roots, are considered as rather individualistic people. The men take any kind of intrusion into their personal lives very personally, especially when it occurs onto private land.

According to social psychologists, this can be traced back to the 'Frontier' image of the European settler culture besides being mirrored amongst the indigenous people for whom land holds a great deal of spiritual value in addition to its commercial use. A fall out of their intensely private natures is that men here are not very emotional. It is not in their nature to give eloquent tongue to their deepest feelings. Faced with a pretty girl, a Kiwi guy will tend to hang his head and look at her warily as if she has turned up with the sole purpose of turning his life upside down.

So if you are interested in a Kiwi guy but losing hope of getting a few words of romance out of him, be patient since they are not really comfortable about expressing matters of the heart.

Prone to violence An unfortunate fallout of the New Zealand stereotype of the rugged, physical man of action is that some of them are rather prone to violence. For many years this was seen as an evidence of spirited macho culture and was best embodied by popular sporting heroes like Colin Meads of the Rugby Union team, All Blacks. Voted 'New Zealand player of the century' by New Zealand Rugby Monthly magazine, Meads was the second player of the All Black team to be sent off the field and even known to assault other players during games.

He was also a supporter of sporting contact with apartheid South Africa. In recent decades the macho attitude has been both criticized as dangerous both to men who embody it and those around them. It has been blamed for New Zealand's culture of heavy drinking and its high male suicide rate not to mention higher incidence of domestic violence perpetrated on women. Now both the male populace and the government are waking up to the downside of this physical macho culture and are encouraging a greater regard for general safety.


best rural dating new zealand

"NZ" redirects here. For other uses, see . : New Zealand (: ) is a in the southwestern . The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the ( Te Ika-a-Māui), and the ( Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 .

New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of across the and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the of , , and . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct of animal, fungal, and plant life.

The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the , owe much to the of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's is , while its most populous city is . • Summer () +13 ( ) Date format dd/mm/yyyy Sometime between 1250 and 1300, settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive . In 1642, Dutch explorer became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and chiefs signed the , which declared British sovereignty over the islands.

In 1841, New Zealand within the and in 1907 it ; it gained in 1947, but the British monarch remained the . Today, the majority of of 4.9 million is of ; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by and . Reflecting this, is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased .

The are , , and , with English being very dominant. A , New Zealand in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, protection of , and . New Zealand underwent during the 1980s, which transformed it from a to a economy. The service sector dominates the , followed by the industrial sector, and . International is a significant source of revenue. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, , while executive political power is exercised by the , led by the , who is currently .

is the country's head of state and is represented by a , currently . In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 and 67 for local government purposes. The also includes (a ); the and (self-governing states in with New Zealand); and the , which is New Zealand's . New Zealand is a member of the , , , , , , and the . Detail from a 1657 map showing the western coastline of "Nova Zeelandia".

(In this map, north is at the bottom.) explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the " (Dutch parliament).

He wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to at the southern tip of South America, discovered by in 1616. In 1645, Dutch renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the of . British explorer subsequently the name to New Zealand.

(pronounced ; often translated as "land of the long white cloud") is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa originally referring to just the . Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui (the fish of ) for the North Island and Te Waipounamu (the waters of ) or Te Waka o Aoraki (the canoe of ) for the .

Early European maps labelled the islands North (North Island), Middle (South Island) and South (). In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm. The discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, and names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu.

For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used, or both can be used together. The are most likely descended from people who emigrated from to and then travelled east through to the . After a pause of 70 to 265 years, a new wave of exploration led to the discovery and settlement of New Zealand. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans.

, evidence of and variability within populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands. Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into (tribes) and (subtribes) who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the , where they developed their distinct culture.

The Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862, largely because of Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases also contributed.

In 1862 only 101 survived, and the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933. Map of the New Zealand coastline as Cook charted it on his in 1769–70. The track of the is also shown. The first known to have reached New Zealand were Dutch explorer and his crew in 1642. In a hostile encounter, four crew members were killed and at least one Māori was hit by . Europeans did not revisit New Zealand until 1769 when British explorer mapped almost the entire coastline.

Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American , and trading ships. They traded European food, metal tools, weapons and other goods for timber, Māori food, artefacts and water.

The introduction of the potato and the transformed Māori agriculture and warfare. Potatoes provided a reliable food surplus, which enabled longer and more sustained military campaigns. The resulting intertribal encompassed over 600 battles between 1801 and 1840, killing 30,000–40,000 Māori. From the early 19th century, Christian began to settle New Zealand, eventually most of the Māori population.

The Māori population declined to around 40% of its pre-contact level during the 19th century; introduced diseases were the major factor.

The Waitangi sheet from the In 1788 Captain assumed the position of of the new British colony of which according to his commission included New Zealand. The British Government appointed as British Resident to New Zealand in 1832 following a petition from northern Māori.

In 1835, following an announcement of impending French settlement by , the nebulous sent a to King asking for protection. Ongoing unrest, the proposed settlement of New Zealand by the (which had already sent its first ship of surveyors to buy land from Māori) and the dubious legal standing of the Declaration of Independence prompted the to send Captain to claim sovereignty for the United Kingdom and negotiate a treaty with the Māori. The was first signed in the on 6 February 1840.

In response to the New Zealand Company's attempts to establish an independent settlement in and French settlers purchasing land in , Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840, even though copies of the Treaty were still circulating throughout the country for Māori to sign. With the signing of the Treaty and declaration of sovereignty the number of immigrants, particularly from the United Kingdom, began to increase.

A meeting of European and Māori inhabitants of . Engraving, 1863. New Zealand, still part of the colony of New South Wales, became a separate on 1 July 1841. The colony gained a and the met in 1854. In 1856 the colony effectively became self-governing, gaining responsibility over all domestic matters other than policy. (Control over native policy was granted in the mid-1860s. ) Following concerns that the South Island might form a separate colony, premier moved a resolution to transfer the from Auckland to a locality near .

Wellington was chosen for its central location, with Parliament officially sitting there for the first time in 1865. As immigrant numbers increased, conflicts over land led to the of the 1860s and 1870s, resulting in the loss and confiscation of much Māori land. In 1891 the , led by , came to power as the first organised political party. The , later led by , passed many important social and economic measures.

In 1893 New Zealand was the first nation in the world to grant all and in 1894 pioneered the . In 1907, at the request of the New Zealand Parliament, King proclaimed New Zealand a within the British Empire, reflecting its self-governing status. In 1947 the country the , confirming that the British Parliament could no longer legislate for New Zealand without the consent of New Zealand. Early in the 20th century, New Zealand was involved in world affairs, fighting in the and and suffering through the .

The depression led to the election of the and the establishment of a comprehensive and a economy. New Zealand experienced increasing prosperity following the Second World War and Māori began to leave their traditional rural life and move to the cities in search of work. A developed, which criticised and worked for greater recognition of and of the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1975, a was set up to investigate alleged breaches of the Treaty, and it was enabled to investigate historic grievances in 1985.

The government has negotiated with many iwi, although have proved controversial in the 2000s. New Zealand is a with a , although is . is the and thus the . The Queen is represented by the , whom she appoints on the of the . The Governor-General can exercise the Crown's , such as reviewing cases of injustice and making appointments of , ambassadors and other key public officials, and in rare situations, the (e.g.

the power to dissolve Parliament or refuse the of a into law). The powers of the Queen and the Governor-General are limited by constitutional constraints and they cannot normally be exercised without the advice of ministers. The holds and consists of the Queen and the . It also included an upper house, the , until this was abolished in 1950.

The , over the Crown and other government institutions, was established in England by the and has been ratified as law in New Zealand. The House of Representatives is democratically elected and a government is formed from the party or with the majority of seats. If no majority is formed, a can be formed if support from other parties during votes is assured. The Governor-General appoints ministers under advice from the Prime Minister, who is by the of the governing party or coalition.

, formed by ministers and led by the Prime Minister, is the highest policy-making body in government and responsible for deciding significant government actions. Members of Cabinet make major decisions collectively, and are therefore for the consequences of these decisions.

A must be called no later than three years after the previous election. Almost all general elections between and were held under the system. Since the , a form of called (MMP) has been used. Under the MMP system, each person has two votes; one is for a candidate standing in the voter's and the other is for a party.

Since the , there have been 71 electorates (which include seven in which only Māori can optionally vote), and the remaining 49 of the 120 seats are assigned so that representation in parliament reflects the party vote, with the threshold that a party must win at least one electorate or 5% of the total party vote before it is eligible for a seat. A statue of , the "" (Executive Wing), and (right), in Parliament Grounds, Wellington Elections since the 1930s have been dominated by two political parties, and .

Between March 2005 and August 2006, New Zealand became the first country in the world in which all the highest offices in the land—Head of State, Governor-General, Prime Minister, and —were occupied simultaneously by women. The current Prime Minister is , who has been in office since 26 October 2017. She is the country's third female prime minister. , headed by the Chief Justice, includes the , , the , and subordinate courts. Judges and judicial officers are appointed non-politically and under strict rules regarding tenure to help maintain .

This theoretically allows the judiciary to interpret the law based solely on the legislation enacted by Parliament without other influences on their decisions. New Zealand is identified as one of the world's most stable and well-governed states. As at 2017 , the country was ranked fourth in the strength of its democratic institutions, and first in government transparency and .

A 2017 by the U.S. Department of State noted that the government generally of individuals, but voiced concerns regarding the social status of the Māori population. New Zealand ranks highly for civic participation in the political process, with 77% during recent elections, compared to an OECD average of 69%. in Egypt, 1941 Early colonial New Zealand allowed the British Government to determine external trade and be responsible for foreign policy. The 1923 and 1926 decided that New Zealand should be allowed to negotiate its own political and the first commercial treaty was ratified in 1928 with Japan.

On 3 September 1939 New Zealand allied itself with Britain and on Germany with Prime Minister proclaiming, "Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand." In 1951 the United Kingdom became increasingly focused on its European interests, while New Zealand joined and the in the security treaty. The influence of the United States on New Zealand weakened following protests over the , the refusal of the United States to admonish France after the , disagreements over environmental and agricultural trade issues and .

Despite the United States' suspension of ANZUS obligations the treaty remained in effect between New Zealand and Australia, whose foreign policy has followed a similar historical trend. Close political contact is maintained between the two countries, with and that allow citizens to visit, live and work in both countries without restrictions. In 2013 there were about 650,000 New Zealand citizens living in Australia, which is equivalent to 15% of the resident population of New Zealand.

service at the National War Memorial New Zealand has a strong presence among the countries. A large proportion of New Zealand's aid goes to these countries and many Pacific people migrate to New Zealand for employment. Permanent migration is regulated under the 1970 Samoan Quota Scheme and the 2002 Pacific Access Category, which allow up to 1,100 Samoan nationals and up to 750 other Pacific Islanders respectively to become permanent New Zealand residents each year.

A seasonal workers scheme for temporary migration was introduced in 2007 and in 2009 about 8,000 Pacific Islanders were employed under it.

New Zealand is involved in the , and the Regional Forum (including the ). New Zealand is a member of the , the and the (OECD), and participates in the . New Zealand's armed forces—the Defence Force—comprise the , the and the . New Zealand's needs are modest, since a direct attack is unlikely.

However, its military has . The country fought in both world wars, with notable campaigns in , , and . The Gallipoli campaign played an important part in fostering New Zealand's and strengthened the tradition it shares with Australia.

In addition to Vietnam and the two world wars, New Zealand fought in the , the , the , the and the . It has contributed forces to several regional and global peacekeeping missions, such as those in , , , the , , , the border, , , and the . Local government and external territories Locations of the countries and territories within the The early European settlers divided New Zealand into , which had a degree of autonomy. Because of financial pressures and the desire to consolidate railways, education, land sales and other policies, government was centralised and the provinces were abolished in 1876.

The provinces are remembered in and sporting rivalries. Since 1876, various councils have administered local areas under legislation determined by the central government. In 1989, the government reorganised local government into the current two-tier structure of and . The that existed in 1975 have now been consolidated into 67 territorial authorities and 11 regional councils. The regional councils' role is to regulate "the natural environment with particular emphasis on ", while territorial authorities are responsible for sewage, water, local roads, building consents and other local matters.

Five of the territorial councils are and also act as regional councils. The territorial authorities consist of 13 city councils, 53 councils, and the Council. While officially the Chatham Islands Council is not a unitary authority, it undertakes many functions of a regional council. The Realm of New Zealand, one of 16 , is the entire area over which the Queen of New Zealand is , and comprises New Zealand, , the , the and .

The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing states in with New Zealand. The New Zealand Parliament cannot pass legislation for these countries, but with their consent can act on behalf of them in foreign affairs and defence. Tokelau is classified as a , but is administered by a council of three elders (one from each Tokelauan ).

The Ross Dependency is New Zealand's , where it operates the research facility. treats all parts of the realm equally, so most people born in New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau and the Ross Dependency are New Zealand citizens. The snow-capped dominate the South Island, while the North Island's stretches towards the subtropics New Zealand is located near the centre of the and is made up of two main islands and a number of .

The two main islands (the , or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the , or Te Waipounamu) are separated by , 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide at its narrowest point.

Besides the North and South Islands, the five largest inhabited islands are (across the ), , (in the ), (in the ) and (about 22 km (14 mi) from central Auckland). The Southern Alps stretch for 500 kilometres down the South Island New Zealand is long and narrow (over 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) along its north-north-east axis with a maximum width of 400 kilometres (250 mi)), with about 15,000 km (9,300 mi) of coastline and a total land area of 268,000 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi).

Because of its far-flung outlying islands and long coastline, the country has extensive marine resources. Its is one of the largest in the world, covering more than 15 times its land area. The South Island is the largest landmass of New Zealand and is the in the world. It is divided along its length by the . There are 18 peaks over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft), the highest of which is at 3,754 metres (12,316 ft). 's steep mountains and deep record the extensive ice age glaciation of this southwestern corner of the South Island.

The North Island is the in the world and is less mountainous but is . The highly active has formed a large , punctuated by the North Island's highest mountain, (2,797 metres (9,177 ft)). The plateau also hosts the country's largest lake, , nestled in the of one of the world's most active . The country owes its varied topography, and perhaps even its emergence above the waves, to the dynamic boundary it straddles between the and .

New Zealand is part of , a nearly half the size of Australia that gradually submerged after breaking away from the supercontinent. About 25 million years ago, a shift in movements began to the region. This is now most evident in the Southern Alps, formed by beside the . Elsewhere the plate boundary involves the of one plate under the other, producing the to the south, the east of the North Island, and the and further north. New Zealand is part of , and also forms the southwestern extremity of .

The term is often used to denote the region encompassing the , New Zealand and various islands in the Pacific Ocean that are not included in the model. • Landscapes of New Zealand • Main article: New Zealand's climate is predominantly temperate (: Cfb), with mean annual temperatures ranging from 10 °C (50 °F) in the south to 16 °C (61 °F) in the north.

Historical are 42.4 °C (108.32 °F) in , and −25.6 °C (−14.08 °F) in , . Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on the of the South Island to almost in and the of inland Canterbury and in .

Of the seven largest cities, is the driest, receiving on average only 640 millimetres (25 in) of rain per year and Wellington the wettest, receiving almost twice that amount. Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch all receive a yearly average of more than 2,000 hours of sunshine. The southern and southwestern parts of the South Island have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1,400–1,600 hours; the northern and northeastern parts of the South Island are the sunniest areas of the country and receive about 2,400–2,500 hours.

The general snow season is early June until early October, though can occur outside this season. Snowfall is common in the eastern and southern parts of the South Island and mountain areas across the country.

• Seasons in New Zealand • beach in summer The table below lists climate normals for the warmest and coldest months in New Zealand's six largest cities. North Island cities are generally warmest in February. South Island cities are warmest in January. Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the six largest cities of New Zealand Location Jan/Feb (°C) Jan/Feb (°F) July (°C) July (°F) 23/16 74/60 14/7 58/45 20/13 68/56 11/6 52/42 22/12 72/53 10/0 51/33 24/13 75/56 14/4 57/39 24/15 75/59 14/6 58/42 19/11 66/53 10/3 50/37 Biodiversity The endemic flightless is a national icon.

New Zealand's for 80 million years and island has influenced evolution of the country's species of , and . Physical isolation has caused biological isolation, resulting in a dynamic evolutionary ecology with examples of very distinctive plants and animals as well as populations of widespread species.

About 82% of New Zealand's indigenous are , covering 1,944 species across 65 and includes a single endemic . The number of fungi recorded from New Zealand, including lichen-forming species, is not known, nor is the proportion of those fungi which are endemic, but one estimate suggests there are about 2,300 species of lichen-forming fungi in New Zealand and 40% of these are endemic.

The two main types of forest are those dominated by broadleaf trees with emergent , or by in cooler climates. The remaining vegetation types consist of grasslands, the majority of which are . Before the arrival of humans, an estimated 80% of the land was covered in forest, with only , wet, infertile and volcanic areas without trees. Massive occurred after humans arrived, with around half the forest cover lost to fire after Polynesian settlement.

Much of the remaining forest fell after European settlement, being logged or cleared to make room for pastoral farming, leaving forest occupying only 23% of the land.

The giant died out when humans hunted its main prey, the , to extinction. The forests were dominated by , and the lack of mammalian predators led to some like the , , and evolving . The arrival of humans, associated changes to habitat, and the introduction of , ferrets and other mammals led to the of many bird species, including like the and . Other indigenous animals are represented by reptiles (, and ), , , insects () and snails.

Some, such as the tuatara, are so unique that they have been called . Three species of bats ( since extinct) were the only sign of native land mammals in New Zealand until the 2006 discovery of bones from at least 16 million years old. Marine mammals however are abundant, with almost half the world's (whales, dolphins, and ) and large numbers of reported in New Zealand waters.

Many seabirds breed in New Zealand, a third of them unique to the country. More species are found in New Zealand than in any other country. Since human arrival, almost half of the country's vertebrate species have become extinct, including at least fifty-one birds, three frogs, three lizards, one freshwater fish, and one bat. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. However, New Zealand conservationists have pioneered several methods to help threatened wildlife recover, including island sanctuaries, pest control, wildlife translocation, fostering, and ecological and .

along , a major hub of economic activity New Zealand has an , ranked 16th in the 2018 and third in the 2018 . It is a with a (GDP) per capita of 36,254. The currency is the , informally known as the "Kiwi dollar"; it also circulates in the Cook Islands (see ), Niue, Tokelau, and the . Historically, extractive industries have contributed strongly to New Zealand's economy, focussing at different times on sealing, whaling, , gold, , and native timber.

The first shipment of refrigerated meat on the in 1882 led to the establishment of meat and dairy exports to Britain, a trade which provided the basis for strong economic growth in New Zealand.

High demand for agricultural products from the United Kingdom and the United States helped New Zealanders achieve higher living standards than both Australia and Western Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1973, New Zealand's export market was reduced when the United Kingdom joined the and other compounding factors, such as the and crises, led to a severe . Living standards in New Zealand fell behind those of Australia and Western Europe, and by 1982 New Zealand had the lowest per-capita income of all the developed nations surveyed by .

In the mid-1980s New Zealand deregulated its by phasing out over a three-year period. Since 1984, successive governments engaged in major restructuring (known first as and then ), rapidly transforming New Zealand from a and highly regulated economy to a liberalised economy. is one of New Zealand's most famous tourist destinations. Unemployment peaked above 10% in 1991 and 1992, following the , but eventually fell to a record low (since 1986) of 3.7% in 2007 (ranking third from twenty-seven comparable OECD nations).

However, the that followed had a major impact on New Zealand, with the GDP shrinking for five consecutive quarters, the longest recession in over thirty years, and unemployment rising back to 7% in late 2009.

Unemployment rates for different age groups follow similar trends, but are consistently higher among youth.

In the December 2014 quarter, the general unemployment rate was around 5.8%, while the unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 21 was 15.6%. New Zealand has experienced a series of "" since the 1970s that still continue today. Nearly one quarter of highly skilled workers live overseas, mostly in Australia and Britain, which is the largest proportion from any developed nation.

In recent decades, however, a "brain gain" has brought in educated professionals from Europe and less developed countries. Today New Zealand's economy benefits from a high level of .

Trade New Zealand is heavily dependent on international trade, particularly in agricultural products. Exports account for 24% of its output, making New Zealand vulnerable to international commodity prices and global . Food products made up 55% of the value of all the country's exports in 2014; wood was the second largest earner (7%).

Its major export partners are Australia, United States, Japan, China, and the United Kingdom. On 7 April 2008, New Zealand and China signed the , the first such agreement China has signed with a developed country. The service sector is the largest sector in the economy, followed by manufacturing and construction and then farming and raw material extraction.

plays a significant role in the economy, contributing $12.9 billion (or 5.6%) to New Zealand's total GDP and supporting 7.5% of the total workforce in 2016. International visitor arrivals are expected to increase at a rate of 5.4% annually up to 2022. Wool has historically been one of New Zealand's major exports.

Wool was New Zealand's major agricultural export during the late 19th century. Even as late as the 1960s it made up over a third of all export revenues, but since then its price has steadily dropped relative to other commodities and wool is no longer profitable for many farmers.

In contrast increased, with the number of dairy cows doubling between 1990 and 2007, to become New Zealand's largest export earner. In the year to June 2009, dairy products accounted for 21% ($9.1 billion) of total merchandise exports, and the country's largest company, , controls almost one-third of the international dairy trade. Other agricultural exports in 2009 were meat 13.2%, wool 6.3%, fruit 3.5% and fishing 3.3%. industry has followed a similar trend to dairy, the number of vineyards doubling over the same period, overtaking wool exports for the first time in 2007.

Infrastructure A of , the flag carrier of New Zealand In 2015, , primarily and , generated 40.1% of supply. Geothermal power alone accounted for 22% of New Zealand's energy in 2015. The provision of is generally of good quality. Regional authorities provide water abstraction, treatment and distribution infrastructure to most developed areas. network comprises 94,000 kilometres (58,410 mi) of roads, including 199 kilometres (124 mi) of motorways, and 4,128 kilometres (2,565 mi) of railway lines.

Most major cities and towns are linked by bus services, although the private car is the predominant mode of transport. The were privatised in 1993, but were re-nationalised by the government in stages between 2004 and 2008.

The state-owned enterprise now operates the railways, with the exception of commuter services in Auckland and Wellington which are operated by and , respectively. Railways run the length of the country, although most lines now carry freight rather than passengers.

Most international visitors arrive via air and New Zealand has , but currently only the and connect directly with countries other than Australia or Fiji.

The had a monopoly over telecommunications until 1987 when was formed, initially as a state-owned enterprise and then privatised in 1990. , which was split from Telecom (now Spark) in 2011, still owns the majority of the telecommunications infrastructure, but competition from other providers has increased. A large-scale rollout of gigabit-capable , branded as , began in 2009 with a target of being available to 87% of the population by 2022. As of 2017 , the United Nations ranks New Zealand 13th in the development of information and communications infrastructure.

(2017) The enumerated a resident population of 4,242,048, an increase of 5.3% over the 2006 figure. As of December 2018, the total population has risen to an estimated 4,927,350. New Zealand is a predominantly urban country, with 73.0% of the population living in the seventeen main (i.e.

population 30,000 or greater) and 55.1% living in the four largest cities of , , , and . New Zealand cities generally rank highly on international livability measures. For instance, in 2016 Auckland was ranked the world's third and Wellington the twelfth by the . Life expectancy for New Zealanders in 2012 was 84 years for females, and 80.2 years for males. Life expectancy at birth is forecast to increase from 80 years to 85 years in 2050 and infant mortality is expected to decline.

New Zealand's of 2.1 is relatively high for a developed country, and natural births account for a significant proportion of .

Consequently, the country has a young population compared to most industrialised nations, with 20% of New Zealanders being 14 years old or younger. By 2050 the median age is projected to rise from 36 years to 43 years and the percentage of people 60 years of age and older to rise from 18% to 29%.

In 2008, the leading cause of premature death was , at 29.8%, followed by , 19.7%, and then , 9.2%. As of 2016 , total expenditure on (including private sector spending) is 9.2% of GDP. Ethnicity and immigration Pedestrians on in Auckland, an ethnically diverse city In the 2013 census, 74.0% of New Zealand residents identified ethnically as European, and 14.9% as Māori. Other major ethnic groups include (11.8%) and Pacific peoples (7.4%), two-thirds of whom live in the . The population has become more diverse in recent decades: in 1961, the census reported that the population of New Zealand was 92% European and 7% Māori, with Asian and Pacific minorities sharing the remaining 1%.

While the for a New Zealand citizen is New Zealander, the informal "" is commonly used both internationally and by locals. The Māori loanword has been used to refer to , although others reject this appellation. The word Pākehā today is increasingly used to refer to all non-Polynesian New Zealanders. The Māori were the first people to reach New Zealand, followed by the early . Following colonisation, immigrants were predominantly from Britain, Ireland and Australia because of restrictive policies similar to the .

There was also significant Dutch, , German, and Italian immigration, together with indirect European immigration through Australia, North America, South America and South Africa. Net migration increased after the Second World War; in the 1970s and 1980s policies were relaxed and immigration from Asia was promoted.

In 2009–10, an annual target of 45,000–50,000 permanent residence approvals was set by the New Zealand Immigration Service—more than one new migrant for every 100 New Zealand residents.

Just over 25% of New Zealand's population was born overseas, with the majority (52%) living in the Auckland Region. The United Kingdom remains the largest source of New Zealand's overseas population, with a quarter of all overseas-born New Zealanders born there; other major sources of New Zealand's overseas-born population are China, India, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and Samoa. The number of fee-paying increased sharply in the late 1990s, with more than 20,000 studying in public in 2002.

Language More than 50% English is the predominant language in New Zealand, spoken by 96.1% of the population. is similar to and many speakers from the Northern Hemisphere are unable to tell the apart. The most prominent differences between the New Zealand English dialect and other English dialects are the shifts in the short front vowels: the short-"i" sound (as in "kit") has centralised towards the sound (the "a" in "comma" and "about"); the short-"e" sound (as in "dress") has moved towards the short-"i" sound; and the short-"a" sound (as in "trap") has moved to the short-"e" sound.

After the Second World War, Māori were discouraged from speaking their own language ( ) in schools and workplaces and it existed as a community language only in a few remote areas. It has recently undergone a process of revitalisation, being declared one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987, and is spoken by 3.7% of the population.

There are now Māori language immersion schools and two television channels that broadcast predominantly in Māori. have both their Māori and English names officially recognised. As recorded in the 2013 census, is the most widely spoken non-official language (2.2%), followed by (1.7%), "Northern Chinese" (including , 1.3%) and French (1.2%).

20,235 people (0.5%) reported the ability to use . It was declared one of New Zealand's official languages in 2006.

Religion A church on a hill near . The two-tower construction is characteristic of Rātana buildings. is the predominant religion in New Zealand, although its society is among the most in the world. In the 2013 census, 55.0% of the population identified with one or more religions, including 49.0% identifying as Christians. Another 41.9% indicated that they had no religion. The main Christian denominations are, by number of adherents, (12.6%), (11.8%), (8.5%) and "Christian not further defined" (i.e.

people identifying as Christian but not stating the denomination, 5.5%). The Māori-based and religions (1.4%) are also Christian in origin. Immigration and demographic change in recent decades has contributed to the growth of minority religions, such as (2.1%), (1.5%), (1.2%) and (0.5%). The Auckland Region exhibited the greatest religious diversity. Education Main articles: and Primary and secondary schooling is compulsory for children aged 6 to 16, with the majority attending from the age of 5.

There are 13 school years and attending is free to New Zealand citizens and permanent residents from a person's 5th birthday to the end of the calendar year following their 19th birthday.

New Zealand has an adult literacy rate of 99%, and over half of the population aged 15 to 29 hold a tertiary qualification. There are five types of government-owned tertiary institutions: universities, colleges of education, , specialist colleges, and , in addition to private training establishments. In the adult population 14.2% have a or higher, 30.4% have some form of secondary qualification as their highest qualification and 22.4% have no formal qualification. The OECD's ranks New Zealand's education system as the seventh best in the world, with students performing exceptionally well in reading, mathematics and science.

Late 20th-century house-post depicting the navigator fighting two sea creatures Early Māori adapted the tropically based east in line with the challenges associated with a larger and more diverse environment, eventually developing their own distinctive culture. Social organisation was largely communal with families ( ), subtribes ( hapū) and tribes ( iwi) ruled by a chief ( ), whose position was subject to the community's approval.

The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Māori culture, particularly with the introduction of Christianity. However, Māori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of , and Māori kinship roles resemble . More recently , , and other have exerted influence on New Zealand. Non-Māori Polynesian cultures are also apparent, with , the world's largest Polynesian festival, now an annual event in Auckland.

developed an identity that was influenced by their rustic lifestyle. In this scene from 1909, men at their camp site display a catch of rabbits and fish. The largely rural life in early New Zealand led to the image of New Zealanders being rugged, industrious problem solvers. Modesty was expected and enforced through the "", where high achievers received harsh criticism. At the time New Zealand was not known as an intellectual country. From the early 20th century until the late 1960s, Māori culture was suppressed by the attempted of Māori into British New Zealanders.

In the 1960s, as tertiary education became more available and urban culture began to dominate. However, rural imagery and themes are common in New Zealand's art, literature and media. are influenced by natural, historical, and Māori sources. The is an emblem appearing on army insignia and sporting team uniforms. Certain items of popular culture thought to be unique to New Zealand are called "". Art Main article: As part of the resurgence of Māori culture, the traditional crafts of carving and weaving are now more widely practised and Māori artists are increasing in number and influence.

Most Māori carvings feature human figures, generally with three fingers and either a natural-looking, detailed head or a grotesque head. Surface patterns consisting of spirals, ridges, notches and fish scales decorate most carvings. The pre-eminent Māori architecture consisted of carved meeting houses ( ) decorated with symbolic carvings and illustrations.

These buildings were originally designed to be constantly rebuilt, changing and adapting to different whims or needs. Māori decorated the white wood of buildings, canoes and cenotaphs using red (a mixture of red and shark fat) and black (made from soot) paint and painted pictures of birds, reptiles and other designs on cave walls.

Māori tattoos ( ) consisting of coloured soot mixed with gum were cut into the flesh with a bone chisel. Since European arrival paintings and photographs have been dominated by landscapes, originally not as works of art but as factual portrayals of New Zealand. Portraits of Māori were also common, with early painters often portraying them as "", exotic beauties or friendly natives.

The country's isolation delayed the influence of European artistic trends allowing local artists to develop their own distinctive style of . During the 1960s and 1970s many artists combined traditional Māori and Western techniques, creating unique art forms. New Zealand art and craft has gradually achieved an international audience, with exhibitions in the in 2001 and the "Paradise Now" exhibition in New York in 2004.

Portrait of Hinepare of by , showing chin , and woven cloak Māori cloaks are made of fine flax fibre and patterned with black, red and white triangles, diamonds and other geometric shapes. was fashioned into earrings and necklaces, with the most well-known design being the , a distorted human figure sitting cross-legged with its head tilted to the side. Europeans brought English fashion etiquette to New Zealand, and until the 1950s most people dressed up for social occasions.

Standards have since relaxed and New Zealand fashion has received a reputation for being casual, practical and lacklustre. However, the local fashion industry has grown significantly since 2000, doubling exports and increasing from a handful to about 50 established labels, with some labels gaining international recognition. Literature Main article: Māori quickly adopted writing as a means of sharing ideas, and many of their oral stories and poems were converted to the written form.

Most early English literature was obtained from Britain and it was not until the 1950s when local publishing outlets increased that New Zealand literature started to become widely known. Although still largely influenced by global trends () and events (the Great Depression), writers in the 1930s began to develop stories increasingly focused on their experiences in New Zealand.

During this period literature changed from a activity to a more academic pursuit. Participation in the world wars gave some New Zealand writers a new perspective on New Zealand culture and with the post-war expansion of universities local literature flourished.

Dunedin is a UNESCO . Media and entertainment Main articles: , , and New Zealand music has been influenced by , , , and , with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation.

Māori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient Southeast Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "" sound. Flutes and trumpets were used as musical instruments or as signalling devices during war or special occasions. Early settlers brought over their ethnic music, with and being popular, and musicians began touring New Zealand in the 1860s. became widespread during the early 20th century.

The New Zealand recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand musicians have obtained success in Britain and the United States. Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of (song and dance) has made a resurgence.

The are held annually by ; the awards were first held in 1965 by as the awards. Recorded Music NZ also publishes the country's . The , located near , was used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Public was introduced in New Zealand in 1922. A state-owned began in 1960. Deregulation in the 1980s saw a sudden increase in the numbers of radio and television stations.

New Zealand television primarily broadcasts American and British programming, along with a large number of Australian and local shows. The number of significantly increased during the 1970s.

In 1978 the started assisting local film-makers and many films attained a world audience, some receiving international acknowledgement. The highest-grossing New Zealand films are , , , and . The country's diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives, have encouraged some to shoot big-budget productions in New Zealand, including , , , , and .

The New Zealand media industry is dominated by a small number of companies, most of which are foreign-owned, although the of some television and radio stations. Since 1994, has consistently ranked New Zealand's press freedom in the top twenty, with the 19th freest media in 2015 . Sports A performed by the before a game. The haka is a challenge with vigorous movements and stamping of the feet.

Most of the major sporting codes played in New Zealand have British origins. is considered the and attracts the most spectators. , , and have the highest rates of adult participation, while netball, rugby union and are particularly popular among young people. Around 54% of New Zealand adolescents participate in sports for their school. Victorious rugby tours to Australia and the United Kingdom in the and the played an early role in instilling a national identity.

was also a popular and became part of the "Rugby, Racing and Beer" culture during the 1960s. Māori participation in European sports was particularly evident in rugby and the country's team performs a , a traditional Māori challenge, before international matches.

New Zealand is known for its , and strong tradition, as seen in the success of notable New Zealander . Other outdoor pursuits such as , fishing, swimming, running, , canoeing, hunting, snowsports, surfing and sailing are also popular.

The Polynesian sport of racing has experienced a resurgence of interest in New Zealand since the 1980s. New Zealand has competitive international teams in , , , , , and . New Zealand participated at the in 1908 and 1912 as , before first participating in 1920. The country has ranked highly on a medals-to-population ratio at recent Games. The "All Blacks", the national rugby union team, are the most successful in the history of international rugby and the reigning champions.

Cuisine Ingredients to be prepared for a The national cuisine has been described as , incorporating the native and diverse culinary traditions introduced by settlers and immigrants from Europe, Polynesia and Asia. New Zealand yields produce from land and sea—most crops and livestock, such as maize, potatoes and pigs, were gradually introduced by the early European settlers.

Distinctive ingredients or dishes include , salmon, (crayfish), , , (abalone), mussels, scallops, and (both are types of New Zealand shellfish), (sweet potato), , and (considered a national dish). A is a traditional Māori method of cooking food using heated rocks buried in a pit oven. After European colonisation, Māori began cooking with pots and ovens and the hāngi was used less frequently, although it is still used for formal occasions such as . • "God Save the Queen" is officially a national anthem but is generally used only on regal and viceregal occasions.

• English is a de facto official language due to its widespread use. • ^ Ethnicity figures add to more than 100% as people could choose more than one ethnic group.

• The proportion of New Zealand's area (excluding estuaries) covered by rivers, lakes and ponds, based on figures from the New Zealand Land Cover Database, is (357526 + 81936) / (26821559 – 92499–26033 – 19216) = 1.6%. If estuarine open water, mangroves, and herbaceous saline vegetation are included, the figure is 2.2%. • The Chatham Islands have a , 45 minutes ahead of the rest of New Zealand. • Clocks are advanced by an hour from the last Sunday in September until the first Sunday in April.

Daylight saving time is also observed in the Chatham Islands, an additional 45 minutes ahead. • A person born on or after 1 January 2006 acquires New Zealand citizenship at birth only if at least one parent is a New Zealand citizen or permanent resident. People born on or before 31 December 2005 acquired citizenship at birth ( ). • The population is increasing at a rate of 1.4–2.0% per year and is projected to rise to 5.01–5.51 million in 2025. • In 2015, 55% of Māori adults (aged 15 years and over) reported knowledge of te reo Māori.

Of these speakers, 64% use Māori at home and 50,000 can speak the language "very well" or "well". • Of the 86,403 people that replied they spoke Samoan, 51,336 lived in the Auckland Region.

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