Best free dating tamil nadu government

best free dating tamil nadu government

Category Wise. eServices of District Offices. Government e-Commerce. More. Forms. Download Mail Subscrip. Download D N S Request. Application Form For T. Income Certificate.

best free dating tamil nadu government

Organisation Job Openings Last Date Artisan, Apprentices 22/12/2018 Latest Notification 09/01/2019 Computer Operator, Office Assistant, Driver, Watchman 21/12/2018 Assistant Programmer 30/11/2018 Security Screeners 15/12/2018 Constable Exam Date and Call Letter 30/06/2018 Apprentice 26/11/2018 Prelims Cutoff and Marks 27/08/2018 Office Assistant, Computer Operator, Examiner, Driver 30/11/2018 Apprentices 16/11/2018 Project Coordinator 05/11/2018 Lab Technician 11/11/2018 DEO, Junior Assistant 02/11/2018 COO, Executive Officer, Young Professionals 31/10/2018 Technician Apprentice, Graduate Apprentice 25/10/2018 Organiser, Assistant Cook 16/10/2018 Coordinator, Project Assistant 24/10/2018 Admit Card Download 20/09/2018 Assistant Surgeon (General) 15/10/2018 Accountant, Electrician, Chemist, Manager, Driver 10/10/2018 Apprentice 13/10/2018 Tower Wagon Driver 26/10/2018 Hostel Asst Trainees 27/09/2018 Sub Inspector 28/09/2018 Manager (Engg.), Sr Factory Assistant 10/09/2018 Junior Assistant 14/09/2018 Notification, Exam Dates, Syllabus 27/08/2018 Assistant Professor 06/08/2018 JRF, Young Professional 09/07/2018 Junior Assistant 26/06/2018 Professor, Associate Professor, Asst Professor 30/07/2018 HR, Assistant Manager, Officer 27/06/2018 Assistant Professors 31/05/2018 Office Assistant 20/06/2018 UDC, Steno, Technician, Trainee, Scientific Asst, Technical Officer 17/06/2018 Representatives 30/05/2018 Clerk, Personal Assistant 02/05/2018 Research Associate, Consultant 20/05/2018 Computer Operator, Office Assistant, Examiner, Reader, Driver 28/05/2018

best free dating tamil nadu government

best free dating tamil nadu government - Latest Tamil Nadu Government Job Notifications

best free dating tamil nadu government

Tamil Nadu ( Tamiḻ Nāḍu Tamil pronunciation: ( ) " Country", formerly ) is one of the . Its capital and largest city is (formerly known as Madras). Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the and is bordered by the of and the states of , , and .

It is bounded by the on the north, by the , the , and on the west, by the in the east, by the and the on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of . Tamil Nadu is the and the . It has among Indian states as of 2015. The is the in India with ₹15.96 lakh crore (US$220 billion) in after and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000 (US$2,300).

It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the . Its official language is , which is one of the longest-surviving in the world.

The state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight . The people of Tamil Nadu have continued to develop their cultural heritage in terms of music, dance, literature, theatre, cuisine, and other art forms. Main article: Prehistory Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula.

In , archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before arrived from Africa. In , 24 km (15 mi) from , archaeologists from the (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice and of the period, 3,800 years ago.

The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" . Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, and most of these are in the . Indus valley script between 2000 and 1500 BCE A Neolithic stone (a hand-held axe) with the on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near in Tamil Nadu.

According to epigraphist , this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the , and therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a ". The date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. . Sangam period (300 BCE – 300 CE) Sage father of Tamil literature, The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as .

Numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries, from 300 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era. Bhakti Movement , one of the sixty-three , ( Movement) The Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of and spread northwards through India.

The was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the (4th–10th centuries) and the who spread bhakti poetry and devotion. The and were instrumental in propagating the tradition. Medieval period (600–1300) The Much later, the were replaced by the as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the in the 13th century.

The Pandyan capital was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime empires of and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the . During the 13th century, mentioned the Pandyas as the in existence. Temples such as the at and at are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.

The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast of India, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world. Chola Empire The at its greatest extent, during the reign of in 1030 During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by , who established as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from and the Pandya king .

and his son expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, . expanded the Chola empire into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great and his son , the Cholas rose to a notable power in south east Asia. Now the stretched as far as and Sri Lanka. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km 2 (1,400,000 sq mi). Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular and parts of Sri Lanka. 's navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now ) to Vietnam, the , Lakshadweep, , , , Philippines in South East Asia and Pegu islands.

He defeated , the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it . The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king . These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas.

His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the , acknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated temple at and the at held special significance for the which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities.

and his son built temples such as the of and of , the of and the (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at , the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above four temples are titled among the .

at The Muslim invasions of southern India triggered the establishment of the with in modern Karnataka as its capital. The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c.

1370 and ruled for almost two centuries until its defeat in the in 1565 by a confederacy of . Subsequently, as the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after the mid-16th century, many local rulers, called , succeeded in gaining the trappings of independence. This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the and Tanjore were the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom.

The Nayaks of Madurai and were the most prominent of Nayaks in the 17th century. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the . Power struggles of the 18th century (1688–1802) By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent. The fall of the Vijayanagara empire and the Chandragiri Nayakas gave the a chance to expand into the Tamil heartland.

When the sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in 1688, the northern part of current-day Tamil Nadu was administrated by the , who had his seat in from 1715 onward. Meanwhile, to the south, the fall of the led to a short-lived . The fall of the brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called palayams. The chieftains of these Palayams were known as (or 'polygar' as called by British) and were ruling under the nawabs of the Carnatic.

at built by the Europeans started to establish trade centres during the 17th century in the eastern coastal regions. Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in , while the Danes had their establishment in also known as Tranquebar. In 1639, the British, under the East India Company, established a settlement further south of Pulicat, in present-day . British constructed and established a trading post at Madras.

The office of was established in 1688. The French established trading posts at by 1693. The British and French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu which also witnessed many battles like as part of the . British reduced the French dominions in India to Puducherry.

Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the . Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts. In 1762, a tripartite treaty was signed between Thanjavur Maratha, Carnatic and the British by which Thanjavur became a vassal of the Nawab of the Carnatic which eventually ceded to British. In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars called to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar.

was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. Thevar's prominent exploits were his confrontations with , who later rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. , was the first woman freedom fighter of India and Queen of Sivagangai. She was drawn to war after her husband Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772), King of was murdered at temple by British.

Before her death, Queen Velu Nachi granted powers to the to rule Sivaganga. (1760–1799), Palaiyakkara chief of Panchalakurichi who fought the British in the First .

He was captured by the British at the end of the war and hanged near Kayattar in 1799. (1700–1800) was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump in 1799 which killed more than 150 British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace. , younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the , Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised an army . They formed a coalition with and Kerala Varma which fought the British in Second Polygar Wars.

(1756–1805), Polygar chieftain of Kongu and feudatory of Tipu Sultan who fought the British in the Second Polygar War.

After winning the Polygar wars in 1801, the East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the . Main article: At the beginning of the 19th century, the British firmly established governance over entirety of Tamil Nadu.

The on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British , predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century. The revolt, which took place in , was brief, lasting one full day, but brutal as mutineers broke into the Vellore fort and killed or wounded 200 British troops, before they were subdued by reinforcements from nearby Arcot.

The British crown took over the control governance from the Company and the remainder of the 19th century did not witness any native resistance until the beginning of 20th century Indian Independence movements.

During the administration of Governor (1854–1859) measures were taken to improve education and increase representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative powers given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act 1861 and 1909 eventually led to the establishment of the .

Failure of the summer monsoons and administrative shortcomings of the system resulted in two severe famines in the Madras Presidency, the and the . The famine led to migration of people as bonded labours for British to various countries which eventually formed the present . India (1947–present) When India became independent in 1947, Madras presidency became , comprising present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Odisha, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala.

The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning "Tamil country". traverse along the western border of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 km 2 (50,216 sq mi), and is the eleventh largest state in India. The bordering states are to the west, to the north west and to the north.

To the east is the and the state encircles the of . The southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is which is the meeting point of the , the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean. The western, southern and the north western parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. The and the meet at the . The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the south west monsoon from entering the state.

The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions. Tamil Nadu has the country's third longest at about 906.9 km (563.5 mi). Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II & III.

Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.0 range. Climate Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The state has two distinct periods of rainfall: • from June to September, with strong southwest winds; • from October to December, with dominant north east winds; The annual rainfall of the state is about 945 mm (37.2 in) of which 48 per cent is through the north east monsoon, and 32 per cent through the south west monsoon.

Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute and severe drought. Tamil Nadu is divided into seven agro-climatic zones: north east, north west, west, southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone). Main articles: and There are about 2000 species of wildlife that are native to Tamil Nadu.

Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including , , , , , , , , , and , resident and migratory birds such as , , , , , and , , , , a few migratory and occasionally , marine species such as the , turtles, dolphins, and a wide variety of fish and insects.

Indian diversity comprises 17,672 species with Tamil Nadu leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting for 1/3 of the total flora of India. This includes 1559 species of , 533 species, 260 species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and 230 species. The diversity of the country is 64 species of which Tamil Nadu has four indigenous species and about 60 introduced species.

The diversity of India includes 1022 species of which Tamil Nadu has about 184 species. Vast numbers of , , fungi, and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu.

Common plant species include the state tree: , , rubber, , clumping bamboos ( arundinacea), , , , , and blooming trees like , , and . Rare and unique plant life includes Combretum ovalifolium, ( Diospyros nilagrica), rariflora (orchid), , elegans, reniformis, and . Main article: Tamil Nadu has a wide range of extending east from the in the through the and to and then to the beaches, , , , and of the .

The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are of Tamil Nadu as well as which protect larger areas of natural habitat often include one or more National Parks. The established in 1986 is a marine ecosystem with seaweed seagrassrass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests.

The located in the and comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka. The is in the south west of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu is home to five declared National parks located in , , , , located in the centre of city and located in South Chennai. , and are the tiger reserves in the state. Madras High Court, Chennai The Governor is the constitutional head of the state while the is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers.

The of the is the head of the judiciary. The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are (governor), and respectively. Administratively the state is divided into 32 districts. (formerly known as Madras) is the state capital.

It is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major Metropolitan cities of India. The state comprises 39 constituencies and 234 Legislative Assembly constituencies. Tamil Nadu had a until 1986, when it was replaced with a , like most other states in India.

The term length of the government is five years. The present government is headed by , after the demise of former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, of the . The is housed at the in Chennai. The state had come under the on four occasions – first from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991.

Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of initiatives in India. A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices of the state government like – all the corporations and municipal office activities – revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully.

The Force is over 140 years old. It is the fifth largest state police force in India (as of 2015, total police force of TN is 1,11,448) and has the highest proportion of women police personnel in the country (total women police personnel of TN is 13,842 which is about 12.42%) to specifically handled . In 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717. Districts of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu is subdivided into 32 , which are listed below.

A district is administered by a who is mostly an (IAS) member, appointed by State Government. Districts are further divided into 226 administrated by comprising 1127 . A District has also one or more Revenue Divisions (in total 76) constituted by many Revenue Blocks.

16,564 Revenue villages () are the primary grassroots level administrative units which in turn might include many villages and administered by a Village Administrative Officer (VAO), many of which form a Revenue Block. Cities and towns are administered by and Municipalities respectively. The urban bodies include 12 , 125 and 529 town panchayats. The rural bodies include 31 district panchayats, 385 panchayat unions and 12,524 village panchayats. Districts of Tamil Nadu District Headquarters Area Population (2011) Population density 1 7003194400000000000♠1,944 km 2 7005752481000000000♠752,481 7002387000000000000♠387 /km 2 2 7002174000000000000♠174 km 2 7006468108700000000♠4,681,087 7004269030000000000♠26,903 /km 2 3 7003464200000000000♠4,642 km 2 7006317257800000000♠3,172,578 7002648000000000000♠648 /km 2 4 7003370500000000000♠3,705 km 2 7006260088000000000♠2,600,880 7002702000000000000♠702 /km 2 5 7003452700000000000♠4,527 km 2 7006150290000000000♠1,502,900 7002332000000000000♠332 /km 2 6 7003605400000000000♠6,054 km 2 7006216136700000000♠2,161,367 7002357000000000000♠357 /km 2 7 7003569200000000000♠5,692 km 2 7006225960800000000♠2,259,608 7002397000000000000♠397 /km 2 8 7003430500000000000♠4,305 km 2 7006269089700000000♠2,690,897 7002666000000000000♠666 /km 2 9 7003168500000000000♠1,685 km 2 7006186317400000000♠1,863,174 7003110600000000000♠1,106 /km 2 10 7003290200000000000♠2,902 km 2 7006107658800000000♠1,076,588 7002371000000000000♠371 /km 2 11 7003509100000000000♠5,091 km 2 7006188373100000000♠1,883,731 7002370000000000000♠370 /km 2 12 7003369500000000000♠3,695 km 2 7006244103800000000♠2,441,038 7002663000000000000♠663 /km 2 13 7003241600000000000♠2,416 km 2 7006161406900000000♠1,614,069 7002668000000000000♠668 /km 2 14 7003340200000000000♠3,402 km 2 7006172117900000000♠1,721,179 7002506000000000000♠506 /km 2 15 7003255200000000000♠2,552 km 2 7005735071000000000♠735,071 7002288000000000000♠288 /km 2 16 7003174800000000000♠1,748 km 2 7005564511000000000♠564,511 7002323000000000000♠323 /km 2 17 7003465200000000000♠4,652 km 2 7006161872500000000♠1,618,725 7002348000000000000♠348 /km 2 18 7003418000000000000♠4,180 km 2 7006133756000000000♠1,337,560 7002320000000000000♠320 /km 2 19 7003524900000000000♠5,249 km 2 7006348000800000000♠3,480,008 7002663000000000000♠663 /km 2 20 7003414000000000000♠4,140 km 2 7006134125000000000♠1,341,250 7002324000000000000♠324 /km 2 21 7003347700000000000♠3,477 km 2 7006230278100000000♠2,302,781 7002661000000000000♠661 /km 2 22 7003287200000000000♠2,872 km 2 7006114368400000000♠1,143,684 7002397000000000000♠397 /km 2 23 7003459900000000000♠4,599 km 2 7006173837600000000♠1,738,376 7002378000000000000♠378 /km 2 24 7003450800000000000♠4,508 km 2 7006271385800000000♠2,713,858 7002602000000000000♠602 /km 2 25 7003670900000000000♠6,709 km 2 7006307288000000000♠3,072,880 7002458000000000000♠458 /km 2 26 7003519200000000000♠5,192 km 2 7006247122200000000♠2,471,222 7002476000000000000♠476 /km 2 27 7003355200000000000♠3,552 km 2 7006372569700000000♠3,725,697 7003104900000000000♠1,049 /km 2 28 7003618800000000000♠6,188 km 2 7006412196500000000♠4,121,965 7002667000000000000♠667 /km 2 29 7003237900000000000♠2,379 km 2 7006126809400000000♠1,268,094 7002533000000000000♠533 /km 2 30 7003608100000000000♠6,081 km 2 7006402810600000000♠4,028,106 7002671000000000000♠671 /km 2 31 7003718500000000000♠7,185 km 2 7006346328400000000♠3,463,284 7002482000000000000♠482 /km 2 32 7003428000000000000♠4,280 km 2 7006194330900000000♠1,943,309 7002454000000000000♠454 /km 2 Fort St.

George hosts the Chief Secretariat of the government of Tamil Nadu Pre-Independence Prior to Indian independence Tamil Nadu was under British colonial rule as part of the . The main party in Tamil Nadu at that time was the (INC). have dominated state politics since 1916. One of the earliest regional parties, the South Indian Welfare Association, a forerunner to in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916. The party was called after its English organ, , by its opponents.

Later, was adopted as its official name. The reason for victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence of India. The Justice Party which was under E.V.Ramaswamy was renamed in 1944. It was a non-political party which demanded the establishment of an independent state called .

However, due to the differences between its two leaders EVR and , the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the (DMK). The DMK decided to enter politics in 1956. Post-Independence Political Alliance (2016) (2014) 134 37 98 0 Independent/Other 0 2 Source: Election Commission of India. Main article: Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India. 48.4 per cent of the state's population live in urban areas, the second highest percentage among large states in India.

The state has registered the lowest in India in year 2005–06 with 1.7 children born for each woman, lower than required for population sustainability. At the 2011 India census, Tamil Nadu had a population of 72,147,030. The sex ratio of the state is 995 with 36,137,975 males and 36,009,055 females. There are a total of 23,166,721 households.

The total children under the age of 6 is 7,423,832. A total of 14,438,445 people constituting 20.01 per cent of the total population belonged to (SC) and 794,697 people constituting 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to (ST). The state has 51,837,507 literates, making the literacy rate 80.33 per cent. There are a total of 27,878,282 workers, comprising 4,738,819 cultivators, 6,062,786 agricultural labourers, 1,261,059 in house hold industries, 11,695,119 other workers, 4,120,499 marginal workers, 377,220 marginal cultivators, 2,574,844 marginal agricultural labourers, 238,702 marginal workers in household industries and 929,733 other marginal workers.

List of most populous towns in Tamil Nadu Among the cities in 2011, the state capital, Chennai, was the , followed by , , and respectively. India has a human development index calculated as 0.619, while the corresponding figure for Tamil Nadu is 0.736, placing it among the top states in the country.

The at birth for males is 65.2 years and for females it is 67.6 years. However, it has a high level of poverty especially in the rural areas. In 2004–2005, the poverty line was set at ₹ 351.86/month for rural areas and ₹ 547.42/month for urban areas.

Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7 per cent in 1983 to 21.1 per cent in 2001 For the period 2004–2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty in the state was 22.5 per cent compared with the national figure of 27.5 per cent.

The World Bank is currently assisting the state in reducing poverty, High drop-out and low completion of secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the population.

Other problems include class, gender, inter-district and urban-rural disparities. Based on URP – Consumption for the period 2004–2005, percentage of the state's population was 27.5 per cent. The ranks Tamil Nadu to have a of 0.141, which is in the level of Ghana among the developing countries. Corruption is a major problem in the state with Transparency International ranking it the second most corrupt among the states of India. Main article: Tamil (தமிழ்) is the sole official language of Tamil Nadu, while is declared an additional official language for communication purposes.

When India adopted national standards, Tamil was the first language to be recognised as a . As of 2001 census, Tamil is spoken as the first language by 89.41 percent of the state's population followed by (5.65%), (1.67%), (1.51%) and (0.89%).

Other Languages spoken are Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali etc which are mostly spoken by migrant people. Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India. Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in terms of during the decade 2001–2011. A survey conducted by the Industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100 per cent Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education.

One of the basic limitations for improvement in education in the state is the rate of absence of teachers in public schools, which at 21.4 per cent is significant. The analysis of primary school education in the state by shows a low drop-off rate but poor quality of state education compared to other states.

Tamil Nadu has , 449 Polytechnic Colleges and 566 arts and science colleges, 34335 elementary schools, 5167 high schools, 5054 higher secondary schools and 5000 hospitals. Some of the notable educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and , .

Tamil Nadu now has 69 per cent reservation in educational institutions for socially backward section of the society, the highest among all Indian states.

The programme in Tamil Nadu was first initiated by , then it was expanded by in 1983. Seventh century paintings in the , Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable culture. Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature, art, music and dance which continue to flourish today. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and classical form of dance . Unique cultural features like (dance), , and were developed and continue to be practised in Tamil Nadu.

Literature has existed for over 2000 years. The earliest period of Tamil literature, , is dated from ca. 300 BC – AD 300. It is the amongst all others.

The earliest records found on rock edicts and date from around the 3rd century BC. Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. The Sangam literature collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous.

Sangam literature is primarily secular, dealing with everyday themes in a context. The Sangam literature also deals with human relationship and emotions. The available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The categories are: ( The Major Eighteen Anthology Series) comprising ( The Eight Anthologies) and the ( Ten Idylls) and ( The Minor Eighteen Anthology Series).

Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for Tamil, the . Modern Tamil writing is largely based on the 1000 B.C grammar Naṉṉūl which restated and clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications.

Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu, sol, poruḷ, yāppu, aṇi. Of these, the last two are mostly applied in poetry. Notable example of Tamil poetry include the written by before 2000 years. In 1578, the Portuguese published a Tamil book in old Tamil script named 'Thambiraan Vanakkam', thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published. , published by the , is the first among the published in any Indian language.

During the , many Tamil poets and writers sought to provoke national spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common man, notably and . Festivals and traditions was the great Tamil poet and philosopher , also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal (festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day is one of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil Nadu.

The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum – literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities – is often quoted with reference to this festival.

The first day, Bhogi Pongal, is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. The second day, Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on the first day of the tenth Tamil month Thai (14 January or 15 January in western calendar). The third day, Maattu Pongal, is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands.

, a bull taming contest, marks the main event of this day. is famous for its Jallikattu contest usually held on 3rd day of Pongal. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal – the word "kaanum", means 'to view' in Tamil.

In 2011 the Bench ordered the cockfight at Santhapadi and Modakoor Melbegam villages permitted during the Pongal festival while disposing of a petition filed attempting to ban the cockfight.

The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chittirai and the first day of this month in mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. The Thiruvalluvar calendar is 31 years ahead of the , i.e. Gregorian 2000 is Thiruvalluvar 2031. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river .

Apart from the major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place. Most of these festivals are related to the goddess , the mother goddess of rain. Other major Hindu festivals including (Death of Narakasura), Ayudha Poojai, Saraswathi Poojai (), Jayanthi and are also celebrated.

, , , are celebrated by Muslims whereas , , are celebrated by Christians in the state. Mahamagam a bathing festival at in Tamil Nadu is celebrated once in 12 years. People from all the corners of the country come to for the festival.

This festival is also called as Kumbamela of South. Music , was the first musician to be awarded the , India's highest civilian honour In terms of modern cine-music, was a prominent composer of film music in Tamil cinema during the late 1970s and 1980s. His work highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader western musical sensibilities to the south Indian musical mainstream. Tamil Nadu is also the home of the double Oscar Winner who has composed film music in , , , English and Chinese films.

He was once referred to by as "The of ". Film industry Main article: Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry nicknamed as "Kollywood", which released the most number of films in India in 2013.

The term Kollywood is a of and Hollywood. Tamil cinema is one of the largest industries of film production in India. In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government.

Single screen theatres may charge a maximum of ₹50, while theaters with more than three screens may charge a maximum of ₹120 per ticket. The first silent film in Tamil , was made in 1916. The first talkie was a multi-lingual film, , which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India's first talking picture . , who had built the first cinema of in , introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films.

The first of its kind was established in , called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors. Television industry There are more than 30 television channels of various genre in . , 's Tamil language regional channel was launched on 14 April 1993. The first private Tamil channel, was founded in 1993 by .

In Tamil Nadu, the television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people with political links. The government of Tamil Nadu distributed free televisions to families in 2006 at an estimated cost ₹3.6 billion (US$50 million) of which has led to high penetration of TV services.

Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator . From the early 2010s, has become increasingly popular replacing cable television services. serials form a major prime time source of entertainment and are directed usually by one director unlike American television series, where often several directors and writers work together. ; Coimbatore is one of the leading IT/ITS centres in India For the year 2014–15 Tamil Nadu's was ₹9.767 trillion (US$140 billion), and growth was 14.86.

It ranks third in (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of ₹ 225.826 billion ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country. The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was ₹ 72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average. Gross State Domestic Product in ₹ Crores at Constant Prices Year GSDP Growth Rate Share in India 2000–01 142,065 5.87% 7.62% 2001–02 139,842 −1.56% 7.09% 2002–03 142,295 1.75% 6.95% 2003–04 150,815 5.99% 6.79% 2004–05 219,003 11.45% 7.37% 2005–06 249,567 13.96% 7.67% 2006–07 287,530 15.21% 8.07% 2007–08 305,157 6.13% 7.83% 2008–09 321,793 5.45% 7.74% 2009–10 356,632 10.83% 7.89% 2010–11 403,416 13.12% 8.20% 2011–12 433,238 7.39% 8.26% 2012–13 447,944 3.39% 8.17% 2013–14 480,618 7.29% 8.37% According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per cent of India's total population.

Services contributes to 45 per cent of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. Government is the major investor in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9 per cent and foreign private investors at 14.9 per cent. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 113 industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure. According to the publications of the Tamil Nadu government the Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (Base year 2004–2005) for the year 2011–2012 is ₹4.281 trillion (US$60 billion), an increase of 9.39 per cent over the previous year.

The per capita income at current price is ₹ 72,993. Tamil Nadu has six Nationalised Home Banks which originated in this state; Two government-sector banks and in Chennai, and Four private-sector banks in Kumbakonam, , in Karur, and in Tuticorin. Agriculture Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India's fifth biggest producer of rice.

The total cultivated area in the State was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10. The Cauvery delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of Tamil Nadu. [ ] In terms of production, Tamil Nadu accounts for 10 per cent in fruits and 6 per cent in vegetables, in India. Annual food grains production in the year 2007–08 was 10035,000 mt.

Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of The state is the largest producer of bananas, , flowers, tapioca, the second largest producer of , , , and the third largest producer of coffee, , Tea and . Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India.

The state has 17,000 hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India. Agriculture forms a major portion of state's economy , known as the "father of the Indian " was from Tamil Nadu. with its seven colleges and thirty two research stations spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension agencies.

Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry and production. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for 17.7 per cent of the total poultry population in India.

In 2003–2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 3783.6 million of , which was the second highest in India representing 9.37 per cent of the total egg production in the country. With the second longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu represented 27.54 per cent of the total value of fish and fishery products exported by India in 2006. is also one of the major centres of production in India. is one of the major centres for poultry production. Textiles and leather hand loom silk sarees Tamil Nadu is one of the leading States in the textile sector and it houses the country's largest spinning industry accounting for almost 80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India.

When it comes to yarn production, the State contributes 40 per cent of the total production in the country. There are 2,614 Hand Processing Units (25 per cent of total units in the country) and 985 Power Processing Units (40 per cent of total units in the country) in Tamil Nadu. According to official data, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries.

is often referred to as the " of " due to its cotton production and textile industries. is the country's largest exporter of knitwear.

for its cotton production. The region around Coimbatore, Tirupur, Palladam, and Erode is referred to [ ] as the "Textile Valley of India" with the export from the Tirupur ₹ 50,000 million ($1,000 million) and generates around ₹ 35,500 million ($750 million) a year in foreign exchange.

, , , , and Vedasandur are known for its cotton mills. Gobichettipalayam is a prominent producer of white silk with the country's first automated silk reeling unit present here. and are world-famous for their pure silk sarees and hand loom silk weaving industries. , , and are also famous for art-silk sarees. , , , , , , , , are major handloom centres.

, , , Negamam, Cinnalapatti, Woraiyur, Pochampalli are famous for its soft cotton saree weaving. is known for its Chungidi cotton sarees and for its cotton carpets and leather goods manufacturing in , , , , , , and Automobiles Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles.

is known as the Detroit of India. Major global automobile companies including , , , -, , , , and as well as Indian automobile majors like , , , , -, , , , , Company also invested ( ₹) 4 billion for establishing new plant in Tamil Nadu. Heavy industries and engineering Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India.

Over 11% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Tamil Nadu. Many heavy engineering and manufacturing companies are located in and around the suburbs of . , one of India's largest electrical equipment manufacturing companies, has manufacturing plants at and .

India's leading steel producer, the state-owned has a steel plant in . has a copper smelter at and an aluminium plant in . The is a state-owned oil and gas corporation headquartered in Chennai, and owns refineries at and .

The state government owns the , in . Jointly with the , the state owns the world's sixth largest manufacturer of watches, under the brand name of , at . A number of large cement manufacturers, including the , Ramco Cements, Tancem, the , UltraTech Cements and are present across the state.

is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies two-thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of and and the term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a . in Chennai Electronics and software Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu, with many international companies like , , , , , , , , , , , having chosen Chennai as their south Asian manufacturing hub.

Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets. Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India. Software exports from Tamil Nadu grew from ₹ 76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003–04 to ₹ 207 billion {$5 billion} by 2006–07 according to and to ₹ 366 billion in 2008–09 which shows 29 per cent growth in software exports according to .

Major national and global IT Companies such as , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Technology solutions, , , , , , and many others have offices in Tamil Nadu. The top engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu have been a major recruiting hub for the IT firms.

According to estimates, about 50 per cent of the HR required for the IT and ITES industry was being sourced from the State. Coimbatore is the second largest software producer in the state, next to Chennai. Main articles: and Tamil Nadu has a transportation system that connects all parts of the state.

Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural areas.

There are 29 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of 5,006.14 km (3,110.67 mi). The state is also a terminus for the project, that connects Indian metropolises like (, , , and ).

The state has a total road length of 167,000 km (104,000 mi), of which 60,628 km (37,672 mi) are maintained by Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network. The major road junctions are Chennai, , Madurai, Trichy, Coimbatore, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Karur, Krishnagiri, Dindigul and Kanniyakumari. Road transport is provided by state owned and . Almost every part of state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day.

The State accounted for 13.6 per cent of all accidents in the country With 66,238 accidents in 2013, 11.3 per cent of all road accident deaths and 15 per cent of all road-related injuries, according to data provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Although Tamil Nadu accounts for the highest number of road accidents in India, it also leads in having reduced the number of fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a sustained awareness campaign.

The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1,053 in 2011 to 881 in 2012 and 867 in 2013. Rail Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of . Headquartered at , the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India's southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, , Puducherry, a small portion of and a small portion of .

Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. is gateway for train towards north whereas serves as gateway for south. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the state. The network connects the state with most major cities in India. The is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site connecting on the hills and in the foot hills which is in turn connected to city.

The centenary old over sea connecting in to mainland is an engineering marvel. It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through Palk Strait in Indian Ocean.

Chennai has a well-established network and is constructing a with phase1 operational since July 2015 . Major railway junctions( 4 & above lines ) in the state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil, Tiruchirapalli and Tirunelveli. , , , , , , are upgraded to A1 grade level. Loco sheds are located at , , Royapuram in and Tondaiyarpet in , Ponmalai (GOC) in as Diesel Loco Shed.

The loco shed at is a huge composite Electric and Diesel Loco shed. MRTS which covers from Chennai Beach to Velachery, and metro rail also running between Alandur and koyambedu station.

Airports Main article: Tamil Nadu has four international airports namely , , and . and are domestic airports. is a major international airport and aviation hub in South Asia. Besides civilian airports, the state has four air bases of the namely , , and two naval air stations and of . Seaport Tamil Nadu has three major located at , and , as well as seven other minor ports including and .

Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005. Energy Tamil Nadu has the third largest installed power generation capacity in the country.

The , Ennore Thermal Plant, Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants including , hundreds of windmills and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil Nadu's electricity. Tamil Nadu generates a significant proportion of its power needs from renewable sources with wind power installed capacity at over 7154 MW, accounting for 38 per cent of total installed wind power in India . It is presently adding the to its energy grid, which on completion would be the largest atomic power plant in the country with 2000MW installed capacity.

The total installed capacity of electricity in the State by January 2014 was 20,716 MW. Tamil Nadu ranks in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34 per cent. From a power surplus state in 2005–06, Tamil Nadu has become a state facing severe power shortage over the recent years due to lack of new power generation projects and delay in the commercial power generation at .

The Tuticorin Thermal Power Station has five 210 megawatt generators. The first generator was commissioned in July 1979.

The thermal power plants under construction include the coal-based 1000 MW NLC TNEB Power Plant. From the current 17MW installed Solar power, Tamil Nadu government's new policy aims to increase the installed capacity to 3000MW by 2016.

Main article: , is recognised as the state game in Tamil Nadu. The traditional sport of Tamil Nadu include , a Tamil martial arts played with a long bamboo staff, , , a bull taming sport famous on festival occasions, racing known as Rekkala, flying also known as Pattam viduthal, Goli, the game with marbles, Aadu Puli, the "goat and tiger" game and Kabaddi also known as Sadugudu.

Most of these traditional sports are associated with festivals of land like and mostly played in rural areas. In urban areas of Tamil Nadu, modern sports like bat and ball games are played.

carrom world champion from 2002–2016 , world chess champion 2007–2013 The in Chennai is an international cricket ground with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the . , , , , , , and are some prominent cricketers from Tamil Nadu. The in Chennai is a popular fast bowling academy for pace bowlers all over the world. Cricket contests between local clubs, franchises and teams are popular in the state.

represent the city of Chennai in the , a popular league. The Super Kings are the most successful team in the league with three IPL titles at par with Mumbai Indians and two titles.

Tennis is also a popular sport in Tamil Nadu with notable international players including , , and . , the first Indian women to play in a grandslam tournament also hails from the state. The tournament is held in Chennai every January. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) owns which hosts Chennai Open and Davis Cup play-off tournaments.

The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of in the state. was the captain of the Indian team that won gold medal in 1980 Olympics at Moscow. The in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded by the as one of the best in the world for its infrastructure.

Tamil Nadu also has Golf ground in Coimbatore, The is an 18-hole golf course located in a place called Chettipalayam in Coimbatore, located within the city limits in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.

The Club is also a popular venue for major Golf Tournaments held in India. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT), a government body, is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and related infrastructure in the state.

The SDAT owns and operates world class stadiums and organises sporting events. It also accommodates sporting events, both at domestic and international level, organised by other sports associations at its venues. The College of Physical Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia. The in Chennai is a multi-purpose stadium hosting and track & field events.

The Indian Triathlon Federation and the Volleyball Federation of India are headquartered in Chennai. Chennai hosted India's first ever International Beach Volleyball Championship in 2008. The SDAT – TNSRA Academy in Chennai is one of the very few academies in south Asia hosting international squash events. in Coimbatore, it is a football stadium and also a multi-purpose stadium in Coimbatore constructed in 1971. is a world heritage site The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent.

Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by (TTDC), a Government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. According to statistics, 4.68 million foreign (20.1% share of the country) and 333.5 million domestic tourists (23.3% share of the country) visited the state in 2015 making it the most visited state in India both domestic and foreign tourists.

The state boasts some of the grand built in . The in , and the in built by the and the along with the collection of other monuments in (also called Mamallapuram) have been declared as . in is one of the major Islamic tourist attraction site. • . . Tamil Nadu. 23 December 2016 . Retrieved 31 December 2016. • . . Retrieved 18 October 2016. • (PDF). Government of India. • ^ (PDF). . Retrieved 15 March 2018. • ^ . Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

3 August 2018. • ^ (PDF). Ministry of Minority Affairs (Government of India). 29 March 2016. p. 132. Archived from (PDF) on 25 May 2017. • ^ . Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University . Retrieved 25 September 2018. • (PDF). • . . Retrieved 27 February 2014. • . • . • . • . • (PDF). The UNESCO Courier.

Vol.:XXXVII, 3; 1984. March 1984. • , p. 20. • . • . • . • . • . • . • . . • . Archived from on 28 January 2007 . Retrieved 27 March 2008. • [ ] • , p. 88. • , pp. 498–499. • K.A.N. Sashtri, A History of South India, pp 109–112 • K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, OUP (1955) p 124 • Kamil Veith Zvelebil, Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature, p 12 • . The Hindu. 1 May 2006 . Retrieved 2 April 2016. • T, Saravanan (22 February 2018). . • • ^ ; Stephen N.

Hay; William Theodore De Bary (1988). . Columbia University Press. p. 342. . • . • Balaganessin, M. (29 August 2011). . The Hindu. India. Archived from on 17 July 2012. • Singh, Vijay P.; Ram Narayan Yadava (2003). . Allied Publishers. p. 508. . • (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on 6 February 2007 . Retrieved 27 May 2007. • . . Retrieved 23 September 2013. • , pp. 91–92. • ^ , pp. 18–182.

• . Archived from on 13 April 2015 . Retrieved 23 September 2013. • Bethencourt p.211 • . Frontline. India. 6 November 2009 . Retrieved 5 August 2013. • Wagret, Paul (1977). Nagel's encyclopedia-guide. "India, Nepal". Geneva: Nagel Publishers. p. 556. . . • Roberts J. M (1997).

. Helicon publishing Ltd. p. 277. . Retrieved 28 December 2012. • . History Net: Where History Comes Alive – World & US History Online. • . . Retrieved 2012-07-07. • . • . Archived from on 30 January 2012. • Yang, Anand A. . The Journal of Asian Studies .

Retrieved 6 November 2012. • (1881). . E. Keys, at the Government Press. pp. 195–222. • . • . • . Encyclopædia Britannica. • . p. 105. • (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on 28 August 2017.

• . • . • . • ^ . Information Technology Department – Tamil Nadu Government . Retrieved 7 June 2017. • . The Hindu. 3 September 2016 . Retrieved 7 June 2017. • Mariappan, Julie (16 February 2017). . The Times of India . Retrieved 7 June 2017. • Subramani, A.

. • . . Retrieved 2016-01-25. • . • Rukmini S. . The Hindu. • . • . Commissionerate of Municipal Administration, Govt. of Tamil Nadu. Archived from on 24 October 2011 . Retrieved 13 November 2011. • . Directorate of Town Panchayats, Govt. of Tamil Nadu . Retrieved 13 November 2011. • (PDF). Directorate of Town Panchayats, Govt. of Tamil Nadu . Retrieved 13 November 2011. • . Rural Development and Panchayati Raj Department, Govt.

of Tamil Nadu . Retrieved 13 November 2011. • (PDF). Rural Development and Panchayati Raj Department, Govt. of Tamil Nadu . Retrieved 13 November 2011. • . Rural Development and Panchayati Raj Department, Govt. of Tamil Nadu . Retrieved 13 November 2011. • . • . • . • . • . • ^ . • (PDF). • . • . • . • . • . • . • . • . • . Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.

Archived from on 25 August 2015. • (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011 . Retrieved 13 September 2015. • . Chennai, India: The Hindu. 18 September 2004 . Retrieved 1 August 2010. • (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. • . • . • . • , AICTE David, archived from on 5 January 2015 • . • . • • . 4 August 2015. • . p. 320.

• . 12 February 2014. • . 18 January 2013. • . 23 January 2013. • , p. 12: "...the most acceptable periodisation which has so far been suggested for the development of Tamil writing seems to me to be that of A Chidambaranatha Chettiar (1907–1967): 1. Sangam Literature – 200BC to AD 200; 2.

Post Sangam literature – AD 200 – AD 600; 3. Early Medieval literature – AD 600 to AD 1200; 4. Later Medieval literature – AD 1200 to AD 1800; 5. Pre-Modern literature – AD 1800 to 1900" • . Classical Tamil, Government of India • Abraham, S. A. (2003). "Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India". Asian Perspectives. 42 (2): 207. :. • Stein, B. (1977). "Circulation and the Historical Geography of Tamil Country".

The Journal of Asian Studies. 37: 7. :. . • Maloney, C. (1970). "The Beginnings of Civilization in South India". The Journal of Asian Studies. 29 (3): 603. :. . at p. 610 • Subramaniam, T.S (29 August 2011), , The Hindu, Chennai, India • George L. Hart III, The Poems of Ancient Tamil, U of California P, 1975. • The only religious poems among the shorter poems occur in . The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions.

See K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, OUP (1955) pp. 330–335 • , pp. 330–335. • , University of Pennsylvania • Karthik Madhavan. . The Hindu. • Kolappan, B. (22 June 2014). . The Hindu. Chennai . Retrieved 25 December 2014. • . 4 February 2013. Archived from on 8 February 2014. • Alanganallur-Jallikattu. . Shadow Chief. Archived from on 27 September 2013 . Retrieved 23 September 2013. • . The Times of India.

Archived from on 27 November 2006. • . • . • . p. 326. • . • . • . • . • Hiro, Dilip (2010). . p. 248. . • . Business Standard. 25 January 2006 . Retrieved 2012-02-19. • Ashok Kumar, S.R. (2 January 2007).

. The Hindu. Chennai, India . Retrieved 18 January 2013. • . The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 September 2009 . Retrieved 29 June 2011. • Velayutham, Selvaraj. . p. 2. • . . Chennai, India. 30 April 2010 . Retrieved 26 September 2011. • . . Archived from on 22 June 2011 . Retrieved 2011-07-10. • . Newslaundry . Retrieved 6 July 2015.

• . DNA India . Retrieved 6 July 2015. • . NY Times . Retrieved 6 July 2015. • . Times of India . Retrieved 6 July 2015. • . India Television . Retrieved 6 July 2015. • . • Baradwaj Rangan. . The Hindu . Retrieved 24 January 2015. • Shankar, Shylashri (16 December 2016). . Open the magazine .

Retrieved 21 December 2016. • . • . • . • . • . • . • ^ . • . • ^ . • . • . • . • . • . • . • . Resource Investor. Archived from on 26 September 2011 . Retrieved 30 August 2011. • . Retrieved 28 March 2015. • Sangeetha Kandavel. . The Hindu. • . Retrieved 28 June 2015. • . • . • . Retrieved 24 January 2015. • . Financial Express. 13 March 2014 . Retrieved 29 August 2014. • . • . • .

Archived from on 30 July 2015 . Retrieved 28 June 2015. • . • . • Sangeetha Kandavel. . The Hindu. • . • . • . . Retrieved 2015-05-29. • . • TCA Sharad Raghavan. . The Hindu. • . • 22 December 2015 at the . • . • . • 2 March 2014 at the . • . • • , p. 183. • ^ , pp. 32–33. • ^ , pp. 73–74. • , p. 223. • . • . • . • .

• . • . • . • ^ , p. 316. • , p. 327. • . • . • . • • . • . • . BBC. 17 August 2004 . Retrieved 16 August 2007. • . The Hindu. Chennai, India. 20 October 2004 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . The Hindu. Chennai, India. 22 April 2005 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2 June 2013 . Retrieved 20 April 2014. • . The Times of India. 1 January 2006 . Retrieved 11 June 2008. • . The Hindu. Chennai, India.

26 May 2004 . Retrieved 11 June 2008. • . The Hindu. 17 December 2005. Archived from on 28 January 2007 . Retrieved 11 June 2008. • Staff Reporter (22 November 2005). . The Hindu. Chennai, India . Retrieved 26 April 2007. • Radha Venkatesan (1 October 2009). . The Times of India .

Retrieved 2 October 2009. • . The Times of India . Retrieved 20 May 2012. • . The Times of India. 14 May 2003 . Retrieved 18 July 2010. • Bunting, Madeleine (15 March 2011).

. The Guardian. London . Retrieved 20 May 2012. • . The Hindu Business Line. 20 October 2004 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . The Hindu Business Line. 9 April 2004 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . BBC News. 14 October 2008 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . The Times of India. 15 October 2008 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . The Times of India.

23 February 2009 . Retrieved 23 September 2009. • . BBC News. 23 February 2009 . Retrieved 23 September 2009. • . Economic Times. 23 February 2009 . Retrieved 23 September 2009. • . The Times of India. 2 June 2012. • Mungekar, Bhalchandra (12 June 2012).

. The Times of India. • . The Hindu Business Line. 7 October 2005. Archived from on 2 September 2010 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . The Hindu Business Line. 7 May 2006. Archived from on 8 October 2009 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 24 March 2008 . Retrieved 24 March 2008. • . The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 May 2008 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • .

Rediff. 1 May 2006 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . The Hindu. Chennai, India. 14 January 2011 . Retrieved 10 September 2012.

• . Espncricinfo. 2012 . Retrieved 8 June 2012. • . Espncricinfo. 2012 . Retrieved 8 June 2012. • . Espncricinfo. 2012 . Retrieved 8 June 2012. • . Espncricinfo. 2012 . Retrieved 8 June 2012. • . Espncricinfo. 2012 . Retrieved 8 June 2012. • . Espncricinfo. 2012 . Retrieved 8 June 2012. • . Espncricinfo. 2012 . Retrieved 8 June 2012. • . Directorate of Census Operations – Tamil Nadu. 2001. Archived from on 17 February 2011 .

Retrieved 8 June 2012. • . . . 27 May 2002 . Retrieved 14 April 2007. • . Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 27 February 2015. Archived from on 23 March 2015 . Retrieved 18 June 2015.

• (PDF). Planning Commission of India. 2004 . Retrieved 2 February 2015. • . 2012. Archived from on 13 April 2010 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • (PDF). 16th if Union Territories are included. GDIGE. Archived from (PDF) on 16 March 2012 . Retrieved 4 July 2012. • (PDF). Union Ministry of Social Justice. 2001. Archived from (PDF) on 22 July 2013 . Retrieved 4 July 2012. • . Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Gov of India.

2012. Archived from on 13 November 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 30 March 2007 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2012. Archived from on 6 February 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2012. Archived from on 2 May 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . Comm. of Municipal Admin., Govt. of Tamil Nadu. 2011 . Retrieved 7 September 2011.

• (PDF). Tamil State Election Commission. 2011. Archived from (PDF) on 26 October 2011 . Retrieved 28 October 2011. • . Government of Tamil Nadu.

2011 . Retrieved 6 November 2011. • . The Tamil Nadu Police . Retrieved 4 July 2012. • . The Tamil Nadu Police . Retrieved 4 July 2012. • (PDF). Election Commission of India. 2011. • (PDF). Election Commission of India. 2009 . Retrieved 4 July 2012. • (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. 2008 . Retrieved 18 December 2008. • . . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . . Retrieved 10 September 2015. • (PDF).

2002 . Retrieved 20 May 2012. • (PDF). 2008 . Retrieved 4 November 2010. • (PDF). Directorate of Technical Education, Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from (PDF) on 13 October 2011 . Retrieved 1 October 2011. • . Chennai, India: The Hindu. 4 July 2008 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2010. Archived from on 24 October 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 28 July 2010 . Retrieved 20 May 2012. • . 17 May 2011 .

Retrieved 20 May 2012. • (PDF). 2011. Archived from (PDF) on 24 January 2013 . Retrieved 4 July 2012. • . 2011 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • (PDF). 31 March 2009 . Retrieved 4 November 2010. • (PDF). 2008. Archived from (PDF) on 27 February 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • (PDF). 2006. Archived from (PDF) on 17 July 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2002 . Retrieved 10 September 2012.

• (PDF). 2004 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2010. Archived from on 10 September 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2005. Archived from on 2 April 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2004. Archived from on 2 April 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • Tewari, Meenu (2000). (PDF). The Government of Tamil Nadu, India and the Centre for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge MA . Retrieved 4 July 2012.

• . Chennai: Daimler Chrysler. 2012. Archived from on 5 March 2012 . Retrieved 4 July 2012. • . 2012. Archived from on 29 August 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . TNPL. 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Govt. of India. 2012 . Retrieved 24 January 2012. • . 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • .

2011 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . NPCIL. 2009. Archived from on 14 May 2009 . Retrieved 23 September 2009. • (PDF). 2012. Archived from (PDF) on 10 May 2012 . Retrieved 20 May 2012. • . 1992 . Retrieved 4 November 2010. • . 2012.

Archived from on 21 April 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • (PDF). 2010. Archived from (PDF) on 31 January 2012 . Retrieved 20 May 2012.

• . 28 March 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . 2012 . Retrieved 10 September 2012. • . Energy Department, Tamil Nadu, India by Govt.

of Tamil Nadu. 2009. • Croker, Bithia Mary (1907). . London: Hurst and Blackett, Limited. • Dil, Anwar S. (1980). Language and Linguistic Area: Essays by Murray Barnson Emeneau. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California – Reprinted (1980). • Crego, Robert (2003). . USA: Greewood Press. . • Garg, Chitra (2010). . Delhi: Rajpal and Sons. . • Nobrega, William; Ashish Sinha (2008). Riding the Indian tiger: understanding India—the world's fastest growing market.

John Wiley and Sons. p. 20. • Li, Ming; Eric W. MacIntosh; Gonzalo A. Bravo (2012). . Ming Li, Eric W. MacIntosh, Gonzalo A. Bravo. . • Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). . United States: Scarecrow Press, INC. {{inconsistent citations}} . • Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta (2008). A History of South India (4th ed.). New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press. • Sastri, K.A.Nilakanta (1970). Advanced History of India. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 181–182. • (1935) [1935]. The Cōlas. Madras: .

• Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003]. History of South India (Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1. New Delhi: Chand Publications. . • Keay, John (2000) [2000]. India: A History.

New York: Grove Publications. . • Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. . • Steever, Sanford (1998), "Introduction", in Steever, Sanford, The Dravidian Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 1–39, • , Tripoto , retrieved 2 November 2014

best free dating tamil nadu government

Tamil Nadu MBBS Admission 2019 - The Directorate of Medical Education (DME), Tamil Nadu is the counselling authority for Tamil Nadu MBBS/BDS 2019 admission. Only candidates who will fulfill the eligibility criteria set by the state will be allowed for admission to 3,947 MBBS and 985 BDS seats offered by government and private colleges of Tamil Nadu. For admission to MBBS Tamil Nadu 2019 under 85% state quota seats, it is mandatory for aspirants to appear and qualify in National Eligibility cum Entrance Test ( ) exam.

While the remaining 15% seats from all government medical colleges will be reserved for aspirants selected under All India Quota seats. The counselling of these seats will be done by Medical Counselling Committee (MCC) on the basis of marks obtained in . Aspirants willing to get MBBS and BDS admissions in the state will be required to fill the application form of Tamil Nadu MBBS 2019 which will be available in the second week of June.

Only the domicile students will be eligible for Tamil Nadu MBBS & BDS registration 2019. Candidates need to download the application form and enter the personal, NEET MBBS, academic, domicile, category, communication and other details for Tamil Nadu MBBS admission 2019. NEET PG Sample Paper Download Free Sample Paper for NEET PG Based on the NEET details filled in the application form, the authority will release the Tamil Nadu MBBS merit list 2019 containing the names of eligible aspirants, state merit rank, roll number, category and NEET marks scored.

Candidates included in the state merit list will be called for Tamil Nadu MBBS 2019 counselling conducted in offline mode by DME, Tamil Nadu. During the seat allotment process, students have to provide their choices of colleges and courses/specialties. According to these preferences, state merit rank and availability of seats, the admission to Tamil Nadu MBBS/BDS 2019 will be granted.

Interested candidates can check the information on Tamil Nadu MBBS admission 2019 dates, application form, eligibility, merit list, counselling and other details from the article below. Tamil Nadu MBBS Admission: Overview Particulars Details Admission name Tamil Nadu MBBS admission State counselling authority Directorate of Medical Education, Tamil Nadu Admission on the basis of NEET UG scores Examination conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) Tentative seats 3947 MBBS and 985 BDS seats Tamil Nadu MBBS Admission Criteria 2019 The criteria of admission to MBBS and BDS colleges in the state has been mentioned in the table below.

Tamil Nadu MBBS admission criteria Tamil Nadu MBBS seats distribution Admission criteria 15% All India Quota seats MCC will conduct online counselling based on the scores obtained in NEET. 85% State Quota seats Offline counselling will be organised by DME, Tamil Nadu based on state merit rank. Private medical and dental colleges State counselling authority will held counselling based on state merit rank derived from NEET scores. Deemed and Central universities Seat allotment process will be done on the basis of NEET AIR by Medical Counselling Committee.

Tamil Nadu MBBS Important Dates 2019 Candidates must keep a track on the dates related to Tamil Nadu MBBS admission 2019 to avoid missing any important event. The important dates of TN MBBS/BDS 2019 is mentioned in the table below. Tamil Nadu MBBS admission dates Events Dates NEET UG May 5, 2019 Declaration of result June 5, 2019 Availability of application form Second week of June 2019* Last date to register Third week of June 2019* Publication of merit list Last week of June 2019* First round of counselling for Government Quota First week of July 2019* Seat allotment result First week of July 2019* First round of counselling for Management Quota Last week of July 2019* Result of seat allotment First week of August 2019* Second round of counselling for Government Quota Second week of August 2019* Announcement of result Second week of August 2019* Second round of counselling for Management Quota Last week of August 2019* Publication of result of round two Last week of August 2019* *denotes that dates are tentative Tamil Nadu MBBS Eligibility Criteria 2019 Students must read the eligibility criteria of Tamil Nadu MBBS/BDS 2019 before start filling the application form to check whether they are eligible or not.

Go through the basic Tamil Nadu MBBS eligibility criteria below. Nationality: • Candidates must be a citizen of India. Overseas Citizens of India (OCI) can also apply for admission to Tamil Nadu MBBS 2019. Nativity: • He/she should be a native of the state. • Students belonging to other state cannot claim for the nativity of Tamil Nadu. • The native of the state who have studied Class 6 to 12 in the schools located in Tamil Nadu are not required to submit the Nativity Certificate.

• Permanent residence certificate instead of Nativity Certificate will not be accepted. • Candidates who have studied Class 6 to Class 12 outside the state partly or completely in one or more states must produce the any one of the following original documents to proof their date of birth in the state and relationship with the candidate. • Documents to be furnished by parents of an aspirant • Birth certificate • SSLC certificate/ Class 10 or Class 12 certificate/ Degree/ Diploma or Professional course • Ration card/ Passport Age Limit: • Candidates must have complete the age of 17 years on or before December 31, 2019.

• Students should not be more than 25 years old as on May 5, 2019. Education qualification: • Aspirants must have passed in Class 12 with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English individually. • General category candidates should have completed Class 12 with 50% taken together in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English.

While, reserved category and PH aspirants must obtained at least 40% and 45%, respectively in qualifying examination. NEET entrance exam: • Aspirants must have secured minimum qualifying percentile as mentioned by NTA. NEET cutoff Category Qualifying percentile General category 50 percentile SC/ST/OBC category 40 percentile General - PH category 45 percentile SC/ST/OBC - PH category 40 percentile The application form of Tamil Nadu MBBS/BDS 2019 will be released in the second week of June by Directorate of Medical Education.

The eligible applicants can fill the Tamil Nadu MBBS 2019 application form in offline mode. A link to download the admission form will be provided on this page, as soon as it will be released. Once the registration form is downloaded, aspirants need to enter their personal, NEET UG 2019 details, domicile details, category details, academic, parent’s, communication and other asked details in the Tamil Nadu MBBS application form 2019.

Also, the passport size photograph must be affixed and the signature must be done on the space provided. Thereafter, the list of following documents along with the Demand Draft of Rs. 500 must be send to the address mentioned below in an envelope measuring 24X12 cm superscribed as “Application for MBBS/BDS courses 2019-20 session”.

Address: The Secretary, Selection Committee, 162, E.V.R. Periyar Salai, Kilpauk, Chennai - 600 010 Documents to be send along with the TN MBBS application form Only the photocopies of the following documents are required to be sent at the above-mentioned address.

• • Class 10 mark sheet (both sides) • • Class 12 or equivalent examination mark sheet (both sides) • Transfer certificate • Nativity certificate (if applicable) • Permanent community certificate • First Graduate certificate (if applicable) • Demand Draft of Rs. 500 as application fee drawn in the favor of ‘The Secretary, Selection Committee, Kilpauk’ payable at Chennai • PH certificate, if applicable The state counselling authority will release the merit list of Tamil Nadu MBBS/BDS 2019 in the last week of June.

TN MBBS 2019 rank list will be published in the online mode in the form of PDF. Using the marks scored in NEET entrance exam, the authority will prepare the state merit list. Candidates whose applications will be submitted and accepted on or before the last date will be included in the Tamil Nadu MBBS merit list 2019. The state rank list will comprise of the candidate’s name, category, admission number, NEET scores, state merit rank and registration number.

Students included in the Tamil Nadu state merit list will be called for counselling process for admission to MBBS and BDS courses. DME, Tamil Nadu will conduct the Tamil Nadu MBBS/BDS 2019 counselling in offline mode. Aspirants included in the merit list will be called for counselling of TN MBBS 2019.

The seat allotment process will be done in two rounds. In order to participate in the counselling procedure, aspirants need to report at the specified venue according to the date and time. During the Tamil Nadu MBBS counselling 2019, students have to provide their choices of colleges and courses, in which they wish to get admission into.

Based on these choices, Tamil Nadu MBBS merit rank and number of seats available, the admission will be granted. The first round of Tamil Nadu MBBS 2019 counselling for Government quota seats will be conducted in the first week of July.

Aspirants who will be allotted seats must report at the designated institute for admission to government and private medical as well as dental colleges located in Tamil Nadu. They should carry the relevant documents for verification and completion of admission process. Once the first round is over, the counselling committee will conduct the second round of counselling for Tamil Nadu MBBS admission 2019 to fill the remaining vacant seats. Candidates who were not allotted seats in the first round are eligible to appear for second round of counselling.

Tamil Nadu MBBS/BDS counselling 2019 for round two will be conducted in the second week of August 2019. Tamil Nadu MBBS Seats Reservation 2019 The reservation of seats in Tamil Nadu MBBS/BDS admission is only for the state quota seats in government colleges. The private medical and dental colleges have equally divided the seats between the state and management quota. Following is the Tamil Nadu MBBS 2019 seats reservation in the table.

Seats reservation of Tamil Nadu MBBS 2019 Category Seat Reservation Backward Class 30% Most Backward Class 20% Scheduled Caste 18% Arunthatiyar Community 16% of Scheduled Caste Scheduled tribe 1% Physically handicapped 4% horizontal reservation across all categories Tamil Nadu MBBS Participating Institutes 2019 Candidates can check the list of medical and dental colleges located in the state along with the number of seats offered.

Government medical colleges

PMAY scheme tamil 2018 free housing for all
Best free dating tamil nadu government Rating: 9,6/10 438 reviews
Categories: best