Best hiv dating uk free speech arrests in uk

best hiv dating uk free speech arrests in uk

Well-known British 'Identitarian' in prison for violating court-ordered blackout, igniting protests, conspiracy theories, and 'alt lite' censorship complaints Robinson’s arrest also caught the attention of numerous right-wing activists and conspiracy theorists, including Alex Jones’ Infowars program. After his arrest, Robinson’s case became the leading cause célèbre of the far right, and a new source for a whole set of conspiracy theories. Their rallying cry: “Free Tommy!”

best hiv dating uk free speech arrests in uk

By 2018-11-30 14:51:51 UTC A British member of parliament has given a deeply personal and arresting speech, his HIV positive status and calling on more funding for HIV prevention medication. Lloyd Russell-Moyle, Labour MP for Brighton Kemptown, shared that he had been HIV positive for almost 10 years, and talked about the moment he was diagnosed, and his journey since that moment. SEE ALSO: "Mr Deputy Speaker, next year I will be marking an anniversary of my own: 10 years since I became HIV positive," Russell-Moyle said in the House of Commons on Thursday.

"It has been a long journey from the fear of acceptance and today hopefully advocacy, knowing that my treatment keeps me healthy and protects any partner that I may have." "When you are first diagnosed, you get that call from the clinic, and they just say: 'you need to come in.' They don't tell you the details, and you know immediately something is going to be wrong," Russell-Moyle said.

"All the different worst-case scenarios flash through your mind, and of course being someone who was a sexually active young man, HIV is one of those things that flashes through there." "They tell you.

And it hits you like a wall." "And then in that NHS room with those cream carpets and the plastic seating that we all know, they tell you. And it hits you like a wall. And though you've prepared yourself for it in your mind, nothing quite prepares you for when they say those words," he continued. Russell-Moyle recalled looking up at the ceiling and hoping that he would wake up and it would all be a dream. "But of course the reality is, Mr Deputy Speaker, that is not what happens," he said.

"You walk out feeling totally numb." He shared that he's now "HIV positive undetectable". This means he's been taking antiretroviral treatment, to reduce the amount of the virus in his body to a level that's undetectable. HIV organisation Terrence Higgins Trust, "this means the levels of HIV are so low that the virus cannot be passed on." "I'm a HIV positive man but because I've been taking the right medication for several years I am what the NHS calls 'HIV positive undetectable,'" said Russell-Moyle.

"That means not only can you not detect HIV in my system so I don't get sick, it means that I can't transmit HIV to someone else. So as the virus lays undetectable and dormant in my body, my medication ensures that the virus doesn't reactivate, doesn't progress, and can't be passed on." Brighton MP Lloyd Russell-Moyle reveals to the House of Commons that he is HIV positive Figures released today show that the UK has reached a landmark HIV target — Sky News (@SkyNews) He talked about the impact of the stigma surrounding HIV and how that stigma affects people in the LGBTQ community.

"That's why, Mr Deputy Speaker, the NHS says undetectable equals un-transmittable, which is still sadly framed in those scare campaigns of the tombs of the 1980s," he said. "Yet so much of LGBT culture also marked by this spectre of HIV, something that has led to an incredible sense of fear about the disease. And in that hospital room and in the days and weeks that followed, I had to come to terms with that fear myself." "Understanding that I was unable to transmit HIV sexually has been life-changing." Russell-Moyle talked about how becoming undetectable has changed his life, his relationships, and the way he came to terms with being HIV positive.

"Understanding that I was unable to transmit HIV sexually has been life-changing too," he said. "I went from thinking I would never have a HIV negative partner — or that if I had sex with someone I could pass it on — to the knowledge that any partner I have is totally protected.

"I can't transmit HIV to my sexual partner, I have a perfectly healthy life, so my announcement here today should go totally unnoticed," he said. "I have not only survived, I've prospered, and any partner I have is safe and protected." "It is better to live in knowledge than to die in fear," he continued.

best hiv dating uk free speech arrests in uk

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best hiv dating uk free speech arrests in uk

Jack Straw has decided to introduce yet another criminal offence, adding to the 3,000 new crimes Labour has introduced since it came to power in 1997. This latest offence the incitement of homophobic hatred. It is intended to help tackle anti-queer prejudice, which is a good intention. But will this legislation work? Is it necessary?

Might it not lead to infringements of free speech? Are there more effective ways to challenge homophobia and other hateful incitements? A much more important issue is the fact that the government, police and prosecution service are failing to enforce the laws prohibiting the incitement of actual violence and murder against the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. Inciting violence and murder is much worse, in my view, than inciting hate.

Yet the relevant laws are often not enforced. Why not? On the positive side, the proposed new legislation will bring the statutes governing incitements to hatred on the ground of sexual orientation into line with the long-standing laws prohibiting the incitement of hate based on a person's race. In other words, it will establish parity in law with regard to stirring up hatred.

But only partially. Many forms of incitement to hatred will continue to not be covered by criminal sanctions. These include incitements to hatred against asylum seekers, women, disabled people, travellers, ex-prisoners, people with HIV and so on. If there are going to be laws against inciting hatred, they should be universal and prohibit all incitements to hatred - not just some. Singling out race hate and homo hate for special legal penalties strikes me as unfair and undesirable.

It creates resentment among social groups who are not protected by such laws, which is bad for community cohesion. My view is very simple: everyone should be equal before the law, in which case all incitements of hatred should be an offence. There are sound arguments to justify a prohibition on inciting hatred against vulnerable minorities who have a history of suffering persecution and prejudice.

It is deemed to be a method of protecting them and creating a social atmosphere where they have redress against their tormentors. Another argument, for which I have considerable sympathy, is that hatred is the gateway to discrimination, harassment and violence.

It is the psychological foundation for serious, harmful criminal acts. Without the precondition of hatred, there would be no hate-motivated violent attacks on the black, Jewish and gay communities. In other words, if we can stop hatred and hate-mongers, we will stop the prejudice that often spills over into hateful, damaging acts, such as racist and queer-bashing murders. On these grounds, laws against inciting hatred are ethically justified and have practical benefits.

The downside of incitement to hatred prohibitions is that they risk infringing freedom of speech. Who decides what constitutes hatred? It is a grey, disputable area. Defining hatred is difficult to determine in a way that will satisfy everyone. Different people have different interpretations of hatred. Is causing offence, or even distress, an incitement to hatred? What about ridiculing and mocking someone's beliefs? Is that hateful?

Where do you draw the line between legitimate robust criticism and satire, and illegitimate, criminal incitement of hatred? It isn't simple and straightforward. Many people say that these concerns are unfounded. They point to Ireland which has had banning the incitement of hatred since 1989. The law has been applied lightly and there has been no crackdown on free speech. It is said that the police and courts in the UK would show similar restraint. They will only go after the most excessively hateful and damaging incitements.

But can we be so sure? After all, similar laws have been abused in the recent past. An Oxford student and fined under the laws against public disorder for making a joke about a policeman's horse being gay. The officers construed this joke as a homophobic remark and nailed the student under the already existing wide-sweep public order legislation which bans behaviour likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress.

It is not clear whether it was the police officer or the horse that was supposedly offended by the student's off-the-cuff quip. In the Australian state of Victoria, the law to religious hatred has led to Christians and Muslims accusing one another of inciting hatred and bringing legal actions against each other, which has only served to inflame community relations. In Bournemouth, the lay preacher, , was convicted in 2001 under the public order laws for holding up a sign saying "Stop homosexuality, stop lesbianism." His arrest and conviction was, I believe, an outrageous infringement of free speech.

Harry was, of course, a notorious homophobe. His prejudice needed to be rebutted, but not by making him a criminal and a martyr. The same goes for all prejudice, whatever the motive and whoever the perpetrator. The best way to tackle prejudice is by presenting facts and using reasoned arguments, to break down ignorance and ill-will.

All incitements to hatred should be treated with the same zero tolerance. But not, in my opinion, by means of criminal sanctions. Free speech is precious. It should be limited only in exceptional circumstances - when it slips into inciting violence and murder. The most effective way to diffuse hatred is by education and debate. Our schools, media and public figures have a vital role to play in challenging bigotry, encouraging social solidarity and helping to promote understanding and empathy with others.

Prevention is better than cure. Education and debate seeks to prevent hatred in the first place, whereas criminalisation seeks to punish the offender after he or she has already stirred hatred.

It is shutting the stable door after the horse has bolted. My real gripe is that inciting violence is much more serious than inciting hatred. Yet the laws prohibiting the advocacy and encouragement of homophobic violence are often not enforced. For nearly two decades, despite repeated appeals from the gay community, the government, police and prosecution service have allowed record stores and radio stations to promote "murder music" songs inciting the killing of queers.

such as Buju Banton, Beenie Man and Bounty Killa have released CDs that openly encourage and glorify the shooting, burning, hanging and drowning of gay and lesbian people.

Inciting murder is a criminal offence under long-standing laws. Yet these songs have been given airplay on mainstream radio stations such as the BBC, as well as on local black pirate stations. The tracks are sold openly in many record stores and via online websites such as Amazon. The police have made no attempt to take action against the record companies and distributors, the record stores and websites, and the radio stations and deejays.

The police and Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) would never take such a hands-off approach to people who incited violence against black or Jewish people. Why the double standards? Likewise, some fundamentalist Muslim clerics, on the extremist wing of Islam, openly urge the killing of gay people, unchaste women and Muslims who turn away from their faith.

In east London in 2005, hate preacher of the pro-jihad Saviour Sect, urged the murder of homosexuals. Despite witnesses willing to go to court, the Crown Prosecution Service refused to prosecute him. Yet when the Islamist incited the murder of Jews, Hindus and Americans in 2003 he was promptly arrested, convicted and jailed.

More double standards. The non-prosecution of Muslim clerics who incite the murder of gay people is a tragic betrayal of vulnerable gay and lesbian Muslims. They live in fear of the homophobic violence that is being stirred up by Islamist extremists. What signal does this official hands-off attitude send to queer Muslims?

That the government does not care about their suffering? Police and CPS inaction gives homophobic persecutors a de facto green light to continue their violent threats. Introducing legislation prohibiting the incitement of homophobic hatred seems a bit amiss when already-existing laws are not being enforced against the much more serious crimes of inciting violence and murder.

Please, Mr Straw, ensure the enforcement of the current laws before you start introducing new ones.

best hiv dating uk free speech arrests in uk

KEY POINTS • The United Kingdom (UK) has a relatively small HIV epidemic with an estimated 102,000 people living with HIV. • The epidemic is largely concentrated among certain key populations, including men who have sex with men and black African populations. • The UK has made significant progress in antiretroviral treatment coverage in recent decades. 96% of those diagnosed are now accessing treatment and 94% are virally suppressed.

• However, late diagnosis remains a key challenge. In 2016, 42% of diagnoses happened at a late stage of infection. • There is also evidence that awareness and knowledge around HIV is dropping in the UK. A recent survey found that only 45% of the population could correctly identify all the ways in which HIV is and isn’t transmitted. Explore this page to find out more about the , , , , , , , and the The United Kingdom (UK) has a relatively small HIV epidemic, with an estimated 102,000 people living with HIV in 2015 (the last year for which data is available).

This translates into an HIV prevalence of 0.16 per 1,000 people. In the same year, 5,164 people were newly diagnosed with HIV, an 18% decline from 2015; and in 2017, there were 4,363 new infections. This is due to a sharp decrease in diagnoses among men who have sex with men in London, as well as a continued gradual decline in diagnoses in heterosexual men and women who were born abroad.

Half of all new HIV diagnoses (54%) in 2016 were reported among men who have sex with men, while 19% and 22% of diagnoses reported were among heterosexual men and women respectively. HIV continues to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men as well as individuals of black African ethnicity. In 2016, one in seven men who have sex with men living with HIV were black, Asian or from another minority ethnic group.

Among heterosexual men and women, one in four were white. Late diagnosis remains one of the key challenges facing the UK, despite being on the decline. Despite testing and treatment being free and universally available in the UK, around 10,400 people were unaware of their status, equivalent to 12% of the total number of people living with HIV, However the proportion of people unaware of their status has halved since 2014.

In 2016, 96% of people diagnosed with HIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). For the first time, in 2016 the death rate among people with HIV who are diagnosed promptly and on treatment was comparable to the rest of the population. Despite rates of late diagnosis being on the decline, this remains one of the key challenges facing the UK. Late diagnosis means 442 people still died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2016 and 428 in 2017. That said, the number of people being diagnosed with AIDS-defining symptoms and illnesses is declining, and fell by 25% in just one year, from 372 in 2015 to 278 in 2016.

Men who have sex with men (MSM) Since the 1980s, men who have sex with men (sometimes referred to as MSM) have remained the group most at risk of HIV in the UK. In 2016, an estimated 46,000 men who have sex with men were living with HIV.

This means roughly 77 out of every 1,000 men (aged 15 to 59) who have sex with men are living with HIV. In London, it is an even greater number with 128 out of every 1,000 living with HIV.

It is estimated that in 2016 around 6,100 men who have sex with men were living with undiagnosed HIV, 59% of whom were aged 15 to 34. However, the number of men who have sex with men who have tested for HIV continues to rise, with 104,500 tested in sexual health services in 2016, up from 72,700 in 2012. In 2016, an HIV test was offered to 93% of eligible men who have sex with men attending sexual health services, resulting in testing coverage of 89%.

The UK government advises men who have sex with men who are having sex without condoms to test for HIV at least once a year, and every three months if they are having sex with new or casual partners. A survey of the men who tested for HIV in sexual health services in 2016 showed that 28% had tested for HIV at least once in the last year and 8% had tested two or more times.

Over three-quarters of HIV diagnoses (77%) made in sexual health services in 2016 were among men who do not test regularly. In 2016, new HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men fell for the first time since the epidemic began over 30 years ago (21% decline, from 3,570 in 2015 to 2,810 in 2016). The decline was particularly impressive in London, where HIV diagnoses fell by 29% from 1,554 in 2015 to 1,096 in 2016.

This drop has been linked to the work of five London clinics, including 56 Dean Street, London, the largest HIV clinic in Europe, where new diagnoses fell by 42%.

In a comment to the Lancet, clinicians from Dean Street attributed this success to the availability of as well as to increased testing and earlier provision of treatment. Almost three-quarters of the men who have sex with men who were newly diagnosed in 2016 were aged 25 to 49 years. This has remained the same for the past 10 years. Heterosexual black African men and women In the UK those of black African ethnicity carry a disproportionate burden of HIV.

This includes those born in the UK who identify as being of black African descent, as well as those born in Africa. In 2016, an estimated 18,000 heterosexual men and 20,900 heterosexual women were living with HIV in the UK.

Of these, 8,900 were black African men and 13,200 were black African women. Overall, 39% of new diagnoses were among black African men and women, this is despite them making up only 1.8% of the population of the UK, according to the last census in 2011. However, this is a proportional decrease from previous years, in 2007 this population made up 68% of new diagnoses.

While diagnoses among black African heterosexuals has been decreasing in recent years, those among white heterosexuals have remained relatively stable but low at around 750 per year over the past decade. Overall the rate of new diagnoses among heterosexuals has halved over the past 10 years, from 4,060 in 2007 to 2,110 in 2016.

Many of the HIV infections among heterosexuals are thought to have occurred outside of the UK. In 2016 it was estimated that only half (55%) of all new diagnoses among heterosexual men and women were acquired in the UK. It was estimated that around 3,900 (10% of) heterosexual men and women were living with undiagnosed HIV in 2016.

Overall, it is estimated that 74% of heterosexual men who are unaware they have HIV are aged over 35. Among heterosexual women with undiagnosed HIV, 55% are over 35, while 41% of men who have sex with men who are undiagnosed fall in this age bracket. People who inject drugs (PWID) In 2016, it was estimated that 1 person in every 100 who injects drugs) was living with HIV.

Most of these people have been diagnosed and are accessing HIV care. However, people who inject drugs (sometimes referred to as PWID) are often diagnosed late, with 51% diagnosed at late stage of infection in 2016. Although needle and syringe sharing among people who inject drugs has fallen across the UK, it is still a problem.

In a 2016 survey, 1 in 6 reported having shared needles and syringes in the past month. There were 145 new HIV diagnoses associated with injecting drug use in the UK during 2016. This is slightly lower than the annual average of 168 new HIV diagnoses between 2006 and 2015. In 2016, only 77% of people who inject drugs reported ever having tested for HIV. However, 82% of those who had never tested for HIV, had attended a clinical service that year, meaning opportunities are being missed to get more members of this group testing for HIV.

There are concerns about the increase in injection of methamphetamine and mephedrone in recent years. Certain populations of men who have sex with men are thought to be using these drugs during sex (known as ‘chemsex’).

This is a particular concern as high levels of sharing of equipment and low condom use are reported. Other key affected populations Between 2016 and 2017, just over 37,400 HIV tests were carried out in English prisons. This covers only 17.5% of the new prison intakes and transfers of these two years. A total of 942 people were found to be living with HIV, representing 2.5% prevalence.

However, it is not known whether these were new diagnoses or ones that have already been registered. In 2016, 84% of around 5,000 sex workers were tested for HIV at specialist sexual health services. 11 of the people tested were found to be living with HIV, equivalent to 0.3% prevalence.

In 2016, 41 children were newly diagnosed with HIV – down from 131 in 2005. Of these, 36 were born abroad and arrived in the UK at an older age. In 2016, more than a million people were tested for HIV. Most (87%) of these people were tested in specialist sexual health services.

However, HIV testing rates in general services have increased by 17% between 2014 and 2016 in high prevalence areas. Men who have sex with men were most likely to have an HIV test (89%) compared with 77% of heterosexual men and 56% of heterosexual women. While testing coverage among men who have sex with men and heterosexual men has increased since 2009, it has fallen among heterosexual women. This is thought to be due to lower attendance of integrated sexual and reproductive health clinics in which this population is routinely tested for HIV.

A total of 179 out of 223 health clinics achieved the recommended testing coverage of 80% among men who have sex with men, consistent with British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) recommendations for this group. However, one survey detected an annual HIV testing rate of just 36.8% among black African populations in the UK.

Another study indicated that only one quarter of black African or black British individuals (a more general term which includes people of black Caribbean descent as well as others) attended the same sexual health clinic at least once in the previous five years. By contrast, there was a 97% uptake of HIV testing among women attending antenatal clinics.

Around 60% of people not at high risk of HIV who attended specialist sexual health services were tested for HIV. This group accounted for 29% of all HIV diagnoses made in these services in 2016. The number of people from this group who decline an HIV test is increasing and stood at 27% in 2016. In the UK, 42% of people diagnosed with HIV in 2016 were diagnosed at a late stage of HIV infection - this is defined as having a CD4 count under 350 within three months of diagnosis.

However, progress is being made in this area, with the number of late HIV diagnoses falling by 45%, from 3,930 in 2007 to 2,170 in 2016. Rates of late diagnosis are highest in heterosexual men (60%) and heterosexual women (47%).

This is a particular issue in black African communities, amongst whom 65% of men and 49% of women were diagnosed at a late stage of infection in 2016. The lowest proportion was among men who have sex with men, where 32% were diagnosed late.

Overall, 51% of people who inject drugs were diagnosed late. Although late diagnosis of HIV has declined in the last decade, from 56% in 2005 to 42% in 2016, this figure remains unacceptably high and further work to expand HIV risk awareness, testing and diagnosis is needed.

Many groups continue to push for a move from ‘opt-in testing’ to ‘opt-out testing’ (where patients are given an HIV test alongside routine checks unless they decline it). The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has advocated for expanding testing outside clinical settings by engaging community organisations, developing local strategies to increase testing, and by providing rapid HIV tests. In 2015, following pilot schemes carried out during National HIV Testing Week in 2013 and 2014, Public Health England established a national self-sampling service across 89 local authorities.

The service began in November 2015 as part of National HIV Testing Week. As of 2016, all parts of the country now provide access to alternative HIV testing options such as HIV self-sampling services or community-based HIV testing.

in the UK is largely run by HIV Prevention England (HPE) which is coordinated by the Terrence Higgins Trust and focuses primarily on the needs of men who have sex with men and black Africans. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a daily course of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) that can protect HIV-negative people from HIV.

Since October 2017, a 3-year trial of PrEP is being rolled-out across 200 sexual health clinics in England. The trial will provide 10,000 people who are at high risk of acquiring HIV with PrEP.

Previously, the NHS in England had argued that it did not have the funds to pay for PrEP, however this decision not to fund PrEP was overturned in court.

As part of the trial, data will be collected on PrEP need, uptake and duration of use. Harm reduction Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) The last measure of (NSPs) coverage in the UK was in 2006.

At the time, 80% of NSPs were pharmacy-based while the remainder were specialist centres. In 2014, the NICE released new guidance on the provision of NSPs calling for a better mix of services. The UK has reached the recommended World Health Organization target of 200 syringes distributed for every person who injects drugs per year. However, a survey carried out for Public Health England (PHE) in 2016 found less than half (46%) of people in England, Wales and Northern Ireland who had injected drugs in the past 28 days had adequate needles and syringes.

This figure rose to 72% among people who had injected drugs in the past six months in Scotland. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) In England and Wales, progress in the provision of opioid substitution therapy (OST) is being threatened by a drive towards abstinence-based treatment. In 2017, the British government released an updated drugs strategy which stated its overall aims as being a reduction in all illicit and other harmful drug use, and an increase in the rate of individuals fully recovering from their dependence.

An abstinence-based treatment approach has been disputed by many groups who say this is only a realistic target for a minority of drug users and that many would finish treatment too early, leading to a relapse. HIV education and awareness School education In the UK, state schools have to provide sex and relationship education (SRE) but private schools do not. Parents also have the right to withdraw their children from SRE, though few do so. In a review of the National Curriculum in 2013, the UK government said that all state schools "should make provision for personal, social, health and economic education (PSHE), drawing on good practice" and that SRE is an "important and necessary part of all pupils’ PSHE education." However, in the same year, a report by Ofsted - the official body that regulates schools in England – reported that curriculum provision for this subject area was only ‘good’ or ‘better’ in two-thirds of schools.

In 2017, the UK government went further by making it a statutory requirement for primary schools (ages 5-10) to provide relationships education, for secondary schools (ages 11-16) to provide relationships and sex education and for both to provide personal, social, health and economic education. This was put into law in March, 2017, and will be effective from September 2019.

Public awareness In the early years of the HIV epidemic, there were a number of high profile public awareness campaigns in the UK warning people about how you get HIV and calling for people to adopt safer sex behaviours. However in recent years, there have been very few public HIV awareness campaigns. Even sexual health campaigns such as 'Condom Essential Wear' in 2009 often make no reference to HIV. In 2011, however, the government launched a new initiative called, 'National HIV Testing Week' that aimed to increase HIV awareness and testing among key affected populations in England, particularly men who have sex with men and black African communities in the UK.

A survey following the 2016 National Testing Week found that 60% of men who have sex with men in the UK were aware of National HIV Testing Week.

The campaign has also been successful in increasing the number of orders placed for HIV self-testing kits from 9,518 in 2014 to 13,527 in 2016. The number of people living with HIV and accessing ART in the UK has continued to increase, from 84% in 2010 to 96% (of 91,987 people living with diagnosed HIV) in 2016.

In the same year, 97% of those on ART were virally suppressed. This means the UK now meets two of the three . ART coverage across key affected populations mirrors overall treatment coverage rates with the slight exception of younger people and people who inject drugs, who have treatment coverage of 89% and 93% respectively. In 2016, 97% of men who have sex with men, 97% of heterosexual men and women and 93% of people who inject drugs were virally supressed.

Improvements in HIV care means that people living with diagnosed HIV are growing older. In 2016, more than a third (38%) of people accessing HIV care were aged 50 and above, compared with 17% in 2007. To ensure all people diagnosed with HIV achieve viral suppression and untransmittable levels of HIV, NHS England have implemented a new policy of immediate treatment for HIV as soon a diagnosis is made.

This reflects WHO guidelines that call for the initiation of ART immediately after HIV diagnosis, regardless of CD4 count. As a result of this the time between being diagnosed with HIV and starting ART has dropped. In 2016 76% of the people diagnosed with HIV initiated treatment within 90 days, compared to 33% in 2007.

However, the waiting time varies widely between clinics. One of the most significant civil society achievements in the UK in recent years has been in advocating for PrEP. Communities have led in pushing for PrEP to be made available in the UK, both through the National Health Service and for purchase online. In October 2015, the community-run website was launched.

It provides individuals interested in using PrEP with information on what it is and how it is taken. It also enables users to buy cheaper generic versions of the drug, which are not available to buy in the UK, through the site. It was estimated that in January 2016, 2,000 people were buying PrEP this way. In 2016, new infections among gay men fell by 21% compared to the year before, it is thought that internet access to PrEP might have been a significant contributing factor in this drop.

Furthermore, 2016 saw the National AIDS Trust successfully sue the National Health Service (NHS) for its decision to remove PrEP from the list of medicines being considered for funding. Following on from the trial, in September 2017, the NHS announced that it would launch a new three-year trial of PrEP, to an estimated 10,000 people.

The results of the study will be used to inform a potential roll-out of PrEP. Social barriers Stigma and discrimination As in many other parts of the world, prevent many people in the UK from accessing the services they need. The ‘UK Stigma Index 2015’, a survey of more than 1,500 people living with HIV in the UK, found that a considerable number of people in the UK still hold stigmatising attitudes towards those living with HIV.

Around one in five people reported being excluded from family events because of their HIV status and 20% reported sexual rejection after disclosing HIV. A third of all participants feared being rejected by a sexual partner (35%) and had avoided sexual encounters (33%) in the last 12 months due to their status. A 2014 survey among black Africans living with HIV reported that a third had been discriminated against because of their HIV status.

Half of this number said they had been discriminated against by healthcare workers (including doctors, dentists and hospital staff). As a result, many do not trust in the confidentiality of health services.

It’s amazing that despite the advances in treatment, people’s attitudes are still exactly the same. Black African women living in London, diagnosed with HIV in 1996. Lack of HIV knowledge There is also evidence that levels of HIV knowledge among the UK public is low.

A survey by the National AIDS Trust in 2014 found that only 45% of people could correctly identify all of the ways HIV is and is not transmitted, and an increasing proportion incorrectly believed it can be transmitted via routes like kissing (16%). Talking about the need to educate the general public about HIV, Deborah Gold, Chief Executive of the National AIDS Trust said: It's alarming to see just how many people believe you can get HIV from kissing, sneezing, or coughing. Lack of understanding leads to stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV.

Structural barriers While HIV treatment was made free to people from overseas in 2012, many migrants living with HIV in the UK face other difficulties in accessing treatment, care and support.

Undocumented migrants in particular find it difficult to register with a local General Practice (GP) and are often required to prove their identity and do not understand NHS entitlement rules or how to apply for treatment. In 2015 the UK government announced it intended to cut by 50% in the financial year 2015/16 to £1.2 million.

This is less than £1 for each person targeted by existing prevention programmes. However, a campaign against the cuts led by the National AIDS Trust was successful and the overall amount spent remained more or less stable at £2.4 million.

The government cut spending on HIV prevention by 6.25% in 2016/17 to £2.25 million. The UK has made significant progress in the provision of antiretroviral treatment over the past decade. However, gaps in HIV prevention and education mean men who have sex with men and black Africans are still at a heightened risk of HIV. Late diagnosis rates are still too high and have an impact on individual health outcomes as well as on public health as people living with an undiagnosed infection are more likely to pass the virus on to others.

As well as better access to testing services, in order to prevent new infections, there needs to be renewed efforts to increase HIV knowledge across the country through both public campaigns and education in schools. • Public Health England 2017 [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’[pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • ‘Public Health England (2016) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Nwokolo, N., Whitlock, G., McOwan, A., (April 2017) , The Lancet, Vol 4, Issue 4, 153.

• Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • National AIDS Trust (2014) [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • National AIDS Trust (2014) [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’[pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’[pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘6’[pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (PHE) (2015) [pdf] • Public Health England (PHE) (2014)[pdf] • Sigma Research (2014)[pdf] • Public Health England (PHE) (2015)[pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’[pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’[pdf] The proportion of diagnoses made at a late stage of infection increases with age.

In 2016, 31% of people aged 15 to 24 diagnosed with HIV in 2016 were diagnosed late, compared to 57% and 63% of those aged 50 to 64 and over 65, respectively. Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’[pdf] • The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2011) • Public Health England (PHE) (2015)[pdf] • Public Health England (PHE) (2015, 18 November) • HIV Prevention England (HPE) [Accessed 19 November 2015] • BBC (3 August, 2017) ‘’ (Accessed 4/12/2017) • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] and BBC (3 August, 2017) ‘’ (Accessed 4/12/2017) • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2014) • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • HM Government (2017) ‘’[pdf] • National AIDS Trust (NAT) (2013) • Department for Education (2014, December) • Department for Education (2013, September)[pdf] • Department for Education (2013, September) • Ofsted (2013) • UK Department for Education (2017) ‘’[pdf] • National AIDS Trust (NAT) (2011) • HIV Prevention England (2014) • Kantar Public (2017) [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] and UNAIDS (2017) [pdf] • World Health Organisation (WHO) (2015) • Public Health England (2017) ‘’ [pdf] • New Scientist (January 2017) (13/12/2017) • Public Health England (2017) [pdf] • National AIDS Trust (NAT) (November 2016) (Accessed 14/12/2017) • NHS (3 rd August 2017) • StigmaSurveyUK (2015) ‘’[pdf] • National AIDS Trust (NAT) (2014) • StigmaSurveyUK (2015) ‘’[pdf] • National AIDS Trust (NAT) (2014) • National AIDS Trust (NAT) (2014, 1 December) • National AIDS Trust (NAT) and Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) (October, 2012) ' • National AIDS Trust (NAT) (2012) • National AIDS Trust (NAT) (2015, 15 December) • National AIDS Trust (22 July, 2016) ‘’ (Accessed 4 December, 2017) • National AIDS Trust (22 July, 2016) ‘’ (Accessed 4 December, 2017) Please let us know any comments you have about the content on this page.

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