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This article is about the city in Ohio. For the metropolitan area, see . For other uses, see . Cleveland ( ) is a major city in the of , and the of . The city proper has a population of 388,072, making it the in the , and the in Ohio.
is ranked as the in the U.S., with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the , which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States.
Zip codes • 44101-44106, 44108-44115, 44118-44122, 44124-44130, 44134-44135, 44143-44144, 44181, 44188, 44190-44195, 44197-44199 39-16000 feature ID Website The city is located on the southern shore of , approximately 60 miles (100 kilometers) west of the Ohio- state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the . It became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous and lines.
relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services, , and biomedicals. Cleveland is also home to the . Cleveland residents are called . The city has many , the oldest of which in contemporary use being . See also: Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the laid out 's into townships and a capital city. They named it Cleaveland after their leader, General .
Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on , before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first settler in Cleaveland was , who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade.
The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the . This key link between the and the connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the and Hudson River, and later via the . Its products could reach markets on the via the . Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city, then located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring over a bridge connecting the two.
Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its by Cleveland in 1854. of Cleveland in 1877 The city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from , along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, founded in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business.
Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center. Its businesses included automotive companies such as , People's, , , and , maker of the first car driven across the U.S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced cars, which included and , as well as the company . Because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period.
By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-. The city counted politicians such as the Mayor among its leaders. Its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South.
In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the debuted in June 1936 along the shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the , it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937.
The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the , the , and , among others. Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy.
In sports, the won the , the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, and the dominated professional in the 1950s. As a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra.
The city's population reached its peak of 914,808, and in 1949 Cleveland was named an for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, and residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. The winds through in a December 1937 aerial view of . In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights, social and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966.
The took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, (who served from 1968 to 1971). Industrial restructuring, particularly in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous jobs in Cleveland and the region, and the city suffered economically. In December 1978, Cleveland became the first major American city since the Great Depression to enter into a on federal loans. By the beginning of the 1980s, several factors, including changes in international policies, inflation and the , contributed to that severely affected cities like Cleveland.
While unemployment during the period peaked in 1983, Cleveland's rate of 13.8% was higher than the national average due to the closure of several steel production centers. In the later 20th century, the metropolitan area began a gradual economic recovery under mayors and .
Redevelopment within the city limits has been strongest in the downtown area near the —consisting of and —and near , including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, , and the Great Lakes Science Center. Cleveland was hailed in 2007 by local media as the "Comeback City". Economic development of the inner-city neighborhoods and improvement of the school systems have been municipal priorities.
In 1999, Cleveland was identified as an emerging . Since the turn of the 21st century, the city has improved infrastructure, developed a more diversified economy, gained a national reputation in medical fields, and invested in the arts. Cleveland is generally considered to be an example of revitalization of an older industrial city. The city's goals include additional neighborhood revitalization and increased funding for . In 2009, Cleveland was chosen to host the , the fourth city in the United States to host this international event.
On July 8, 2014, Cleveland was chosen to be the host city of the . Topography According to the , the city has a total area of 82.47 square miles (213.60 km 2), of which 77.70 square miles (201.24 km 2) is land and 4.77 square miles (12.35 km 2) is water.
The shore of is 569 feet (173 m) above ; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the , Big Creek, and . The land rises quickly from the lake shore. , less than one mile (1.6 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, 5 miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 791 feet (241 m).
Cityscape St. Theodosius Orthodox Cathedral Cleveland's downtown architecture is diverse. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the , the , and , are clustered around an open and share a common .
Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 . They constitute one of the most complete examples of design in the United States. The , dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in North America outside New York City until 1964 and the tallest in the city until 1991. It is a prototypical skyscraper.
The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, (currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the , combine elements of architecture with designs. Another of Cleveland's architectural treasures is (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Regency Hotel. Cleveland's landmark includes the historic in downtown Cleveland and the in , along with myriad ethnically inspired Roman Catholic churches. Running east from Public Square through University Circle is , which was known for its prestige and elegance as a residential street.
In the late 1880s, writer described it as "the most beautiful street in the world". Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such major figures as , , and . Neighborhoods The west bank of and the in is centered on and includes a wide range of districts.
It contains the traditional Financial District and Civic Center, as well as the , which is home to . Mixed-use neighborhoods, such as the and the , are occupied by industrial and office buildings as well as restaurants and bars.
The number of downtown housing units, in the form of , , and apartments, has been on the increase since 2000. Recent developments include the revival of the Flats, the , and the developments along East 4th Street. Cleveland residents geographically define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east or west side of the . The east side includes the neighborhoods of , , , Corlett, Euclid-Green, , Forest Hills, , Payne/Goodrich-Kirtland Park, , Kinsman, , Mount Pleasant, , , Union-Miles Park, , , and .
The west side includes the neighborhoods of , , , Cudell, Edgewater, , , , Stockyards, West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as : Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Puritas-Longmead, and Riverside. Three neighborhoods in the Cuyahoga Valley are sometimes referred to as the south side: /Duck Island, (North and South Broadway), and Tremont. Map of villages and other land annexed to the City of Cleveland Several neighborhoods have begun to attract the return of the middle class that left the city for the suburbs in the 1960s and 1970s.
These neighborhoods are on both the west side (Ohio City, Tremont, Detroit-Shoreway, and Edgewater) and the east side (Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy). Much of the growth has been spurred on by attracting members, which in turn is spurring new residential development.
Furthermore, a live-work overlay for the city's near east side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists. Main article: Cleveland's older, inner-ring suburbs include , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
Many of the suburbs are members of the Northeast Ohio First Suburbs Consortium. Climate Typical of the Great Lakes region, Cleveland exhibits a with four distinct seasons, which lies in the ( Dfa) zone. Summers are warm to hot and humid while winters are cold and snowy. The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east–west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to , but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the that is typical in Cleveland (especially on the city's East Side) from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February.
The lake effect also causes a relative differential in geographical snowfall totals across the city: while Hopkins Airport, on the city's far West Side, has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a season three times since record-keeping for snow began in 1893, seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches (254 cm) are not uncommon as the city ascends into the Heights on the east, where the region known as the '' begins.
Extending from the city's East Side and its suburbs, the Snow Belt reaches up the Lake Erie shore as far as . The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.
On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 73.5 °F (23.1 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C), is the coldest.
Normal yearly based on the 30-year average from 1981 to 2010 is 39.1 inches (990 mm). The least precipitation occurs on the western side and directly along the lake, and the most occurs in the eastern suburbs. Parts of to the east receive over 44 inches (1,100 mm) of liquid precipitation annually. Climate data for Cleveland (), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1871–present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 73 (23) 77 (25) 83 (28) 88 (31) 93 (34) 104 (40) 103 (39) 102 (39) 101 (38) 90 (32) 82 (28) 77 (25) 104 (40) Mean maximum °F (°C) 56.9 (13.8) 59.8 (15.4) 73.2 (22.9) 80.7 (27.1) 85.0 (29.4) 91.6 (33.1) 92.7 (33.7) 91.0 (32.8) 87.3 (30.7) 79.4 (26.3) 69.8 (21) 58.5 (14.7) 93.9 (34.4) Average high °F (°C) 34.4 (1.3) 37.5 (3.1) 46.6 (8.1) 59.1 (15.1) 69.5 (20.8) 78.6 (25.9) 82.6 (28.1) 80.8 (27.1) 73.9 (23.3) 62.3 (16.8) 50.8 (10.4) 38.3 (3.5) 59.6 (15.3) Average low °F (°C) 21.7 (−5.7) 23.6 (−4.7) 30.2 (−1) 40.4 (4.7) 50.1 (10.1) 59.8 (15.4) 64.3 (17.9) 63.1 (17.3) 56.0 (13.3) 45.4 (7.4) 36.9 (2.7) 26.4 (−3.1) 43.3 (6.3) Mean minimum °F (°C) 0.0 (−17.8) 3.2 (−16) 11.3 (−11.5) 24.7 (−4.1) 35.0 (1.7) 44.4 (6.9) 50.9 (10.5) 50.0 (10) 40.7 (4.8) 30.9 (−0.6) 21.2 (−6) 6.4 (−14.2) −4.6 (−20.3) Record low °F (°C) −20 (−29) −17 (−27) −5 (−21) 10 (−12) 25 (−4) 31 (−1) 41 (5) 38 (3) 32 (0) 19 (−7) 0 (−18) −15 (−26) −20 (−29) Average inches (mm) 2.72 (69) 2.34 (59) 2.93 (74) 3.49 (89) 3.66 (93) 3.43 (87) 3.46 (88) 3.51 (89) 3.81 (97) 3.07 (78) 3.62 (92) 3.10 (79) 39.14 (994) Average snowfall inches (cm) 18.7 (47) 14.9 (38) 12.6 (32) 3.3 (8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.2 (1) 4.3 (11) 14.1 (36) 68.1 (173) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 17.1 13.9 14.2 14.4 13.2 11.1 10.3 9.8 10.0 11.4 13.5 16.0 154.9 Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 13.5 10.1 7.5 2.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 3.3 10.0 46.9 Average (%) 73.3 73.0 70.4 66.1 67.3 69.0 69.8 73.1 73.7 70.8 71.9 74.1 71.0 Mean monthly 101.0 122.3 167.0 216.0 263.6 294.6 307.2 262.2 219.0 169.5 89.8 67.8 2,280 Percent 34 41 45 54 59 65 67 61 59 49 30 24 51 Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990) Main article: Census Pop.
%± 606 — 1,075 77.4% 6,071 464.7% 17,034 180.6% 43,417 154.9% 92,829 113.8% 160,146 72.5% 261,353 63.2% 381,768 46.1% 560,663 46.9% 796,841 42.1% 900,429 13.0% 878,336 −2.5% 914,808 4.2% 876,050 −4.2% 750,903 −14.3% 573,822 −23.6% 505,616 −11.9% 478,403 −5.4% 396,815 −17.1% Est. 2017 385,525 −2.8% Racial composition 2010 1990 1950 1900 37.3% 49.5% 83.7% 98.4% —Non-Hispanic 33.4% 47.8% n/a n/a 53.3% 46.6% 16.2% 1.6% (of any race) 10.0% 4.6% n/a n/a 1.8% 1.0% 0.2% − 2010 census Map of racial distribution in Cleveland, 2010 U.S.
Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow) As of the of 2010, there were 396,698 people, 167,490 households, and 89,821 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,107.0 inhabitants per square mile (1,971.8/km 2). There were 207,536 housing units at an average density of 2,671.0 per square mile (1,031.3/km 2). The racial makeup of the city was 53.3% , 37.3% , 0.3% , 1.8% , 4.4% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races.
or of any race were 10.0% of the population. There were 167,490 households of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.4% were non-families.
39.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the city was 35.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. 2000 census Built as the Second Church of Christ, Scientist, this building on Cleveland's East Side, now known as The True Holiness Temple, a Pentecostal church located on Euclid Avenue, serves a primarily African American congregation.
As of the census of 2000, there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,166.5 inhabitants per square mile (2,380.9/km 2).
There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 2,782.4 per square mile (1,074.3/km 2). The racial makeup of the city was 51.0% African American, 41.5% , 0.3% Native American, 1.3% , 0.0% , 3.6% from , and 2.2% from .
of any race were 7.3% of the population. include (15.2%), (10.9%), (8.7%), (5.6%), (3.2%), and (3.0%). Out of the total population, 4.5% were foreign born; of which 41.2% were born in Europe, 29.1% Asia, 22.4% , 5.0% Africa, and 1.9% Northern America. There are also substantial communities of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and . The presence of Hungarians within Cleveland proper was, at one time, so great that the city boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of .
The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Between 1920 and 1960, the black population of Cleveland increased from 35,000 to 251,000. Out of 190,638 households, 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19. The age distribution of the population shows 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The for a household in the city was US$25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,291. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Languages As of 2010 , 88.4% (337,658) of Cleveland residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.1% (27,262) spoke , 0.6% (2,200) , and 0.5% (1,960) .
In addition 0.9% (3,364) spoke a (1,279 – , 679 , and 485 ). In total, 11.6% (44,148) of Cleveland's population age 5 and older spoke another language other than English. Downtown Cleveland as viewed from Edgewater Park Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie has been key to its growth.
The coupled with rail links helped the city become an important business center. Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as leading industries. The city diversified its economy in addition to its manufacturing sector. Cleveland is home to the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as , , , , , and . maintains a facility in Cleveland, the . , one of the largest law firms in the U.S., was founded in Cleveland.
In 2007, Cleveland's commercial real estate market experienced rebound with a record pace of purchases, with a housing vacancy of 10%. from the Superior Viaduct The is the city's largest private employer with a workforce of over 37,000 as of 2008 . It carries the distinction as being among America's best hospitals with top ratings published in . Cleveland's healthcare sector also includes , a renowned center for cancer treatment, medical center, and the insurance company . Cleveland is also noted in the fields of and research, led by , the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland.
The city is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research. Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and on the site of the former , creating a research campus to stimulate biotech that can be spun off from research conducted in the city.
NASA's is adjacent to . City leaders promoted growth of the technology sector in the first decade of the 21st century. Mayor appointed a "tech czar" to recruit technology companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on the area. hired a technology transfer officer to cultivate technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area.
Also, they appointed a vice president for economic development. ] The lies at the edge of Wade Lagoon in . Cleveland is home to , the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City's . Playhouse Square includes the , , , , and theaters within what is known as the Cleveland Theater District. Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include , Department of Theatre and Dance, and . The center hosts various , special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year.
One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's , was initially used as the broadcast studios of , where disc jockey first popularized the term "". Cleveland gained a strong reputation in rock music in the 1960s and 70s as a key breakout market for nationally promoted acts and performers. The city hosted the "World Series of Rock" at Cleveland Municipal Stadium, which was notable high-attendance events.
Located between Playhouse Square and University Circle is , a well-known African American performing and fine arts center, founded in the 1920s. Cleveland is home to , widely considered one of the world's finest orchestras, and often referred to as the finest in the United States. It is one of the "" major orchestras in the United States.
The Orchestra plays at in during the winter and at in during the summer. The city is also home to the , the , the the , and the biennial which has, in the past, often featured The Cleveland Orchestra. The city also has a history of music being popular both past and present, even having a subgenre called named after the city, and is home to the . This is due in part to the success of who was a Cleveland native and was considered the America's Polka King and the square at the intersection of Waterloo Rd.
and East 152nd St. in Cleveland ( ), not far from where Yankovic grew up, was named in his honor. There are two main in Cleveland. The is a major American art museum, with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from to .
showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions. The Gordon Square Arts District on Detroit Avenue, in the neighborhood, is the location of the Capitol Theatre and an Playhouse, the . Each spring, the campus of hosts the , the largest South Indian classical music festival next to Chennai's December Season. Film and television See also: and Cleveland has served as the setting for several and films.
Players from the , winners of the , appear in (1949). features prominently in both that film and (1966); written and directed by , the picture marked and 's first on-screen collaboration and features gameday of the .
Director 's first American film in nearly twenty years, (1968) is set in Cleveland immediately following the Set in 1930s Cleveland, leads a local in (1978). chose Cleveland as the opening for his only venture into filmmaking, (1980); Simon spent six weeks filming concert scenes at the .
The -turned- near the start of (1980) takes place at the in 1941. Clevelander 's critically acclaimed and independently produced (1984)—a comedy about two New Yorkers who travel to Florida by way of Cleveland—was a favorite of the , winning the . The (1984) includes a memorable scene where gets lost backstage just before performing at a Cleveland (origin of the phrase "Hello, Cleveland!").
(1986), ' heavily criticized adaptation of the , begins with the title character crashing into Cleveland after drifting in . and play the sibling leads of a Cleveland rock group in (1987); directed by , much of the film was shot in the city. Both (1989) and (1994) reflected the of the during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. stars in (1997), the semi-autobiographical tale of Clevelander , a former reporter for . Cleveland serves as the setting for fictitious insurance giant Great Benefit in (1997); in the film, doubles as the firm's main headquarters.
A group of Cleveland teenagers try to scam their way into a concert in (1999), and several key scenes from director 's (2000) are set in Cleveland. (2002) recounts the real-life story of . Brothers and —native Clevelanders and alumni—filmed their comedy (2002) entirely in the city. (2003)—the biographical film of , author of the —was also filmed on location throughout Cleveland, as was (2006). Much of (2008) is set in the city, and Cleveland native ' life story is told in (2009).
(2011) follows the real-life turf war in 1970s Cleveland between Irish mobster and the Cleveland crime family. More recently, the teenage comedy (2012) takes place in and around Cleveland on Halloween night, and the film (2014) followed as general manager for the . Cleveland has often doubled for other locations in the film. The wedding and reception scenes in (1978), while set in the small suburb of , were actually shot in the Cleveland neighborhood of ; also permitted the production to film in one of its Cleveland mills.
produced (1982), much of which was shot in near City Hall and the , as well as . (1983) was set in , but drew many of its external shots—including the Parker family home, the downtown Christmas parade and department store Santa scenes —from Cleveland.
Much of (1994) and (1996) were also shot in Cleveland, and the opening shots of (1997) were filmed in and above . A complex chase scene in (2007), though set in New York City, was actually filmed along Cleveland's . Downtown's East 9th Street also doubled for New York in the climax of (2012); in addition, the production shot on Cleveland's as a fill-in for , Germany.
More recently, (2013), (2014) and (2014) each filmed in Cleveland. Future productions in the Cleveland area are the responsibility of the . In television, the city is the setting for the popular network sitcom , starring Cleveland native . Real-life crime series , , and regularly film in Cleveland and other U.S.
cities. , a comedy airing on , premiered on June 16, 2010. Later episodes of the reality show have been partially filmed in Cleveland, after series star began a relationship with . Literature The American modernist poet was born in nearby in 1899. His adolescence was divided between Cleveland and Akron before he moved to New York City in 1916. Aside from factory work during the first world war, he served as reporter to for a short period, before achieving recognition in the literary scene.
A diminutive memorial park is dedicated to Crane along the left bank of the Cuyahoga in Cleveland. In University Circle, a historical marker sits at the location of his Cleveland childhood house on E. 115 near the intersection. On Case Western Reserve University campus, a statue of him stands behind the Kelvin Smith Library. , preeminent poet of the and child of an itinerant couple, lived in Cleveland as a teenager and attended Central High School in Cleveland in the 1910s.
He wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short stories while living in Cleveland. The African-American avant garde poet also lived in Cleveland. Cleveland was the home of and , who created the comic book character in 1932. Both attended , and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel". wrote: "Cleveland: The Rectal Eye Visions". Mystery author 's first three novels, Deviant Way, The Violet Hour, and Kiss of Evil are set in Cleveland.
Mystery writer, 's Milan Jacovich series is also set in Cleveland. Author and Ohio resident, set his , The Man from Primrose Lane in present-day Cleveland. , noted author of , was born in Cleveland in 1934; his family subsequently moved to the nearby suburb of , though Ellison moved back to Cleveland in 1949.
As a youngster, he published a series of short stories appearing in the ; he also performed in a number of productions for the . The serves as an academic center for poetry. Cleveland continues to have a thriving literary and poetry community, with regular poetry readings at bookstores, coffee shops, and various other venues.
Cleveland is the site of the , established by poet and philanthropist in 1935, which recognizes books that have made important contributions to understanding of racism and human diversity. Presented by the Cleveland Foundation, it remains the only American book prize focusing on works that address racism and diversity. In an early anthology titled Lavender Culture, a short piece by John Kelsey "The Cleveland Bar Scene in the Forties" discusses the gay and lesbian culture in Cleveland and the unique experiences of amateur female impersonators that existed alongside the New York and San Francisco subcultures.
Cuisine The historic is in Cleveland's neighborhood. Cleveland's melting pot of groups and their various culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as , , and . Local mainstays of Cleveland's cuisine include an abundance of Polish and Central European contributions, such as , and .
Cleveland also has plenty of , with nationally renowned Slyman's, on the near East Side, a perennial winner of various accolades from , including being named the best corned beef sandwich in America in 2008. Other famed sandwiches include the Cleveland original, , a local favorite found at many BBQ and Soul food restaurants. With its roots well intact, and plenty of Lake Erie available, the tradition of Friday night remains alive and thriving in Cleveland, particularly in church-based settings and during the season of Lent.
Ohio City is home to a growing brewery district, which includes (Ohio's oldest microbrewery); next to the historic and . Cleveland is noted in the world of celebrity food culture.
Famous local figures include chef and , both of whom achieved local and national attentions for their contributions in the culinary world. On November 11, 2007, Symon helped gain the spotlight when he was named "" on the . In 2007, Ruhlman collaborated with , to do an episode of his focusing on Cleveland's restaurant scene. The national food press—including publications Gourmet, Food & Wine, Esquire and Playboy—has heaped praise on several Cleveland spots for awards including 'best new restaurant', 'best steakhouse', 'best farm-to-table programs' and 'great new neighborhood eateries'.
In early 2008, the ran a feature article in its 'Travel' section proclaiming Cleveland, America's "hot new dining city". Tourism The on the shores of Five miles (8.0 km) east of downtown Cleveland is University Circle, a 550-acre (2.2 km 2) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including the , , , , the , the , and the .
A 2011 study by ranked Cleveland 17th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities. Cleveland is home to the -designed on the Lake Erie waterfront at downtown. Neighboring attractions include , the , the , and the , a World War II .
Cleveland has an attraction for visitors and fans of : and Museum to see props, costumes, rooms, photos and other materials related to the film.
Cleveland is home to many festivals throughout the year. Cultural festivals such as the annual in the Little Italy neighborhood, the Harvest Festival in the Slavic Village neighborhood, and the more recent Cleveland Asian Festival in the Asia Town neighborhood are popular events.
Vendors at the in Ohio City offer many different ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland hosts an annual on that brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of downtown.
The glass house at the recreates a rain forest. , the city's annual fashion event, is the third-largest fashion show of its kind in the United States. In addition to the cultural festivals, Cleveland hosted the , which featured national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts, but the festival was discontinued in 2007 due to financial and manpower costs to the Rock Hall. The annual Ingenuity Fest, and TEDxCLE conference focus on the combination of art and technology.
The has been held annually since 1977, and it drew a record 66,476 people in March 2009. Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square. Cleveland also has the . Phase I opened on May 14, 2012, on , in the historic former Building at . Phase II will open along the bend of the behind Tower City Center. The new is on the west bank of the Cuyahoga River near Downtown.
See also: and Cleveland's current major professional sports teams include the (Major League Baseball), (National Football League), and (National Basketball Association). Local sporting facilities include , , and the . The Cleveland Indians won the in and . They also won the pennant, making the in the , , , and seasons. Between and , (then known as Jacobs Field) sold out 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008.
games attract large crowds to . Historically, the Browns have been among the winningest franchises in history winning eight titles during a short period of time—, , , , , , , and . The Browns have never played in a , getting close five times by making it to the / in , , , , and . Former owner 's after the season (to creating the ), caused tremendous heartbreak and resentment among local fans.
Cleveland mayor, , worked with the and Commissioner to bring back the Browns beginning in season, retaining all team history. In earlier NFL history, the won the in , and the won the in before relocating to . The Cavaliers won the in , , , and but were defeated in the by the and the , respectively. The Cavs won the Conference again in and won their first NBA Championship coming back from a 3–1 deficit, finally defeating the . Afterwards, an estimated 1.3 million people attended a parade held in the Cavs honor on June 22, 2016.
This was the first time the city had planned for a championship parade in 50 years. Basketball, the dominated the original winning three of the first five championships (1926, 1929, 1930), and the , owned by , won the championship in 1962.
A notable Cleveland athlete is , who grew up in the city after moving from when he was nine. He participated in the in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four . A statue commemorating his achievement can be found in at Fort Washington Park. alum and area native, , won the World Heavyweight Championship at in 2016. Miocic has defended his World Heavyweight Champion title at , the first ever World Championship fight held in the city of Cleveland, and again at and .
The won the , becoming the first Cleveland pro sports team to do so since the . The city is also host to the of the , of the and of the . Collegiately, have 16 varsity sports, nationally known for their team. have 19 varsity sports, most known for their team.
The headquarters of the (MAC) are located in Cleveland. The conference also stages both its and basketball tournaments at Quicken Loans Arena. Several chess championships have taken place in Cleveland. The second , a predecessor the current U.S.
Championship, was held in 1871, and won by . The 1921 and 1957 also took place in the city, and were won by and , respectively. The is currently held annually. The has been hosted annually since 1978. Cleveland is home to four of the parks in the countywide system, as well as the: Washington Park, Brookside Park and parts of the Rocky River and Washington Reservations. Known locally as the "Emerald Necklace", the -inspired Metroparks encircle Cuyahoga county.
Included in the system is the . Located in Big Creek valley, the zoo contains one of the largest collection of in North America. In addition to the Metroparks system, the Cleveland Lakefront State Park district provides public access to Lake Erie. This cooperative between the City of Cleveland and the State of Ohio contains six parks: Edgewater Park, located on the city's near west side between the and the lake; East 55th Street Marina, and .
The is the municipal body that oversees the city's neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic , notable for its late-19th century historical landmark bridges and . Cleveland City Hall Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of early in its history. While other parts of Ohio, particularly and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the , Cleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the .
At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland is split between two . Most of the western part of the city is in the , represented by . Most of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of downtown, is in the , represented by . Both are Democrats. During the , although carried Ohio by 2.1%, carried Cuyahoga County 66.6%–32.9%, his largest margin in any Ohio county.
The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of 83.3%–15.8%. The city of Cleveland operates on the form of government. The is the of the city, and the office has been held by since 2006. Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat , World War I era War Secretary and founder of law firm , Justice , Republican , two-term Ohio Governor and Senator, former United States Representative of , , and , the first African American mayor of a major American city.
The state of Ohio lost two Congressional seats as a result of the 2010 Census, which affects Cleveland's districts in the northeast part of the state. Crime See also: Between about 1935 to 1938, the killed and dismembered at least a dozen and perhaps twenty people in the area.
No arrest was ever made. From 2002 to 2014, held three women as sex slaves in his home in Cleveland. Police became aware of the crime when one of the women escaped. Castro was sentenced to one thousand years in jail, but committed suicide.
Based on the 2008 national crime rankings, Cleveland ranked as the 7th most dangerous city in the nation among US cities with a population of 100,000 to 500,000 and the 11th most dangerous overall. Violent crime from 2005 to 2006 was mostly unchanged nationwide, but increased more than 10% in Cleveland.
The murder rate dropped 30% in Cleveland, but was still far above the national average. Property crime from 2005 to 2006 was virtually unchanged across the country and in Cleveland, with larceny-theft down by 7% but burglaries up almost 14%. In September 2009, the local police arrested , who was known in press reports as the Cleveland Strangler. He was convicted of eleven murders as well as other crimes and sentenced to death.
In October 2010, Cleveland had two neighborhoods appear on 's list of 'America's 25 Most Dangerous Neighborhoods': both in sections just blocks apart in the city's Central neighborhood on the East Side. Ranked 21st was in the vicinity of Quincy Avenue and E.
40th Streets, while an area near E. 55th and Scovill Avenue ranked 2nd in the nation, just behind a section of the neighborhood in Chicago, which ranked 1st. A study in 1971–72 found that although Cleveland's crime rate was significantly lower than other large urban areas, most Cleveland residents feared crime.
In the 1980s, activity was on the rise, associated with . A task force was formed and was partially successful at reducing gang activity by a combination of removing gang-related graffiti and educating news sources to not name gangs in news reporting. The distribution of crime in Cleveland is highly .
Relatively few crimes take place in downtown Cleveland's business district, but the perception of crime in the downtown has been pointed to by the Greater Cleveland Growth Association (now the Greater Cleveland Partnership ) as damaging to the city's economy. More affluent areas of Cleveland and its suburbs have lower rates of violent crime than areas of lower socioeconomic status. Statistically speaking, higher incidences of violent crimes have been noted in some parts of Cleveland with higher populations of African Americans.
A study of the relationship between employment access and crime in Cleveland found a strong inverse relationship, with the highest crime rates in areas of the city that had the lowest access to jobs. Furthermore, this relationship was found to be strongest with respect to economic crimes.
A study of public housing in Cleveland found that criminals tend to live in areas of higher affluence and move into areas of lower affluence to commit crimes. In 2012, Cleveland's crime rate were 84 murders, 3,252 robberies, and 9,740 burglaries.
In 2014, the (DOJ) published a report that investigated the use of force by the Cleveland Police Department from 2010–2013. The Justice Department found a pattern of excessive force including the use of firearms, tasers, fists, and chemical spray that unnecessarily escalated nonviolent situations, including against the mentally ill and people who were already restrained. As a result of the Justice Department report, the city of Cleveland has agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force.
On May 26, 2015, the City of Cleveland and the DOJ released a 105-page agreement addressing concerns about (CDP) use-of-force policies and practices. Consent decree with Department of Justice The agreement follows a two-year Department of Justice investigation, prompted by a request from Cleveland Mayor , to determine whether the CDP engaged in a pattern or practice of the use of excessive force in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution and the (1994), 42 U.S.C § 14141 (Section 14141").
Under Section 14141, the Department of Justice is granted authority to seek declaratory or equitable relief to remedy a pattern or practice of conduct by law enforcement officers that deprives individuals of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution or federal law. U.S. Attorney General and U.S. Attorney Steven Dettelbach announced the findings of the DOJ investigation in Cleveland on December 4, 2014. After reviewing nearly 600 use-of-force incidents from 2010 to 2013 and conducting thousands of interviews, the investigators found systemic patterns insufficient accountability mechanisms, inadequate training, ineffective policies, and inadequate community engagement.
At the same time as the announcement of the investigation findings, the City of Cleveland and the Department of Justice issued a Joint Statement of Principles agreeing to begin negotiations with the intention of reaching a court-enforceable settlement agreement.
The details of the settlement agreement, or consent decree, were released on May 26, 2015. The agreement mandates sweeping changes in training for recruits and seasoned officers, developing programs to identify and support troubled officers, updating technology and data management practices, and an independent monitor to ensure that the goals of the decree are met.
The agreement is not an admission or evidence of liability, nor is it an admission by the city, CDP, or its officers and employees that they have engaged in unconstitutional, illegal, or otherwise improper activities or conduct. Pending approval from a federal judge, the consent decree will be implemented and the agreement is binding. At least some of the provisions have been identified as unique to Cleveland: • a civilian inspector general who will review the work of the police officers.
This position will be appointed by the Mayor but report to the Police Chief. It is intended to provide an additional layer of accountability and scrutiny. • an equipment inventory that must result in a study by the police that shows what is needed. On June 12, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge approved and signed the consent decree.
The signing of the agreement starts the clock for numerous deadlines that must be met in an effort to improve the department's handling of use-of-force incidents.
Fire department Main article: Cleveland Division of Fire (CFD) Agency overview Established April 9, 1863 Employees 760 Staffing Career Angelo Calvillo First Responder BLS Facilities and Battalions 5 22 22 11 2 1 1 (closed) Cleveland is served by the of the Cleveland Division of Fire.
The fire department operates out of 22 active fire stations, located throughout the city in five battalions. Each Battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty Assistant Chief. The Division of Fire operates a fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force companies, hazardous materials ("haz-mat") unit, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units.
The current is Patrick Kelly. Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own department; however, a merger between the fire and EMS departments is in progress. Cleveland EMS units are now based out of most of the city's fire stations as of 2013 . City officials are currently negotiating with Cleveland Fire and EMS to form a new union contract that will merge the two systems entirely. No set projection for a full merger has been established.
Neither the Fire nor EMS unions have been able to come to an agreement with city officials on fair terms of merger as of yet. Public schools The is the largest district in the state of Ohio, with 127 schools and an enrollment of 55,567 students during the 2006–2007 academic year. It is the only district in Ohio that is under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a . Approximately 1 square mile (2.6 km 2) of Cleveland, adjacent the neighborhood, is part of the .
The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as the Shaker residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections.
Private and Parochial Schools • • Birchwood School • • • • • • • Urban Community School • • The Bridge Avenue School on the campus of Colleges and universities Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is , a world-renowned research and teaching institution located in University Circle. A private university with several prominent graduate programs, CWRU was ranked 37th in the nation in 2012 by .
also contains and the . (CSU), based in , is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of , the county's two-year higher education institution. is also based in Cleveland. Main article: Print Cleveland's primary daily newspaper is . Defunct major newspapers include the , an afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, 1982; and the , which ceased publication in 1960.
Additional newspaper coverage includes: the News-Herald which serves the smaller suburbs in the east side, the Thursdays-only , which serves a few neighborhoods on the city's west side; and the , a weekly newspaper that primarily serves the city's community.
The city is also served by , a regional culture magazine published monthly; , a weekly business newspaper; , a weekly ; and , a free paper which absorbed its competitor, the , in 2008.
In addition, nationally distributed was founded in Cleveland in 1985, and the publication's headquarters remain in the city. Television Combined with nearby and , Cleveland is ranked as the 19th-largest television market by (as of 2013 –14). The market is served by 10 full power stations, including: (), (), (), (), (), ( and ), (), (), (), and the independent .
, a nationally talk show, began in Cleveland in 1961 on KYW-TV (now WKYC), while on WEWS-TV served as the model for . and first established themselves in Cleveland while working together at KYW-TV and later WJW-TV (now WJW). Anderson both created and performed as the immensely popular Cleveland on WJW-TV's Shock Theater, and was later succeeded by the long-running duo .
Radio Cleveland is directly served by 31 and , 22 of which are licensed to the city. Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest rated stations in the market: (), (), (), (), (), (), (/; Indians and Cavaliers FM flagship), (; Browns co-flagship), (), and (). functions as the local , and airs a classical music format. stations include (), (Cleveland State University), (), and (Case Western Reserve University).
/ station serves as the AM for both the and . and cover sports via , while covers sports via (WKNR and WKRK-FM are also co-flagship stations for the ). As WJW (AM), WKNR was once the home of − the Cleveland disc jockey credited with first using and popularizing the term "" to describe the music genre. News/talk station was one of the first radio stations to broadcast in the United States and the first in Ohio; its former sister station, rock station WMMS, dominated Cleveland radio in the 1970s and 1980s and was at that time one of the highest rated radio stations in the country.
In 1972, WMMS program director Billy Bass coined the phrase "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World" to describe Cleveland. In 1987, named WMMS DJ (Lawrence Travagliante) "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country".
Healthcare Cleveland is home to several major hospital systems, two of which are in University Circle. Most notable is the world renowned , which is supplemented by and its .
Additionally , which operates the level one trauma center for northeast Ohio, has various locations throughout greater Cleveland. opened with 235,000 square feet (21,800 m 2) of display space for healthcare companies across the world.
Transportation The city of Cleveland has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2016, 23.7 percent of Cleveland households lacked a car, while the national average was 8.7 percent. Cleveland averaged 1.19 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Airports is the city's major airport and an that formerly served as a main for . It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in 1968.
In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic . Originally known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Cleveland Hopkins is a significant regional air freight hub hosting , , , and major commercial freight carriers. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by , on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the .
Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport. Seaport See also: , the national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the and routes, which stop at . Cleveland has also been identified as a hub for the proposed project, which would bring to Ohio. Cleveland hosts several inter-modal freight railroad terminals. There have been several proposals for , including an ongoing (as of January 2011 ) study into a –Cleveland line. Transit systems An train arrives at the Cleveland has a bus and system operated by the (RTA).
The rail portion is officially called the , but local residents refer to it as The Rapid. It consists of four lines, known as the , and a line, the . In 2008, RTA completed the , a line, for which naming rights were purchased by the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals. It runs along from downtown through University Circle, ending at the in .
In 2007, the named Cleveland's mass transit system the best in North America. Cleveland is the only metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere with its rail rapid transit system having only one center-city area rapid transit station (Tower City-Public Square). During construction of the Red Line rapid transit line in the 1950s the citizens of Cleveland voted to build the Downtown Distributor Subway which would have provided a number of Center City stations.
The plan was quashed by highway promoting County Engineer Albert S. Porter and the full development and growth of center city Cleveland has since been significantly impeded due to the resulting inaccessibility. Inter-city bus lines National service is provided at a station, located just behind the theater district. provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown.
, , , , and provide connecting bus service to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. and also offer connecting bus service in their neighboring areas. Roads Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north–south, and named avenues, which run roughly east–west. The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which bisects .
The numbered street system extends beyond the city limits into some suburbs on both the west and east sides. The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River and west of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on street signage.
The two downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Superior Avenue becomes Detroit Avenue on the west side, and Carnegie Avenue becomes Lorain Avenue. The bridges that make these connections are often called the and the . Freeways Three two-digit serve Cleveland directly.
begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with and . begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs.
I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to . connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east–west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as , then continues northeast, entering near the eastern split with .
Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, , which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and , which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown. Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The carries State Route 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries , and I-90. The Jennings Freeway () connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of and .
A third highway, the Berea Freeway ( in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and . Walkability In 2011, ranked Cleveland the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States.
As of 2014 , Walk Score increased Cleveland's rank to being the sixteenth most walkable US city, with a Walk Score of 57, a Transit Score of 47, and a Bike Score of 51. Cleveland's most walkable and transient areas can be found in the , , , , and neighborhoods. • , Egypt • , Ethiopia • , , India • , Romania since 1991 • , Slovakia • , United Kingdom • , Guinea • , Albania since 2006 • , Poland since 1990 • , , Germany • , Israel • , , Nigeria • , Lithuania since 1992 • , Peru • , Slovenia • , Hungary • , , France since 2008 • , , El Salvador since 1991 • , Taiwan • , , Italy • , Russia since 1990 • , Connacht, Ireland since 2003 In addition, Northeast Ohio's has an unofficial supportive relationship with the State of Israel.
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Martin's Press (June 4, 2013) • Larry Smith, Mary E. Weems, and Nina Freedlander Gibans, editors, Cleveland Poetry Scenes, Bottom Dog Press (2008); • J. Burroughs (ed.), Songs in the Key of Cleveland: An Anthology of the 2013 Best Cleveland Poem Competition, Crisis Chronicles Press (2014) • A calendar of Cleveland area poetry events can be found at (accessed November 25, 2014). • home page (accessed November 25, 2014) • Jacqueline Marino, Belt Magazine, September 9, 2013 (accessed November 25, 2014) • Jay, Karla; Young, Allen, eds.
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(You read right: The fries and slaw smother the eight-inch link.) • . Esquire. February 16, 2008 . Retrieved August 13, 2010. Corned Beef Slyman's, Cleveland • . RecipeHut.com . Retrieved August 13, 2010. The Polish Boy is a sausage sandwich originating in Cleveland, Ohio • . Cleveland Magazine.com. Archived from on July 10, 2012 . Retrieved August 13, 2010. • . Great American Beer Festival . Retrieved August 13, 2010. • ^ Eng, Monica (January 16, 2008). . Chicago Tribune.
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