Mechanical nature of scientific approach can be explained in a way that researchers develop hypotheses to be proved or disproved via application of specific research methods. Epistemology - is the theory of knowledge and the assumptions and beliefs that we have about the nature of knowledge. Positivistic paradigm thus systematizes the knowledge generation process with the help of quantification, which is essential y to enhance precision in the description of parameters and the discernment of the relationship among them. According to enthomethodologists, theoretical concerns centres around the process by which common sense reality is constructed in everyday face-to-face interaction. During the past century, different paradigms have taken birth due to the remarkable growth in social sciences research. All the three schools of thought emphasise human interaction with phenomena in their daily lives, and suggest qualitative rather than quantitative approach to social inquiry.
It regards human behaviour as passive, controlled and determined by external environment. In a bottom up approach, you decide on your research question, then you decide which methods, methodology, theoretical perspective you will approach your research from. Furthermore, you will be asked about it in your viva and are expected to narrate it when you write up your research findings. A human behavior is quite unlike a scientific variable which is easy to control. Positivism: This is the view that social science procedures should mirror, as near as possible, those of the natural sciences. I suggest you go easy on yourself I was pulling my hair out on the second day. Moreover, positivism relates to the viewpoint that researcher needs to concentrate on facts, whereas phenomenology concentrates on the meaning and has provision for human interest.
Common Paradigms Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Qualitative and quantitative approaches are rooted in philosophical traditions with different epistemological and ontological assumptions. As Bryman 2004 articulates see chapter 1 the tension between interpretivist and positivist approaches in a political debate about the nature, importance and capacity of different research methods. It depends on the situations and is determined by environmental factors other than the genes. Research paradigm refers to mainly ontological and epistemological assumptions while research approach or strategy refers to whether an inductive, deductive, abductive or mixed strategy is used by researcher. This is sometimes referred to as interpretivism.
According to the critics of this paradigm, objectivity needs to be replaced by subjectivity in the process of scientific inquiry. It begins explicitly with atentative hypothesis or set of hypothesesthat form a theory which could provide apossible answer or explanation for aparticular problem, then proceeds to useobservations to rigorously test thehypotheses. Then click on the 'Feedback button' to see how you score. Realities are multiple, constructed, and holistic. Important elements of dissertations such as , , , and are explained in this e-book in simple words.
There issome difficulty in preceding to the final stage in whichsocial theories might be generated from the second orderconstructs or that these social scientific descriptions canbe understood in terms of prevailing social theories andperspectives, leading to the possibility of an explanationor a prediction. For example, you've probably heard the phrase 'the American way of life,' which is a paradigm because it refers to a collection of beliefs and ideas about what it means to be American. Positivism The positivist paradigm of exploring social reality is based on the philosophical ideas of the French philosopher August Comte, who emphasized observation and reason as means of understanding human behaviour. The two paradigms presented here are concerned with two concepts of social reality. Therefore, the researcher has to develop empathic understanding to know the process of interpretation by individuals so that she can reproduce in her mind feelings, motives and thoughts that are behind the action of others. Independent means that you maintain minimal interaction with your research participants when carrying out your research.
It starts with singular or particularstatements and ends up with general or universalpropositions. Case study research in education: A qualitative approach. The certainty that the current paradigm is reality itself is precisely what makes it so difficult to accept alternatives. Many modern historians are able to talk cogently about paradigms of the past — naturally an easier task once they are no longer in those paradigms! They argued that quantitiative approaches might be appropriate for studying the physical and natural world, they were not appropriate when the object of study was people. The more observations that demonstrate, say, arelationship between phenomena, the higher the probabilitythat the general statement is true. Some positions argue that the research should go nofurther than to sort through, devise categories for andpigeon hole the various constructs provided by the socialactors within the study.
If thedata derived by testing the hypothesis is notconsistent with the predicted conclusions, thetheory must be false. Similarly, anti-positivism which stresses on subjectivist approach to studying social phenomena attaches importance to a range of research techniques focusing on qualitative analysis, e. Based on the above questions, the researcher can identify whether the research questions pertain to positivism, anti-positivism, and critical theory; and choose the appropriate methodology accordingly. In these types of studies research findings are usually observable and quantifiable. Where Do Paradigms Come From? Since that time a debate between scientists regarding the best paradigm to conduct the research has always been there.
In other words, it is the reader who made the generalization based on his or her own interpretation: The focus is on the transferability instead of generalization. How can I translate the cultural knowledge of my informants into a cultural description my colleagues will understand? Each functions within different assumptions. Let us begin with the term paradigm. Many thanks in advance Hi Salma! The argument usually becomes muddled because one party argues from the underlying philosophical nature of each paradigm, and the other focuses on the apparent compatibility of the research methods, enjoying the rewards of both numbers and words. This in turn affects your methodology. The role of researcher when following the scientific approach is to discover specific nature of cause and effect relationships. Is it in the Analysis part of your methods? You can follow me on twitter: Click for my complete profile.