Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park is a state park of Utah, United States, located between Mount Carmel Junction and Kanab, south and west of U.S. Highway 89 in southwestern Utah. The park features coral-hued sand dunes located beside red sandstone cliffs. The Dunes are formed from the erosion of pink-colored Navajo Sandstone surrounding the park. High winds passing through the notch between the Moquith and Moccasin Mountains pick up loose sand particles and then drop them onto the dunes because of the .
The city of Kanab is the strategic location when visiting the Southwest. It is positioned in the driving distance from the most beautiful spots of the region. You stay in Kanab and plan your day trips to Zion, Bryce, North Rim of Grand Canyon, Navajo Bridge, Lake Powell, The Wave canyon.
Plus, hundreds of less known spots. While staying in Kanab you visit lots of canyons and mountains areas. What you do not expect to see there are dunes. The Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park is well-hidden spot off radars of the most tourists. I found it by accident and could not believe my eyes when I saw a big dune park surrounded by mountains and canyons. The park has a well-maintained campground and it is a popular spot for dune sandboarding. Utah.
Coral Pink Sand Dunes Park Loc: Shooting It was a simple and uncomplicated shot. I used a tripod and took . Camera: Lens: Focal Length: 18mm Shooting Mode: ISO: Aperture: Shutter Speed: Bracketing: Tripod: – Check my .Ballhead: Processing It was a single RAW file editing.
I used the preset from my first and after I used TOOLKIT to boost colors and contrast. The Lightroom Preset Editing Formula: Photoshop: color correction, contrast, cleaning. I used the Stamp Tool to clean up the sand from debris. Photoshop Plugins: • was used to reduce digital noise.
• was used to enhance details and boost colors. Archiving: I save all my photos as JPEG (quality: 100%) at full resolution and with the help of the Lightroom plugin, I synchronized them with my portfolio on for safekeeping, sharing, image hosting and online sales. Do not forget that my is always free for all subscribers to my newsletter.
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Location of Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park in Utah Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park is a of , United States, located between and , south and west of in southwestern Utah. The park features coral-hued located beside red cliffs. The Dunes are formed from the erosion of pink-colored surrounding the park.
High winds passing through the notch between the Moquith and Moccasin Mountains pick up loose sand particles and then drop them onto the dunes because of the . The dunes are estimated to be between 10,000 and 15,000 years old. The park allows camping, hiking, driving, and photography. There is a conservation area of 265 acres (1.07 km 2), and the total grounds include 3,370 acres (13.6 km 2). It was established as a Utah state park in 1963. The ( Cicindela albissima) is an insect species that is to the dunes, being found nowhere else in the world.
This state park contains most of the remaining individuals of a rare plant, ( Asclepias welshii), a federally listed threatened species. • • ^ . Utah State Parks . Retrieved 2011-02-04. • (PDF).
Utah State Parks. February 2005 . Retrieved 2011-02-04. • (PDF). Utah State Parks Planning . Retrieved 28 May 2012. • . U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from on October 19, 2011 . Retrieved April 21, 2013. • . Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. Archived from on December 31, 2012 . Retrieved April 21, 2013. • . Center for Plant Conservation. 2010-09-28. Archived from on 2010-12-15. External links [ ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to . • travel guide from Wikivoyage • The through stratigraphy of the area of southeastern that makes up much of the famous prominent rock formations in protected areas such as and .
From top to bottom: Rounded tan domes of the Navajo Sandstone, layered red , cliff-forming, vertically jointed, red , slope-forming, purplish , layered, lighter-red , and white, layered sandstone. Picture from , Utah. 1. – Navajo Sandstone frequently overlies and interfingers with the Kayenta Formation of the Glen Canyon Group. Together, these formations can result in immense vertical cliffs of up to 2,200 feet, atop the cliffs, Navajo Sandstone often appears as massive rounded domes and bluffs that are generally white in color.
Navajo Sandstone frequently occurs as spectacular cliffs, cuestas, domes and it can be distinguished from adjacent Jurassic sandstones by its white to light pink color, meter-scale cross-bedding, and distinctive rounded weathering. The wide range of colors exhibited by the Navajo Sandstone reflect a history of alteration by groundwater and other subsurface fluids over the last 190 million years.
The iron in these strata originally arrived via the erosion of iron-bearing silicate minerals, initially, this iron accumulated as iron-oxide coatings, which formed slowly after the sand had been deposited. Later, after having been buried, reducing fluids composed of water.
The dissolution of the iron coatings by the reducing fluids bleached large volumes of the Navajo Sandstone a brilliant white, reducing fluids transported the iron in solution until they mixed with oxidizing groundwater.
Where the oxidizing and reducing fluids mixed, the iron precipitated within the Navajo Sandstone, the precipitation of iron oxides also formed laminea, corrugated layers, columns, and pipes of ironstone within the Navajo Sandstone. The age of the Navajo Sandstone is somewhat controversial and it may originate from the Late Triassic but is at least as young as the Early Jurassic stages Pliensbachian and Toarcian. There is no type locality of the name and it was simply named for the Navajo Country of the southwestern United States.
The two major subunits of the Navajo are the Lamb Point Tongue and the Shurtz Sandstone Tongue, the Navajo Sandstone was originally named as the uppermost formation of the La Plata Group by Gregory and Stone in 1917. Baker reassigned it as the formation of Glen Canyon Group in 1936.
Its age was modified by Lewis and others in 1961, the name was originally not used in northwest Colorado and northeast Utah, where the name Glen Canyon Sandstone was preferred. Its age was modified again by Padian in 1989, the sandstone was deposited in an arid erg on the Western portion of the Supercontinent Pangaea.
This region was affected by monsoons that came about each winter when cooler winds. Theropod tracks are located in Arizona, Colorado, and Utah. Ornithischian tracks located in Arizona, USA, the Navajo Sandstone is also well known among rockhounds for its hundreds of thousands of iron oxide concretions. They are believed to represent an extension of Hopi Native American traditions regarding ancestor worship, informally, they are called Moqui marbles after the local proposed Moqui Native American tribe 2.
– Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area.
It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution.
On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties.
During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean.
The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP.
It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci 3.
– Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4,1896, Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, and 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States.
Utah has a population of more than 3 million, approximately 80% of whom live along the Wasatch Front, Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, and Nevada to the west. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast, approximately 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or LDS, which greatly influences Utahn culture and daily life. The LDS Churchs world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City, Utah is the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church.
The state is a center of transportation, education, information technology and research, government services, mining, in 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated that Utah had the second fastest-growing population of any state. St. George was the metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah also has the 14th highest median income and the least income inequality of any U.
S. state. A2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the best state to live in based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic, lifestyle, the name Utah is derived from the name of the Ute tribe. It means people of the mountains in the Ute language, according to other sources Utah is derived from the Apache name Yudah which means Tall.
These Native American tribes are subgroups of the Ute-Aztec Native American ethnicity and were sedentary, the Ancestral Pueblo people built their homes through excavations in mountains, and the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century, in the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, and the Ute people, also settled in the region.
These five groups were present when the first European explorers arrived, the southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California, the expedition traveled as far north as Utah Lake and encountered the native residents.
The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature, in 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California. European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada, the city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825.
The city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, in late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the salinity of its waters, Bridger thought he had found the Pacific Ocean 4. – Kanab is a city in and the county seat of Kane County, Utah, United States. It is located on Kanab Creek just north of the Arizona state line and this area was first settled in 1864 and the town was founded in 1870 when ten Mormon families moved into the area.
The population was 4,312 at the 2010 census, locals refer to Kanab as Little Hollywood due to its history as a filming location for mostly western movies and television series such as Stagecoach, The Lone Ranger, Death Valley Days.
Gunsmoke, Daniel Boone, El Dorado, Planet of the Apes, Mackennas Gold, The Outlaw Josey Wales, Sergeants 3 and WindRunner, A Spirited Journey. Kanab is situated in the Grand Circle area, centrally located among Vermilion Cliffs National Monument, Bryce Canyon National Park, the Grand Canyon, Zion National Park, Kanab is located on the western Colorado Plateau.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 14.1 square miles. Kanab has a borderline Mediterranean climate, more typical of exposed regions around Arizona’s Mogollon Rim, the city is rather wetter, especially during the winter months, and hotter than the typical Mountain West cool semi-arid climate.
The dry spring season from April to June is warm to hot during the day and very clear but the hot sun and thin air typical of Utah mean that nights remain cool and frosts can occur even in May. In the summer, monsoon thunderstorms break up the dry weather between July and October.8 inches, or three-tenths that of Salt Lake City, as noted above, overall winter precipitation is slightly in excess of that required to qualify as a subhumid rather than semi-arid climate.
As of the census of 2010, there were 4,312 people,1,729 households, the population density was 308 people per square mile. There were 1,999 housing units at a density of 141.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96. 2% White,0. 3% African American, 1% Native American,0. 3% Asian, and 0. 8% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 4. 2% of the population. There were 1,729 households out of which 25.
7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, a decrease of 6. 4% compared to the 2000 census. 65. 4% were married couples living together,6. 7% had a householder with no husband present, and 34. 6% were non-families. 30. 9% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.08.
The median income for a household in the city was $42,286, males had a median income of $30,018 versus $22,205 for females. About 4. 0% of families and 5. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, in 2010, construction began on the Jackson Flat Reservoir under the direction of the Kane County Water Conservancy District. The reservoir had been in various stages of planning for 19 years, completion of the reservoir took 2 years of construction, and one year of filling 5.
– State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use state as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, the term is also used in the Australian state of Victoria.
The equivalent term used in Canada, Argentina, South Africa, similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar to parks, but under state rather than federal administration.
Similarly, local government entities below state level may maintain parks, in general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California.
As of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, there are some 739 million annual visits to the countrys state parks. The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail,217,367 campsites, many states include designations beyond state park in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, some state park systems include long-distance trails and historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, however several public parks previously or currently maintained at the state level pre-date it.
Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a park since 1825. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890. In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its forests as The State Park but, needing money. The first state park with the designation of state park was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, list of U.
S. state parks National Association of State Park Directors Wilderness preservation systems in the United States Ahlgren, Carol. The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development, the State Park Movement in America, A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb.
Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement, oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp, 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. When Forests Trumped Parks, The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950, Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp, 203-224 6.
– Mount Carmel Junction and Mount Carmel are unincorporated communities located 12 miles east of Zion National Park and 17 miles north of Kanab in Kane County, Utah, United States. They lie in proximity to the Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park. Mount Carmel Junction sits at the junction of U.
S. Route 89, Mount Carmel is one mile north of the junction. Mount Carmel Junction is set in the desert of the Colorado Plateau. The Virgin Anasazi were the settlers in the area. Among other areas, nearby Parunuweap contains evidence to their presence and this group occupied the area until about the 13th century. The people were agriculturalists who maintained a diet of mostly maize, doctor Priddy Meeks settled the town of Winsor in 1864, at the site of present day Mount Carmel Junction, as part of Brigham Youngs plan to settle all of Utah Territory.
In 1865 more settlers were sent by the church, nearby Orderville and Glendale were also being settled. Before long, Indians forced them to leave the area and it was not until 7 years later in 1871 that the settlers returned and this time settled down permanently. This time the town was settled in the name of Mount Carmel to honor the mountain in Palestine, in 1875 Elder Howard O.
Spencer presided over Mount Carmel and Glendale. He reported that most homes were temporary, but permanent structures were underway, doctor Meeks moved to Orderville in 1876 where he died at the age of 91.
He left behind two wives and several children, only two families ever settled in Mount Carmel Junction, and one was Jack and Fern Morrison. Jack contemplated the idea that a road must be built connecting Zion Canyon to the east side of the park, Jack explored the area and came to the conclusion that the road must come down in the area now known as Mount Carmel Junction.
There were old wagon trails that Jack used to navigate his way down to the valley, the hills were steep forcing Jack to attach a Cedar tree to the back of his Model-T-Ford. Jack was patient and in 1931 he was able to homestead the land now known as Mount Carmel Junction and it was covered with gullies, quicksand and many layers of sand. The area was prone to violent flash floods. Jack and Fern lost two children in the floods of the East Fork of the Virgin River that runs through the junction.
The East Fork of the Virgin River is now known as Parunuweap, Jack died in 1961, from cancer after serving in the war and spending much of his life working in the coal mines 7. – In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by wind or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water, most kinds of dunes are longer on the windward side where the sand is pushed up the dune and have a shorter slip face in the lee of the wind.
The valley or trough between dunes is called a slack, a dune field is an area covered by extensive sand dunes. Dunes occur, for example, in deserts and along some coasts. Some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach, in most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea.
Although the most widely distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, Dunes can form under the action of water flow, and on sand or gravel beds of rivers, estuaries and the sea-bed.
The modern word dune came into English from French c,1790, which in turn came from Middle Dutch dūne. Crescent-shaped mounds are generally wider than they are long, the slipfaces are on the concave sides of the dunes.
These dunes form under winds that blow consistently from one direction, some types of crescentic dunes move more quickly over desert surfaces than any other type of dune.
A group of dunes moved more than 100 metres per year between 1954 and 1959 in Chinas Ningxia Province, and similar speeds have been recorded in the Western Desert of Egypt. The largest crescentic dunes on Earth, with mean crest-to-crest widths of more than three kilometres, are in Chinas Taklamakan Desert.
They may be composed of clay, silt, sand, or gypsum, eroded from the floor or shore, transported up the concave side of the dune. Examples in Australia are up to 6.5 km long,1 km wide and they also occur in southern and West Africa, and in parts of the western United States, especially Texas.
Straight or slightly sinuous sand ridges typically much longer than they are wide are known as linear dunes and they may be more than 160 kilometres long. Some linear dunes merge to form Y-shaped compound dunes, many form in bidirectional wind regimes. The long axes of these dunes extend in the resultant direction of sand movement, linear loess hills known as pahas are superficially similar. These hills appear to have formed during the last ice age under permafrost conditions dominated by sparse tundra vegetation.
Radially symmetrical, star dunes are pyramidal sand mounds with slipfaces on three or more arms that radiate from the center of the mound 8. – Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black.
Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals.
The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, clays, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue.
Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin.
Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone 9.
– The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of a pipe. The Venturi effect is named after Giovanni Battista Venturi, an Italian physicist, thus any gain in kinetic energy a fluid may accrue due to its increased velocity through a constriction is balanced by a drop in pressure.
By measuring the change in pressure, the rate can be determined, as in various flow measurement devices such as venturi meters, venturi nozzles. The limiting case of the Venturi effect is when a fluid reaches the state of choked flow, when a fluid system is in a state of choked flow, a further decrease in the downstream pressure environment will not lead to an increase in the mass flow rate.
However, mass flow rate for a fluid can increase with increased upstream pressure. This is the principle of operation of a de Laval nozzle, the simplest apparatus, as shown in the photograph and diagram, is a tubular setup known as a Venturi tube or simply a venturi.
Fluid flows through a length of pipe of varying diameter, to avoid undue aerodynamic drag, a Venturi tube typically has an entry cone of 30 degrees and an exit cone of 5 degrees. Venturi tubes are used in processes where permanent pressure loss is not tolerable, Venturi tubes are more expensive to construct than a simple orifice plate which uses the same principle as a tubular scheme, but the orifice plate causes significantly more permanent energy loss.
Venturis are used in applications and in scientific laboratories for measuring the flow rate of liquids. A venturi can be used to measure the flow rate. At the end of the system, a mixture of liquid, see aspirator and pressure head for discussion of this type of siphon.
As fluid flows through a venturi, the expansion and compression of the cause the pressure inside the venturi to change. This principle can be used in metrology for gauges calibrated for differential pressures and this type of pressure measurement may be more convenient, for example, to measure fuel or combustion pressures in jet or rocket engines.
In fact, some gusts were so high that travel had to be aided by ropes. Venturi tubes are used to measure the speed of a fluid. Placing a liquid in a U-shaped tube and connecting the ends of the tubes to both ends of a Venturi is all that is needed. When the fluid flows though the Venturi the pressure in the two ends of the tube will differ, forcing the liquid to the low pressure side, the amount of that move can be calibrated to the speed of the fluid flow 10. – An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.
It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep, open treads, other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are generally termed off-highway vehicles, including tractors, forklifts, cranes, backhoes, bulldozers, and golf carts. Off-road vehicles have a following because of their many uses. Several types of motorsports involve racing off-road vehicles, the three largest 4-wheel vehicle off-road types of competitions are rally, desert racing, and rockcrawling.
The three largest types of all-terrain vehicle / motorcycle competitions are Motocross, Enduro, and also desert racing like Dakar Rallye, the most common use of these vehicles is for sight seeing in areas distant from pavement. The use of higher clearance and higher traction vehicles enables access on trails and forest roads that have rough, the system uses an unusual caterpillar track which has a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments. It can be fitted to a car or truck to turn it into a half-track suitable for use over rough or soft ground.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Kégresse returned to his native France where the system was used on Citroën cars between 1921 and 1937 for off-road and military vehicles, the Citroën company sponsored several overland expeditions with their vehicles crossing North Africa and Central Asia.
A huge wheeled vehicle designed from 1937 to 1939 under the direction of Thomas Poulter called Antarctic Snow Cruiser was intended to transport in the Antarctica.
While having several innovative features, it failed to operate as hoped under the difficult conditions. After World War II, a surplus of light off-road vehicles like the Jeep. The Jeeps in particular were popular with buyers who used them as utility vehicles and this was also the start of off-roading as a hobby.
These were all alike, small, compact, four-wheel-drive vehicles with at most a small hardtop to protect the occupants from the elements, from the 1960s and onward, more comfortable vehicles were produced.
For several years they were popular with rural buyers due to their off-road, the U. S. Later, during the 1990s, manufacturers started to add even more luxuries to bring those off-road vehicles on par with regular cars. This eventually evolved into what we call the SUV today and it also evolved into the newer crossover vehicle, where utility and off-road capability was sacrificed for better on-road handling and luxury.
Wheeled vehicles accomplish this by having a balance of large or additional tires combined with tall. Tracked vehicles accomplish this by having wide tracks and a suspension on the road wheels.
The choice of wheels versus tracks is one of cost and suitability, a tracked drivetrain is more expensive to produce and maintain 11.
– Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in Earths continental crust, behind feldspar. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones, since antiquity, varieties of quartz have been the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings, especially in Eurasia.
The word quartz is derived from the German word Quarz and its Middle High German ancestor twarc, the Ancient Greeks referred to quartz as κρύσταλλος derived from the Ancient Greek κρύος meaning icy cold, because some philosophers apparently believed the mineral to be a form of supercooled ice. Today, the rock crystal is sometimes used as an alternative name for the purest form of quartz.
Quartz belongs to the crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end, well-formed crystals typically form in a bed that has unconstrained growth into a void, usually the crystals are attached at the other end to a matrix and only one termination pyramid is present. However, doubly terminated crystals do occur where they develop freely without attachment, a quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape, lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward.
α-quartz crystallizes in the crystal system, space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. β-quartz belongs to the system, space group P6222 and P6422. These space groups are truly chiral, both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks.
The transformation between α- and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another, although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral, current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. Color is an identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals, although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties.
Pure quartz, traditionally called rock crystal or clear quartz, is colorless and transparent or translucent, common colored varieties include citrine, rose quartz, amethyst, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and others. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties, the cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque, while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline.
Chalcedony is a form of silica consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz, and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz, or mixed rocks including quartz, often including contrasting bands or patterns of color, are agate, carnelian or sard, onyx, heliotrope, amethyst is a form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color.
The worlds largest deposits of amethysts can be found in Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Russia, France, Namibia, sometimes amethyst and citrine are found growing in the same crystal.
It is then referred to as ametrine, an amethyst is formed when there is iron in the area where it was formed 12. – Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron oxide, one of several iron oxides. Hematite crystallizes in the lattice system, and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite.
Hematite and ilmenite form a solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. Hematite is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown and it is mined as the main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, martite, iron rose and specularite, while the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak.
Hematite is harder than iron, but much more brittle. Maghemite is a hematite- and magnetite-related oxide mineral, huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations.
Gray hematite is typically found in places that can have still standing water or mineral hot springs, the mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake, spring, or other standing water.
Hematite can also occur without water, however, usually as the result of volcanic activity, the name hematite is derived from the Greek word for blood αἷμα haima, due to the red coloration found in some varities of hematite. The color of hematite lends itself to use as a pigment, ochre is a clay that is colored by varying amounts of hematite, varying between 20% and 70%. Red ochre contains unhydrated hematite, whereas yellow ochre contains hydrated hematite, the principal use of ochre is for tinting with a permanent color.
The red chalk writing of this mineral was one of the earliest in the history of humans, the powdery mineral was first used 164,000 years ago by the Pinnacle-Point man possibly for social purposes. Hematite residues are found in graves from 80,000 years ago. Near Rydno in Poland and Lovas in Hungary red chalk mines have been found that are from 5000 BC, rich deposits of hematite have been found on the island of Elba that have been mined since the time of the Etruscans.
Adding to the surprise was a transition with a decrease in temperature at around 260 K to a phase with no net magnetic moment. The disappearance of the moment with a decrease in temperature at 260 K is caused by a change in the anisotropy which causes the moments to align along the c axis, in this configuration, spin canting does not reduce the energy. The magnetic properties of bulk hematite differ from their nanoscale counterparts, for example, the Morin transition temperature of hematite decreases with a decrease in the particle size.
Two other end-members are referred to as protohematite and hydrohematite, enhanced magnetic coercivities for hematite have been achieved by dry-heating a 2-line ferrihydrite precursor prepared from solution
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